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CHAPTER 7 The Jefferson Era

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1 CHAPTER 7 The Jefferson Era

2 The Jefferson Era Jefferson’s Domestic Issues Planning of D.C.
Pierre L’Enfant Struggling little village Establishing Presidential behavior L’Enfant French architect D.C. would become “the Paris of the United States” even Congress members did not stay in D.C. except during session would often leave D.C. to return home to prestigious legislatures Pres. Behavior widower very informal --no seating charts at state dinners --dressed down --wanted to eliminate the “aura of majesty” that surrounded the Presidency.

3 Early survey map of DC Note about circles:
L’Enfant was a heavy drinker and would often sit his drink down on the map while he drew, which caused circle stains on the map. Rather than start over each time, he just incorporated the circles into the street design of D.C.

4 The Jefferson Era Jefferson’s Domestic Issues
Forced to be a politician 1802—abolished all internal taxes Reduced government spending Cut government staffs Cut national debt almost in half Politician: very shrewd and savvy in political dealings with others brilliant conversationalist architect writer farmer used influence as a party leader used his power as a political weapon, esp. with appointments loyalty was important Often called a “Renaissance Man”

5 The Jefferson Era Jefferson’s Domestic Issues Cut size of armed forces
Helped to establish United States Military Academy at West Point Helped Republicans win majority of Congress in 1802 Helped Republicans repeal the Judiciary Act of 1801 President during first “test” of Supreme Court Marbury v. Madison (1803) John Marshall—Chief Justice John Marshall appointed by Adams—a Federalist very cautious judge with Federalist rulings established the Judicial Branch as a “co-equal” to legislative and executive Jefferson responded quickly to Marshall urged Congress to impeach judges who blocked important legislation EX: Justice Sam Chase because of his partisan rulings He was found not guilty by the Senate Helped establish that impeachment could not be used as a political weapon

6 The Jefferson Era Jefferson’s Domestic Issues Native Americans
Conflict #1: disputes over land continued and William Henry Harrison Conflict #2: William Henry Harrison and Tecumseh WHH very committed to expansion into NW Territory appointed by Jefferson as Indiana Territorial governor in 1801 presented a solution: assimilate or move WHH played tribes against each other “He will if you will” and “He said he was going to move” used bribes and trickeration to get what he wanted it worked: eastern Michigan southern Indiana most of Illinois Georgia, Tennessee, and Mississippi Native American response was weak—no organization like with Iro. Confed. NAm renewed friendship with British (supplies) Tenskwatawa “The Prophet” (brother of Tecumseh) Battle of Tippecanoe Creek (November 7, 1811) WHH and Tenskwatawa weakened Native Americans resistance SEE OTHER PAGE

7 The Jefferson Era Jefferson’s Foreign /Domestic Policy Issues
Louisiana Purchase Lewis and Clark 1802—Spain announced that, on behalf of the French, the U.S. would no longer be able to store cargo at New Orleans port even though U.S. had right to do so through the Pinckney Treaty. Jefferson instructed Ambassador Robert Livingston to negotiate a purchase of New Orleans from the French. Livingston suggested to France that they sell vast western territories to the U.S. Napoleon surprisingly agreed to the deal and the U.S. acquired The Louisiana Territory for $15 million on April 30, 1803 In return the U.S. granted certain trading privileges to France and incorporate the citizens of the Louisiana Territory into the U.S. Jefferson was curious as to whether his treaty making powers in the Constitution allowed him to accept the deal, but his advisors convinced him that they did.

8 The Jefferson Era Election of 1804 Republicans: Thomas Jefferson
Federalists: Charles Pinckney

9 The Jefferson Era Jefferson’s Domestic Issues Part 2
The Burr Conspiracy The Essex Junto Some Federalists were angry over Louisiana Purchase because believed it would dilute their power in government The Essex Junto believed that the New England area should secede from the Union but would need large states like New York and New Jersey to be successful. Because Hamilton would not support such a scheme, the Junto turned to Hamilton’s rival, Aaron Burr. The Junto said that if Burr would support secession, they would support his candidacy for Governor of New York in 1804. Hamilton accused Burr of plotting treason and launched a character assassination on Burr trying to discredit him. Burr then challenged Hamilton to a duel. July, 1804 in Weehawken, New Jersey—Hamilton was wounded and later died. Burr had to flee New York or face going to jail. He met up with white settlers in the west and began leading expeditions of the new territory and even had Jefferson believing he would lead attacks. Jefferson had Burr arrested as a traitor, but he was found not guilty. The entire event showed the weakness and vulnerability of the U.S. government.

10 The Jefferson Era Jefferson’s Foreign Policy Issues Part 2
The Embargo of 1807 Prohibited American ships from leaving the U.S. for any foreign port U.S. merchants avoided the law, but there was an impact large enough to hurt American businesses Caused a serious economic depression in the U.S. Before leaving office Jefferson had Congress pass a new trade law in which the U.S. could trade with all European countries except France and GB.

11 The Jefferson Era Jefferson’s Foreign Policy Issues Part 2
The Barbary Pirates Conflict with GB (p )) The Barbary Pirates Jefferson was reluctant to continue contributions to The Barbary States as payment for protection when trading in the Mediterranean Sea. The leader of Tripoli cut down the American flagpole at the American consulate, and Jefferson began building up the American naval fleet. In 1805 the U.S and the Barbary states reached an agreement where the U.S. would no longer pay the protection fee, but had to pay a $60,000 for U.S. prisoners. Conflict with Great Britain Napoleon closed all of European mainland to British shipping U.S. was in a hard situation: said for Britain and make France angry or sail for England and make Britain angry. Britain began seizing and the practice of impressment

12 The Jefferson Era Election of 1808 Republicans—James Madison
Federalists—Charles Pinckney

13 The Jefferson Era Madison’s Domestic Policy Issues
Florida and the “southwest” Settlers wanted government to take Florida from Spanish Slaves escaped border into Florida Indians launched raids on towns north of the border Settlers wanted this land because of water and access to ports 1810: settlers seize fort at Baton Rouge requested annexation into U.S. President Madison began making plans to annex all of Florida even if it meant going to war with Britain.

14 The Jefferson Era Madison’s Foreign Policy Issues
The War of 1812 (p ) Early American defeats Andrew Jackson and the South British invasion of Washington Baltimore and Ft. McHenry Plattsburgh, New York New Orleans GB wanted to attack U.S. over trade policies and to preserve its’ relationship with Spain over Florida. U.S. declared war but were largely ignored by GB because of GB war with France. America was pumped up about the war. Enthusiasm soon faded after attempts to invade Canada failed retreat from Canada Fort Dearborn fell But was pumped back up with victories on the Great Lakes territory Battle of Thames—victory over the Indian tribes on the Great Lakes In the South, Andrew Jackson is winning against Native American tribes (the Creeks) Battle of Horseshoe Bend—huge victory against the brutal Indians Creeks agree to give most of land to U.S in treaty.

15 The Jefferson Era Madison’s Foreign Policy Issues The War of 1812
“the natives were getting restless” The Hartford Convention The Treaty of Ghent Jefferson faced opposition over the war from the Federalists Daniel Webster from New Hampshire The Hartford Convention December 15, 1814 meeting to discuss secession also discussed nullification wanted to add seven amendments to the Constitution to protect NE from influence of south and west Jackson’s victory at New Orleans and the peace agreement virtually ended the Federalist Party. The Treaty of Ghent August, 1814 Ghent, Belgium JQA, Henry Clay (Kentucky) and Albert Gallatin (Tennessee) US gave up demands for restitution for impressment and the want for Canada British gave up demand for “buffer zone” to protect Indians signed December 24, 1815

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