2 The Jefferson Era Jefferson’s Domestic Issues Planning of D.C. Pierre L’EnfantStruggling little villageEstablishing Presidential behaviorL’EnfantFrench architectD.C. would become “the Paris of the United States”even Congress members did not stay in D.C. except during sessionwould often leave D.C. to return home to prestigious legislaturesPres. Behaviorwidowervery informal--no seating charts at state dinners--dressed down--wanted to eliminate the “aura of majesty” that surrounded the Presidency.
3 Early survey map of DC Note about circles: L’Enfant was a heavy drinker and would often sit his drink down on the map while he drew, which caused circle stains on the map.Rather than start over each time, he just incorporated the circles into the street design of D.C.
4 The Jefferson Era Jefferson’s Domestic Issues Forced to be a politician1802—abolished all internal taxesReduced government spendingCut government staffsCut national debt almost in halfPolitician:very shrewd and savvy in political dealings with othersbrilliant conversationalistarchitectwriterfarmerused influence as a party leaderused his power as a political weapon, esp. with appointmentsloyalty was importantOften called a “Renaissance Man”
5 The Jefferson Era Jefferson’s Domestic Issues Cut size of armed forces Helped to establish United States Military Academy at West PointHelped Republicans win majority of Congress in 1802Helped Republicans repeal the Judiciary Act of 1801President during first “test” of Supreme CourtMarbury v. Madison (1803)John Marshall—Chief JusticeJohn Marshallappointed by Adams—a Federalistvery cautious judge with Federalist rulingsestablished the Judicial Branch as a “co-equal” to legislative and executiveJefferson responded quickly to Marshallurged Congress to impeach judges who blocked important legislationEX: Justice Sam Chase because of his partisan rulingsHe was found not guilty by the SenateHelped establish that impeachment could not be used as a political weapon
6 The Jefferson Era Jefferson’s Domestic Issues Native Americans Conflict #1:disputes over land continued and William Henry HarrisonConflict #2:William Henry Harrison and TecumsehWHH very committed to expansion into NW Territoryappointed by Jefferson as Indiana Territorial governor in 1801presented a solution: assimilate or moveWHH played tribes against each other“He will if you will” and “He said he was going to move”used bribes and trickeration to get what he wantedit worked:eastern Michigansouthern Indianamost of IllinoisGeorgia, Tennessee, and MississippiNative American response was weak—no organization like with Iro. Confed.NAm renewed friendship with British (supplies)Tenskwatawa “The Prophet” (brother of Tecumseh)Battle of Tippecanoe Creek (November 7, 1811)WHH and Tenskwatawaweakened Native Americans resistanceSEE OTHER PAGE
7 The Jefferson Era Jefferson’s Foreign /Domestic Policy Issues Louisiana PurchaseLewis and Clark1802—Spain announced that, on behalf of the French, the U.S. would no longer be able to store cargo at New Orleans port even though U.S. had right to do so through the Pinckney Treaty.Jefferson instructed Ambassador Robert Livingston to negotiate a purchase of New Orleans from the French.Livingston suggested to France that they sell vast western territories to the U.S.Napoleon surprisingly agreed to the deal and the U.S. acquired The Louisiana Territory for $15 million on April 30, 1803In return the U.S. granted certain trading privileges to France and incorporate the citizens of the Louisiana Territory into the U.S.Jefferson was curious as to whether his treaty making powers in the Constitution allowed him to accept the deal, but his advisors convinced him that they did.
8 The Jefferson Era Election of 1804 Republicans: Thomas Jefferson Federalists: Charles Pinckney
9 The Jefferson Era Jefferson’s Domestic Issues Part 2 The Burr ConspiracyThe Essex JuntoSome Federalists were angry over Louisiana Purchase because believed it would dilute their power in governmentThe Essex Junto believed that the New England area should secede from the Union but would need large states like New York and New Jersey to be successful.Because Hamilton would not support such a scheme, the Junto turned to Hamilton’s rival, Aaron Burr.The Junto said that if Burr would support secession, they would support his candidacy for Governor of New York in 1804.Hamilton accused Burr of plotting treason and launched a character assassination on Burr trying to discredit him.Burr then challenged Hamilton to a duel.July, 1804 in Weehawken, New Jersey—Hamilton was wounded and later died.Burr had to flee New York or face going to jail.He met up with white settlers in the west and began leading expeditions of the new territory and even had Jefferson believing he would lead attacks.Jefferson had Burr arrested as a traitor, but he was found not guilty.The entire event showed the weakness and vulnerability of the U.S. government.
10 The Jefferson Era Jefferson’s Foreign Policy Issues Part 2 The Embargo of 1807Prohibited American ships from leaving the U.S. for any foreign portU.S. merchants avoided the law, but there was an impact large enough to hurt American businessesCaused a serious economic depression in the U.S.Before leaving office Jefferson had Congress pass a new trade law in which the U.S. could trade with all European countries except France and GB.
11 The Jefferson Era Jefferson’s Foreign Policy Issues Part 2 The Barbary PiratesConflict with GB (p ))The Barbary PiratesJefferson was reluctant to continue contributions to The Barbary States as payment for protection when trading in the Mediterranean Sea.The leader of Tripoli cut down the American flagpole at the American consulate, and Jefferson began building up the American naval fleet.In 1805 the U.S and the Barbary states reached an agreement where the U.S.would no longer pay the protection fee, but had to pay a $60,000 for U.S. prisoners.Conflict with Great BritainNapoleon closed all of European mainland to British shippingU.S. was in a hard situation: said for Britain and make France angry or sail for England and make Britain angry.Britain began seizing and the practice of impressment
12 The Jefferson Era Election of 1808 Republicans—James Madison Federalists—Charles Pinckney
13 The Jefferson Era Madison’s Domestic Policy Issues Florida and the “southwest”Settlers wanted government to take Florida from SpanishSlaves escaped border into FloridaIndians launched raids on towns north of the borderSettlers wanted this land because of water and access to ports1810: settlers seize fort at Baton Rougerequested annexation into U.S.President Madison began making plans to annex all of Florida even if it meant going to war with Britain.
14 The Jefferson Era Madison’s Foreign Policy Issues The War of 1812 (p )Early American defeatsAndrew Jackson and the SouthBritish invasion of WashingtonBaltimore and Ft. McHenryPlattsburgh, New YorkNew OrleansGB wanted to attack U.S. over trade policies and to preserve its’ relationship with Spain over Florida.U.S. declared war but were largely ignored by GB because of GB war with France.America was pumped up about the war.Enthusiasm soon faded after attempts to invade Canada failedretreat from CanadaFort Dearborn fellBut was pumped back up with victories on the Great Lakes territoryBattle of Thames—victory over the Indian tribes on the Great LakesIn the South, Andrew Jackson is winning against Native American tribes (the Creeks)Battle of Horseshoe Bend—huge victory against the brutal IndiansCreeks agree to give most of land to U.S in treaty.
15 The Jefferson Era Madison’s Foreign Policy Issues The War of 1812 “the natives were getting restless”The Hartford ConventionThe Treaty of GhentJefferson faced opposition over the war from the FederalistsDaniel Webster from New HampshireThe Hartford ConventionDecember 15, 1814 meeting to discuss secessionalso discussed nullificationwanted to add seven amendments to the Constitution to protect NE from influence of south and westJackson’s victory at New Orleans and the peace agreement virtually ended the Federalist Party.The Treaty of GhentAugust, 1814Ghent, BelgiumJQA, Henry Clay (Kentucky) and Albert Gallatin (Tennessee)US gave up demands for restitution for impressment and the want for CanadaBritish gave up demand for “buffer zone” to protect Indianssigned December 24, 1815