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University of Michigan Center for Engineering Diversity & Outreach Building Capacity for Broadening Participation (in STEM and Beyond) Daryl E. Chubin,

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Presentation on theme: "University of Michigan Center for Engineering Diversity & Outreach Building Capacity for Broadening Participation (in STEM and Beyond) Daryl E. Chubin,"— Presentation transcript:

1 University of Michigan Center for Engineering Diversity & Outreach Building Capacity for Broadening Participation (in STEM and Beyond) Daryl E. Chubin, Ph.D. Director, AAAS Capacity Center American Association for the Advancement of Science September 23, 2011

2 Richard Floridas The Creative Class: Leveraging Talent, not Technology Alone The university is perhaps the single most important institution of the creative age. It's certainly what gave the U.S. its huge edge in the 20th century, by virtue of attracting the best and the brightest from all around the world. Unfortunately, it's also the most mismanaged institution in many cases.... [T]he single biggest problem with all universities these days is their apparent inability and in some cases blatant disinterestin educating our population broadly across all social, economic, and ethnic demographics.... technology, tolerance, talent Source: Building Capacity, Sept. 23, 2011

3 Students: -Demographic composition -Pre-college academic preparation & related experiences -Access to higher educationneed- v. merit-based aid College Environment: -Intervention programsadd-on to formal education -Cultural competence of facultyhigh expectations plus teaching all students well -Structural supportclimate, career info, mentoring, debt How to Think about Student Underrepresentation Fix the Students or College Environment? Building Capacity, Sept. 23, 2011

4 AAAS Capacity Center at a Glance Origin: Established as a science & engineering human resource development consulting service August 2004 with 3-year, $400K grant from Sloan Foundation to AAAS ( Mission: Through nationally-calibrated research & technical assistance in examining programs & outcomes, foster institutional capacity to... recruit, enroll, & support STEM students diversify the faculty change programs, structures, & attitudes Clients/Sponsors: Institutions of higher education, corporations, federal agencies, & non-profits (e.g., Harvard-PRISE, HP-Teaching with Technology, LSU-LA STEM, NSF-BPC, NSF-DUE, NSF-STC, Washington- CAEE, NACME, WEPAN, Florida, Purdue)... focus on research, education, and institutional climate Building Capacity, Sept. 23, 2011

5 Problem Thread of AAAS Capacity Center Work Who participates in STEM education and the workforcewho does not and why? How can institutions of higher education improve academic success, career advancement, and utilization of talentstudents to faculty and other professions? How does Federal policy help/hinder? Building Capacity, Sept. 23, 2011

6 AAAS Capacity Center Approach What are the tipping points? Given the fragmentation and decentralization of the university, action is needed at several levels. How to create a climate of success? This is a shared responsibility. The respective roles of deans, department chairs, and the faculty must be made explicit. What matters outside the university? How are various clients, supporters, and publics consulted and enlisted to achieve goals? Formally appointed advisory bodies bring validation, guidance, and political capital. Building Capacity, Sept. 23, 2011

7 Mind the Language Underrepresentation: a statistical concept that measures participation/ presence relative to a denominator (not to be confused with diversity) Diversity: a condition, a starting point, a means of achieving goalsnot an end in itself (visible diversity as symbolism too often displaces enacted diversity or deeds) Its not the mix (diversity), but making the mix work (inclusion) Building Capacity, Sept. 23, 2011

8 Dilemma In the fights over affirmative action, many people voice very strong opinions, either for or against... Supporters say categorically that considerations of race in university admissions are fully justified, either because of our egregious history of discrimination in this country or the critical benefits of being educated in a racially diverse environment. Opponents are equally vociferous, contending that racial preferences undermine the entire premise of the civil rights movement: that individuals should be judged on their merits, not their skin color. source: Richard Kahlenberg, Are Legacy Preferences Defensible Corruption? The Chronicle of Higher Education, Mar. 3, 2011. Building Capacity, Sept. 23, 2011

9 Dilemma (cont.)... one set of preferences (for underrepresented students) is going to students who, on average, are more economically disadvantaged than the general applicant pool, while the other set of preferences (for legacies) is going to students who, on average, are more advantaged... When honoring merit, it matters a great deal whether a preference is being provided to students who are likely to have more potential in the long run than their test scores suggest, given obstacles theyve overcome, or less potential, given advantages theyve enjoyed. source: Kahlenberg, Mar. 3, 2011 Building Capacity, Sept. 23, 2011

10 What Proponents See: Gaps Galore Economic Chasms: –Unemployment (9% White, 16% Black) –Wealth (20:1 Whites-Blacks; 18:1 Whites-Hispanics; larger than 7:1 ratio in 1995) Education Disparities: –College access –Degree completion –Faculty composition –NIH RO1 success rate (10% gap between White and Black) sources: US Dept of Education; NSF; NIH; Pew Research Center; US Census Bureau, Survey of Income and Program Participation, 2009 Building Capacity, Sept. 23, 2011

11 What Critics of Affirmative Action See and Say Taking race, ethnicity, and gender into consideration in any competition requires the use of quotas, preferences, and reverse discrimination Collect no datacounting and classification is unnecessary Excellence and equity are incompatible goals serving one dilutes the other Building Capacity, Sept. 23, 2011

12 The Quiet Record Obama Administration has placed a higher percentage of ethnic minorities among his nominees into federal judgeships than any other President. oAfrican American: 21% v. 7% (Bush) & 16% (Clinton) oHispanics: 11% v. 9% v. 7% oAsian American: 7% v. 1% v. 1% Nearly half (47%) of the confirmed nominees during this administration are women (v. 23% under Bush, 29% under Clinton) Yet Congress has been slow to confirm nominees, some of whom sail through committee and spend months waiting for Senate vote. source: John Schwartz, For Obama, a Record on Diversity But Delays on Judicial Confirmations, The New York Times, Aug. 7, 2011, p. 17 Building Capacity, Sept. 23, 2011

13 Manipulation of Language Diversity is a good thing, but how do you achieve itby quotas? Do you achieve it by lowering your standards? Or do you achieve it by removing any discriminatory barriers that might exist and by casting a wide net? The more you focus on race and gender, the less youre going to focus on other traditional qualificationsthats simply the math of it. Curt Levy, Committee for Justice in Schwartz, Aug. 7, 2011 Building Capacity, Sept. 23, 2011

14 US Dept of Education Office for Civil Rights Under the Obama Administration, OCR (Russlyn Ali, Assistant Secretary) has: Challenged school systems that deny Black and Hispanic high school students access to STEM courses that would improve their chances for college admission Launched over 70 Title VI investigations (for race, color, and national origin discrimination) Done more in 2 years than the Bush Administration did in 8 source: DeWayne Wickham, Embattled Obama Should Tout Ongoing Fight for Minority Education, USA Today, Aug. 9, 2011 Building Capacity, Sept. 23, 2011

15 On Race, Silence is Bipartisan The two [political] parties, which openly clashed over race from the late 1970s through the mid-1990s, have for the last decade pretty much agreed not to talk about race... [C]olor-blind positions are far more politically popular.* ( *Finding from Applied Research Center national survey: The people who are most inclined to speak out on the subject of racial diversity are those who hold the most negative opinions. Sam Fulwood III, Diverse Education, Aug. 31, 2011) It is not only legitimate, but also essential, to evaluate policy options partly on the basis of whether they are likely to reduce or increase racial inequalities. Compromise policiesnot explicitly race-targeted but... Chosen partly because they will benefit nonwhites especiallyshould become the basis for policy debates. For example, without using explicit racial classifications, we can devise districts and situate homes in ways that are more likely to produce integrated schools and neighborhoods. source: Desmond S. King and Rogers M. Smith, The New York Times, Sept. 2, 2011 Building Capacity, Sept. 23, 2011

16 Reality of My Lifetime Our nation is moving toward two societies, separate and unequal* Kerner Commission, 1968 (National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders) * The second society has now become both Black and Hispanic. Building Capacity, Sept. 23, 2011

17 The U.S. Has A STEM Pipeline Problem Need: Increase Educational And Workforce Access/Diversity for Women and Underserved MinoritiesA 21 st Century imperative Data: U.S. Trails 26 Other Developed Countries In The Proportion Of College Students Graduating In STEM Fields Women (50% of U.S. College-Age Population) & Underserved Minorities (ca. 40% of College-Age Population) Are Highly Underrepresented In STEM Higher Education/Degrees & STEM Workforce (incl. Academia) Women, URM, Disabled = ca. 25% STEM Workforce v. 66% Total Workforce The U.S. is losing vast, needed intellectual capacity to compete in the global economy, sustain its innovation leadership, and ensure its national security. We are under-educating and/or under-utilizing citizen talent. Building Capacity, Sept. 23, 2011

18 The Reach of Underrepresentation Underrepresentation in the S&E workforce stems from the under-production of minorities in S&E at every level of postsecondary education: 38.8 percent of K-12 public enrollment 33.2 percent of the U.S college-age population 26.2 percent of undergraduate enrollment 17.7 percent of those earning S&E bachelors degrees 17.7 percent of overall graduate enrollment 14.6 percent of S&E masters degrees 5.4 percent of S&E doctorates Source: The National Academies, Expanding Underrepresented Minority Participation, Sept. 2010

19 Degrees in S&E: As degree level increases, womens and URMs share of degrees decreases. At each level, these groups are less likely to earn degrees in S&E. 19 Proportion of S&E Degrees

20 STEM Faculty: Gender 20

21 STEM faculties do not look like their student bodies, which do not look like the college-age U.S. population Non-Asian minorities are over one-third and women over half of U.S. college-age population, but they are highly underrepresented in STEM higher education and workforce U.S. benefits from success of other countries in global economy, welcomes foreign students, but important gaps and needs persist 21 The National Imperative: In Summary...

22 Demographic Highlights: Timeline 2011- Over 1/3 of U.S. college-age population are those minorities under-represented in STEM 2023 - More than half of all U.S. children will be minority 2042 - Minorities will be the new majority 2050 - Minorities will account for 54% of U.S. Population, which is expected to total 439 million - 1 in 3 people will be Hispanic Source: The National Academies, Expanding Underrepresented Minority Participation, Sept. 2010 22

23 82% of students from higher-income families earn a bachelors degree by age 24 compared with just 8% from low-income families. A society in which children from wealthy families are 10 times as likely to complete college degrees as those from poor families is marked by profound inequality. Public schools are more segregated today than at any time in the last three decades. As US society is becoming more diverse, our student populations are being divided by race and class. Many colleges now have rich kids of all colors. * Richard Kahlenberg, The Chronicle of Higher Education, Sept. 1, 2011 Wealth/Income and Access

24 Data Lessons Analysts Should Look at... Numbers/trends (how many?) Composition (who?) Quality/creativity (what?)

25 The national data, as compelling as they are, can only contribute to an institutional policies that will conform to key legal and policy principles. Institutional action should be, at core: oMission DrivenContext Matters Framed in core education terms (aims associated with education, workforce and citizenship preparation, national security, research, etc.) oNumbers-InformedData are Necessary, but not Sufficient oGoal-oriented to Redefine What is Excellence Leave excellence v. equity behind; diversity in its broadest sense is 21 st Century imperative Goals such as racial balancing, curing societal discrimination, etc. are unconstitutional oSeeking to achieve representation of a minority group or women in the student body or faculty that approximates their representation in the local community, state, or nation is simply not allowed by the Courts 25 The Compelling Interest: Linking Evidence to Legal Standards, or What Lawyers See...

26 Big Lesson: Operate on the Context, not just the Content 2004: To help guide program staff & university counsels in interpreting the Grutter and Gratz rulings... 2008: Sloan- and NSF-funded pilot project (AAAS/AAU) to identify effective STEM programs & practices for students and faculty, making them legally sustainable See Building Capacity, Sept. 23, 2011

27 2008 AAAS Roundtable U.S. Industry and Academic Leaders Ask Research University General Counsel: How can university leaders sustain effective STEM programs to increase racial and gender diversity of faculties and student bodies in a complex legal landscape? The answer involves participation by a broad range of institutions of higher education beginning with research universities (and collaboration with AAU) 27

28 AAAS-AAU Law & Diversity Project Objectives: Identify And Foster Common Understanding Of Effective Diversity/Access Programs That Are Also Legally SustainableSTEM Focus, But Broadly Applicable Build Productive Partnerships Of Academic Policy/Program And Legal Leaders To Design And Implement Diversity/Access Programs Support Measurable Progress Within 5-6 Years Provide Practical Tools, through Workshops & Publication of Handbook, For Policymakers and Lawyers Sponsors: Phase 1: Alfred P. Sloan Foundation & NSF (Aug. 2008-Sept. 2010) Phase 2: NSF (Oct. 2010-Sept. 2012) Leadership: Dr. Daryl Chubin (AAAS) & Jamie Lewis Keith, Esq., (University of Florida), Project Directors Dr. Shirley Malcom (AAAS), Senior Project Advisor Dr. John Vaughn, AAU Liaison Art Coleman/Scott Palmer (EducationCounsel LLC) and Bob Burgoyne/Prof. Ted Shaw (Fulbright & Jaworski LLP) Project Outside CounselPhase 1 Art Coleman, Project Outside Counsel with Burgoyne/Shaw as Advisory Board Chairs Participation of College Board, ACE, NACUA, AAMC, AACC, APLU, Thurgood Marshall Fund, & IHEPPhase 2 Building Capacity, Sept. 23, 2011

29 Handbook on Diversity and the Law Navigating A Complex Landscape to Foster Greater Faculty and Student Diversity in Higher Education The Law Governing Effective Faculty and Student Body Diversity Programs in STEM and Related Disciplines... and Its Implications for Institutional Policy AAAS-AAU, April 2010 y/publications/complexlandscape/ Summary and Highlights y/documents/LawDiversity_SUMMARY.pdf January 2011 Building Capacity, Sept. 23, 2011

30 Law Distinguishes between Under-utilization v. Pipeline Problem Life sciences/academic medicine fraught with under-utilization of women oPhD production at parity by gender, but hiring (and promotion) lags Pipeline problem exists for minority PhDs oLike other science fields, there is an inadequate pool to populate university departments oNote that, according to CGS, African Americans complete the PhD in life science disciplines at ratesoverall and in time to degreecomparable to Whites/Asians, but are not hired in R1 departments Building Capacity, Sept. 23, 2011

31 Complicated Legal Landscape: Different Legal Justifications Required for Employment and Students Employment-Remedial Equal Protection Clause oPublic Institutions Title VII (Race, Ethnicity, Gender, Religion) oPrivate (>15 Employees), Public employers OFCCP--Executive Orders (Race, Ethnicity, Gender, Religion) oFederal Contractors Title VI (Race/Ethnicity); Title IX (Gender) oIf Purpose Of Federal Funding Is Employment Or Employment Confers An Educational Benefit oOverlaps With Title VII Student Programs-Diversity Equal Protection Clause (EPC) oPublic Institutions Title VI (race) oWhole Operation Of Federal Funding Recipient, Including Employment If It Is The Purpose Of Funding Or Confers An Educational Benefit oEPC Principles To Privates Title IX (gender) oWhole Operation Of Federal Funding Recipient, Including Employment. oEPC Principles To Privates 31 Building Capacity, Sept. 23, 2011

32 The Tipping Point The key to getting people to change their behavior... sometimes lies with the smallest details of their immediate situation. The Power of Context says that human beings are a lot more sensitive to their environment than they may seem (p. 29). Malcolm Gladwell, 2002 Building Capacity, Sept. 23, 2011

33 An Empirical Basis for Optimism One of the most important findings from our research is that success in faculty diversity is no mere historical accident. A significant amount of the variation in faculty diversity reflects individual university effort and practicestrategies that can be replicated at other institutions. source: University Leadership Council, Breakthrough Advances in Faculty Diversity, 2008, p. 14 Building Capacity, Sept. 23, 2011

34 In Faculty Recruitment & HiringAdjust Your/Others Expectations Cant find or they wont come (but they exist) v. a pipeline problem (there is a shortage) Vigilance/persistence/commitment top to bottom v. weak links in the chain I know quality when I see it v. recognition that quality comes in different packages Mainstreaming efforts v. creating special [search, position, etc.] that marginalizes the effort & stigmatizes the result Building Capacity, Sept. 23, 2011

35 Diversifying the Faculty What Department Chairs Can Do List peer institutions by department/discipline. Benchmark your unit against these departments and all institutions nationally regardless of type. Establish a timeline for diversifying your faculty (baseline + interim goals). Assess your units climatesurvey faculty and grad students. If possible, disaggregate results by gender, race/ethnicity, rank, etc. (without disclosing individual identities). Building Capacity, Sept. 23, 2011

36 Dynamics of Faculty Composition Effecting Change through... Retirements Promotions New tenure-track hires (incl. cluster hires) Temporary hires (lecturer, adjunct, postdoc) Other (exchanges, shared appointments) Practice vertical accountability Building Capacity, Sept. 23, 2011

37 Bottom Line: The Faculty Search Process Focus on the adequacy of the outreach process. Task individual faculty members with contacting colleagues to identify potential candidates. Examine the resulting diversity of the candidate pool. If you have not done all possible outreach and the pool is not diverse, the outreach, not the pool, is inadequate. Terminating a search is an option. Building Capacity, Sept. 23, 2011

38 38 Seek faculties and students–of any race/gender–with demonstrated records of including minorities, women, other under-served individuals, and many perspectives in classroom, research, mentoring, other work/school activities Neutral: authentically mission-critical apart from race/gender -Provides experience for everyone working in diverse settings opportunities to develop critical skills to succeed in an increasingly diverse and global society -Fosters potential of better issue identification, problem-solving, research -Must sincerely target all with record of inclusionnot only women and minorities (and must equally require all to demonstrate records) Conduct-, not viewpoint-, focused -Regardless of view of race and gender, conduct in class, research activities (not topics/view), mentoring, other work can be inclusive Conduct of Inclusion in Faculty Searches A Holistic Review

39 Your Role as.... Leaders, Decision-makers, and Advisors Set an overall tone Make expectations explicit Be transparent Ensure fairness in processes Create a mix of talent Stir the mix to maximize individual & group contributions Recognize exemplary practices Building Capacity, Sept. 23, 2011

40 What Advisors Can Do Enlarge thinking, then connect to possible action Keep scoremonitor at the most disaggregated level Demand a 3-5 year plan Put resourceshuman and fiscalbehind rhetoric Act as validation for prophets in their own land Give courage to the lion Insist on accountable leadership Be critical and vigilant! Building Capacity, Sept. 23, 2011

41 Strategies: How to Change the Culture From zero-sum game to plus factorsthe need to keep score: Research and teaching, no excellence without equity, technical and soft (professional) skillsnot versus Need for critical mass (context-specific, students and faculty), affinity groups, & mentoring Measure dimensions of participation: access, excellence, advancement, role models Update what is known Building Capacity, Sept. 23, 2011

42 Tipping PointsStudents When a critical mass of students of color (n>2) enters a graduate program When students transfer into a STEM major When students acknowledge that they have safe places and supports (mentor, tutor, peer study group, residence hall, research internship) within the academic environment When the BS graduation rate is about the same for minority and nonminority students Building Capacity, Sept. 23, 2011

43 Tipping PointsInstitution When climate surveys are no longer required, but conducted at regular intervals When soft-money projects that have demonstrated efficacy are institutionalized as an ongoing program supported by the institutions operating budget When promising practices are shared across departments, with or without administration incentives When the institution, and not its constituent parts, is seen as the unit of change Building Capacity, Sept. 23, 2011

44 HBCUs Account for more than 1/5 of all African American undergraduates Confer 28% of STEM baccalaureate degrees Represent 8 of the top 10 colleges whose African American graduates went on to earn PhDs in science and engineering disciplines Couple this record with HBCUs commitment to enroll students from largely low-income and academically under-prepared backgrounds and we conclude that HBCUs are over- producing baccalaureate and doctoral students. Source: Karl Reid, Historically Black Colleges and Universities Are Vital to a Diverse U.S. Workforce, Diverse Education, Sept. 7, 2011 (data from NSF). Building Capacity, Sept. 23, 2011

45 HSIs and Latinos In 2009-10, just over half (54%)* of all Latino undergraduate students were enrolled in about 10% of higher education institutions in the U.S. (* v. 63% Black, 73% White, and 78% Asian students) In 1995, 135 institutions met the U.S. Dept of Ed definition of HSI; in 2009-10, 293 institutions met the definition. Of these 293, 112 offer graduate degrees and 40% are public institutions located in 17 states and Puerto Rico. The majority of HSIs are community colleges. 75% of HSIs are located in 3 states and Puerto Rico. 60% of HSIs in 2009-10 had an open admissions policy. Latinos make up less than 5% of faculty nationwide. source: Excelencia in Education, based on data from U.S. Dept of Ed, NCES, IPEDS Building Capacity, Sept. 23, 2011


47 QuestionsEspecially for Engineeringto Ponder Refining the image of engineering & reaching out to a more diverse talent pool: how to do this better? Creating a climate of success: what is the role of deans & department chairs? Empowering the faculty to become culturally competent & experimental in the curriculum: how to crack through the engineering establishment? Adapting federal programs so that the soft-money interventions become mainstream in the engineering college: how to make the case with data & persuasion? Building Capacity, Sept. 23, 2011

48 Is It Time for Class-based Affirmative Action?, Dec. 16, 2009 Reactions to a Public Agenda finding that the main reason students drop out of college is that they have to work: Julian Bond... it must not and cannot be viewed as a replacement for race. Walter Benn Michaels... economic affirmative action is likely to take its place alongside economic diversity as yet another substitute for economic equality. Lee Bollinger... We [should] not be forced to make a false choice between admissions policies that focus on wealth and class and those that seek to achieve greater diversity based on race and ethnicity. Roger Clegg... I would much prefer that preferences be based on socio-economic status rather than race.... I doubt that the educational benefits of any sort of diversity can justify admitting students other than those most willing and able to do work at a high intellectual level. Building Capacity, Sept. 23, 2011

49 Key Sources of My Remarks Handbook on Diversity and the Law: Navigating A Complex Legal Landscape To Foster Greater Faculty and Student Diversity In Higher Education, Burgoyne et al., AAAS-AAU, 2010, DiversityBook.pdf; Summary and Highlights, Keith and Chubin, Jan. 2011 ARY.pdf DiversityBook.pdf ARY.pdf Prepared for Work, Not the Career: Building Science, Engineering, and Technology Leadership, A Report of a PAESMEM/AAAS Workshop for Women in Industry, Academia and Government, October 2010, workshop-proceedings/12667312 (Bogue, B., Y. Comedy, and D. Chubin). workshop-proceedings/12667312 Expanding Underrepresented Minority Participation: Americas Science and Technology Talent at the Crossroads, The National Academies, Sept. 2010, Bias literacy: A Review of Concepts in Research on Gender Discrimination and the U.S. Context. In A. Cater-Steel & E. Cater (Eds.), Women in Engineering, Science and Technology: Education and Career Challenges. Hershey, PA: IGI Global, April 2010 (Sevo, R. and D.E. Chubin). Breakthrough Advances in Faculty Diversity, University Leadership Council, 2008, Building Capacity, Sept. 23, 2011

50 Lessons from Clients What the Capacity Center Has Learned S&E exhibits a narrow view of meritbias toward performance over promise leads to risk-aversion Any collaboration or program that defies formal organization lines or relationships takes time to institutionalize Collaborations typically begin with soft moneyand few survive to become lines in the institutional operating budget Innovators are not prophets in their own landcredibility comes from national/international recognition Data depersonalizes the conversationinstitution-wide measures subject all units to the same criteria Campus leaders (President, Provost) can bless best practices of individual units and elevate them with institutional imprimatur Building Capacity, Sept. 23, 2011

51 Final Thought The abiding chasm between Americas haves and have-nots reminds us that Dr. King was a true prophet and of our responsibility to fight for justice in all its forms. source: Dr. Kings Dreams, The New York Times, Aug. 20, 2011 Building Capacity, Sept. 23, 2011

52 To continue the conversation... Daryl Chubin, Ph.D., Director AAAS Capacity Center Building Capacity, Sept. 23, 2011

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