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Institute on Teaching & Mentoring Building Capacity in STEM: From Participation to Leadership Daryl E. Chubin, Ph.D. Director, AAAS Capacity Center American.

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Presentation on theme: "Institute on Teaching & Mentoring Building Capacity in STEM: From Participation to Leadership Daryl E. Chubin, Ph.D. Director, AAAS Capacity Center American."— Presentation transcript:

1 Institute on Teaching & Mentoring Building Capacity in STEM: From Participation to Leadership Daryl E. Chubin, Ph.D. Director, AAAS Capacity Center American Association for the Advancement of Science Atlanta, GA October 21, 2011

2 Reality of My Lifetime Our nation is moving toward two societies, separate and unequal* Kerner Commission, 1968 (National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders) * The second society has now become both Black and Hispanic. Institute, Oct. 21, 2011

3 The Policy Imperative It is not only legitimate, but also essential, to evaluate policy options partly on the basis of whether they are likely to reduce or increase racial inequalities.* Compromise policiesnot explicitly race-targeted but... chosen partly because they will benefit nonwhites especiallyshould become the basis for policy debates. For example, without using explicit racial classifications, we can devise districts and situate homes in ways that are more likely to produce integrated schools and neighborhoods.* Data matter and the problems we face are systemic, not limited to education or science alone. Institutions must reflect their mission statements and do more than assert the value of diversitythey must act to do so. * D.S. King and R.M. Smith, On Race, Silence is Bipartisan, The New York Times, Sept. 2, 2011 Institute, Oct. 21, 2011

4 The U.S. and Global STEM Pipeline Problem Need: Increase Educational And Workforce Access/Diversity for Women and Underserved MinoritiesA 21 st Century imperative Data: U.S. Trails 26 Other Developed Countries In The Proportion Of College Students Graduating In STEM Fields Women (50% of U.S. College-Age Population) & Underserved Minorities (ca. 40% of College-Age Population) Are Highly Underrepresented In STEM Higher Education/Degrees & STEM Workforce (incl. Academia) Women, URM, Disabled = ca. 25% STEM Workforce v. 66% Total Workforce The U.S. is losing vast, needed intellectual capacity to compete in the global economy, sustain its innovation leadership, and ensure its national security. We are under-educating and/or under-utilizing citizen talent. You are the counter-factual to this trend! Institute, Oct. 21, 2011

5 Distribution of Institutions Awarding PhDs (All Fields) to U.S. Minority-Group Members, 2005-2009 Total Institutions Total PhDs % Awarded by Top 20 American Indian193669 39.6* Asian36412,17638.8 Black3729,82526.6 Hispanic3518,25333.7 * represents top 22 institutions Note: Figures include U.S. citizens and permanent residents and represent totals for the period shown. People of Hispanic ethnicity may be of any race and are excluded from the categories of race shown. Numbers for American Indians include Alaska Natives. Figures for Asians exclude Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Data from Survey of Earned Doctorates Source: Diversity in Academe, September 25, 2011, The Chronicle of Higher Education

6 Percentage Changes in all Doctorates Awarded, by Race/Ethnicity and Broad STEM Fields, 1989 to 2009 Note: Percentages are based on the total of all doctorates awarded to U.S. citizens and permanent residents only, not to foreign students studying on temporary visas. People of Hispanic ethnicity may be of any race and are excluded from the categories of race shown. Life sciences include agricultural sciences/natural resources, biological/biomedical sciences, and health sciences. Physical sciences include mathematics and computer and information sciences. Data from Survey of Earned Doctorates Source: Diversity in Academe, September 25, 2011, The Chronicle of Higher Education American Indian AsianBlackHispanic 19892009198920091989200919892009 Engineering0.30.416.116.31.54.32.15.0 Life Sciences0.20.45.110.32.25.42.15.0 Phys Sciences0.50.27.39.91.23.12.44.2 All Fields0.40.55.08.33.86.92.85.8

7 Source: Diversity in Academe, Sept. 25, 2011, The Chronicle of Higher Education (data from Survey of Earned Doctorates )

8 Percentage of PhD Recipients Whose Graduate School Debt Exceeded $30K, by Broad Field and Race/Ethnicity, 2009 Note: All figures are for U.S. citizens and permanent residents only, not those on temporary visas. The category "All" includes doctorates awarded to those who did not report their race. People of Hispanic ethnicity may be of any race and are excluded from the categories of race shown. N/A" means that the source did not provide data because the number of respondents in that category was small and doing so might have identified individuals. Life sciences include agricultural sciences/natural resources, biological/biomedical sciences, and health sciences. Physical sciences include mathematics and computer and information sciences. Social sciences include psychology. Source: Diversity in Academe, September 25, 2011, The Chronicle of Higher Education (data from Survey of Earned Doctorates) American Indian AsianBlackHispanicWhiteAll Social sciences52.221.752.141.936.437.1 Education44.228.448.338.425.330.0 Humanitiesn/a16.841.128.927.527.7 Life sciences32.19.332.216.915.515.9 Physical sciencesn/a4.728.010.69.9 Engineeringn/a6.218.911.47.37.8 All fields36.911.742.227.921.722.7

9 Institute, Oct. 21, 2011

10 AAAS Capacity Center at a Glance Origin: Established as a science & engineering human resource development consulting service August 2004 with 3-year, $400K grant from Sloan Foundation to AAAS (www.aaascapacity.org)www.aaascapacity.org Mission: Through nationally-calibrated research & technical assistance in examining programs & outcomes, foster institutional capacity to... recruit, enroll, & support STEM students diversify the faculty change programs, structures, & attitudes Clients/Sponsors: Institutions of higher education, corporations, federal agencies, & non-profits (e.g., Harvard-PRISE, HP-Teaching with Technology, LSU-LA STEM, NSF-BPC, NSF-DUE, NSF-STC, UW-CAEE, NACME, WEPAN, Florida, Purdue, Colorado School of Mines)... focus on research, education, and institutional climate Institute, Oct. 21, 2011

11 Problem Thread of AAAS Capacity Center Work Who participates in STEM education and the workforcewho does not and why? How can institutions of higher education improve academic success, career advancement, and utilization of talentstudents to faculty and other professions? How does Federal policy help/hinder? Institute, Oct. 21, 2011

12 Data Lessons Analysts Should Look at... Numbers/trends (how many?) Composition (who?) Quality/creativity (what?) Institute, Oct. 21, 2011

13 Big Lesson: Operate on the Context, not just the Content 2004: To help guide program staff & university counsels in interpreting the Grutter and Gratz rulings... 2008: Sloan- and NSF-funded pilot project (AAAS/AAU) to identify effective STEM programs & practices for students and faculty, making them legally sustainable See http://www.aaas.org/publications/books_reports/standingourground/http://www.aaas.org/publications/books_reports/standingourground/ Institute, Oct. 21, 2011

14 Handbook on Diversity and the Law Navigating A Complex Landscape to Foster Greater Faculty and Student Diversity in Higher Education The Law Governing Effective Faculty and Student Body Diversity Programs in STEM and Related Disciplines... and Its Implications for Institutional Policy AAAS-AAU, April 2010 http://php.aaas.org/programs/centers/capacit y/publications/complexlandscape/ Summary and Highlights http://php.aaas.org/programs/centers/capacit y/documents/LawDiversity_SUMMARY.pdf January 2011 Institute, Oct. 21, 2011

15 AAAS-AAU Law & Diversity Project Objectives: Identify And Foster Common Understanding Of Effective Diversity/Access Programs That Are Also Legally SustainableSTEM Focus, But Broadly Applicable Build Productive Partnerships Of Academic Policy/Program And Legal Leaders To Design And Implement Diversity/Access Programs Support Measurable Progress Within 5-6 Years Provide Practical Tools, through Workshops & Publication of Handbook, For Policymakers and Lawyers Sponsors: Phase 1: Alfred P. Sloan Foundation & NSF (Aug. 2008-Sept. 2010) Phase 2: NSF (Oct. 2010-Sept. 2012) Leadership: Dr. Daryl Chubin (AAAS) & Jamie Lewis Keith, Esq., (University of Florida), Project Directors Dr. Shirley Malcom (AAAS), Senior Project Advisor Dr. John Vaughn, AAU Liaison Art Coleman/Scott Palmer (EducationCounsel LLC) and Bob Burgoyne/Prof. Ted Shaw (Fulbright & Jaworski LLP) Project Outside CounselPhase 1 Art Coleman, Project Outside Counsel with Burgoyne/Shaw as Advisory Board Chairs Participation of College Board, ACE, NACUA, AAMC, AACC, APLU, Thurgood Marshall Fund, & IHEPPhase 2 Institute, Oct. 21, 2011

16 Law Distinguishes between Under-utilization v. Pipeline Problem Life sciences/academic medicine fraught with under- utilization of women oPhD production at parity by gender, but hiring (and promotion) lags oNPA reports that fewer than 1 in 3 postdocs will ever land a tenure-track position Pipeline problem exists for minority PhDs oIn science fields, there is an inadequate pool to populate university departments oAccording to CGS, only in life science disciplines African Americans complete the PhD at ratesoverall and in time to degreecomparable to Whites/Asians, but are not hired in R1 departments Institute, Oct. 21, 2011

17 Where Law & Research/Policy Differ A Challenge to Scholars What is morally virtuous–proportional representation is legally a non starter : all depends on context, mission, data, and more Compositional change: clash of mission/mandate & rewards for certain behaviors (visible diversity) v. conduct of inclusion (race-neutral enacted diversity) What are the implications for hiring, mentoring, & mainstreaming diversity as a core value? Institute, Oct. 21, 2011

18 Outreach must penetrate the academic reward system. Gender and racial bias is a reality. Get over itfaculty mentoring helps. The student must take responsibility for completing doctoral requirements (performance contract). All kinds of institutions can be minority-serving (e.g., non-HBCUs). New Ph.D.s underestimate the skills they possess (which extend beyond research). This is about leadershipthere is an overarching need to grow leaders. source: Focus groups with Packard Scholars, Monterey, CA & Washington, DC, 2005-06. Also see D.E. Chubin, Minding the Student Client, Inside Higher Education, Feb. 13, 2006, http://insidehighered.com/views/2006/02/13/chubinhttp://insidehighered.com/views/2006/02/13/chubin What Do STEM Minority Graduate Students Say? Institute, Oct. 21, 2011

19 NSF Policy Change: Family-Friendly Science? Allow postponement for one year of grants because of childbirth or adoption. Allow grant suspension for parental leave. Provide supplementary funds to cover the cost of hiring research technicians to maintain laboratories when grant recipients are on family leave. Permit those serving on peer review panels to meet with their colleagues virtually, rather than in person, to reduce child-care needs created by travel. Fund more research on the effectiveness of policies that are designed to keep women in the science pipeline. source: http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2011/09/27/nsf_announces_changes_in_grant_rules_to_enc ourage_women_in_stem_fields Institute, Oct. 21, 2011

20 Why Is This Policy Important? Overdue Symbolic Enforceable Signal to other R&D agencies Raises expectation of university action Institute, Oct. 21, 2011

21 What the Capacity Center Has Learned from Working with Its University Clients S&E exhibits a narrow view of meritbias toward performance over promise leads to risk-aversion Any collaboration or program that defies formal organization lines or relationships takes time to institutionalize Collaborations typically begin with soft moneyand few survive to become lines in the institutional operating budget Innovators are not prophets in their own landcredibility comes from national/international recognition Data depersonalizes the conversationinstitution-wide measures subject all units to the same criteria Campus leaders (President, Provost) can bless best practices of individual units and elevate them with institutional imprimatur Institute, Oct. 21, 2011

22 Penultimate Thought The abiding chasm between Americas haves and have-nots reminds us that Dr. King was a true prophet and of our responsibility to fight for justice in all its forms. source: Dr. Kings Dreams, The New York Times, Aug. 20, 2011 Institute, Oct. 21, 2011

23 What Leaders Do... Set an overall tone Make expectations explicit Ensure fairness in processes Use cultural resources to create a mix of talent Stir the mix to maximize individual & group contributions Insist on accountability for achievement of goals In the words of the late Steve Jobs: Dont settle! Leaders walk the talk... Institute, Oct. 21, 2011

24 Thank you! Daryl Chubin, Ph.D., Director dchubin@aaas.org AAAS Capacity Center www.aaascapacity.org Institute, Oct. 21, 2011


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