Presentation on theme: "Affirmative Action in Higher Education after the Seattle and Louisville Decisions: Reexamining the Socioeconomic Alternative AAAS/NACME Roundtable Richard."— Presentation transcript:
Affirmative Action in Higher Education after the Seattle and Louisville Decisions: Reexamining the Socioeconomic Alternative AAAS/NACME Roundtable Richard D. Kahlenberg January 15, 2008
The Impact of Seattle and Louisville on Higher Education Grutter Reaffirmed, but 4 Storm Clouds: Justice Alito vs. Justice OConnor Merit-based Selection in Higher Education even more vulnerable than K-12 Public Opinion and Ballot Initiatives Could Sway Court Kennedy Enforcing More Vigorously the Race-Neutral Alternatives Requirement
Economic Diversity at Selective Institutions Source: Anthony P. Carnevale and Stephen J. Rose, Socioeconomic Status, Race/Ethnicity and Selective College Admissions, in Richard D. Kahlenberg (ed), Americas Untapped Resource: Low Income Students in Higher Education (The Century Foundation, 2004), p. 106, Table 3.1.
Economic Affirmative Action Carnevale and Rose Simulation of Economic Affirmative Action in Top 146 colleges. * Pool consisting of (1) all students who have good grades and score above 1300 on the SAT (or the ACT equivalent), plus (2) economically disadvantaged students with high grades and test scores (between 1000 and 1300 on the SAT).
Economic Affirmative Action * Economic disadvantage defined as: (1) being in the bottom 40 percent by socioeconomic status (defined as parents income, education, and occupation); and/or (2) attending high schools with a high percentage (>25%) of students eligible for free and reduced price lunch or low percentage (<25%) of seniors going on to four year colleges. * Lottery admissions within this pool of students. * The top 146 colleges represent the most selective 10 percent of four-year colleges and are at the heart of the debate over affirmative action policies. Source: Carnevale and Rose, Socioeconomic Status, p. 139.
Economic Diversity Source: Carnevale and Rose, Socioeconomic Status, pp. 141, 142 and 149.
Racial Diversity Source: Carnevale and Rose, Socioeconomic Status, pp. 141, 142 and 148.
Boosting Racial Diversity Additional Factors Not Employed By Carnevale and Rose Should Increase Racial Diversity Further: * Neighborhood Poverty Black families with incomes in excess of $60,000 live in neighborhoods with higher poverty rates than white families earning less than $30,000. Source: Daryl Fears, Disparity Marks Black Ethnic Groups, Report Says, Washington Post, March 9, 2003, p. A7. * Net Worth/Wealth While black median income is 62 percent of white median income, black median net worth is just 12 percent of white median net worth. Source: Edward N. Wolff, Top Heavy: The Increasing Inequality of Wealth in America and What Can Be Done About It (New York: New Press, 2002), p. 20, Table 4.1.
Boosting Racial Diversity Single Parent family In 2006, 65% of American American children raised in single parent households compared with 23% of white children. Source: Annie E. Casey Foundation, Kids Count 2008.
Experiments in Economic Affirmative Action University of California – comprehensive reviewexamining academic accomplishments in light of such obstacles as low family income, first generation to attend college, and disadvantaged social or educational environment. University of Washington – academic achievement in the context of such factors as family income, number in family, parents educational level, [and] high school free lunch percent. University of Florida – Profile Assessment – a leg up to students who are poor, attend a low performing high school, or whose parents didnt attend college.
Experiments in Economic Affirmative Action University Texas – considers obstacles such as the socioeconomic background of the applicant, whether the applicant would be the first generation of his or her family to attend or graduate from an institution of higher education, and the financial status of the applicants school district. * University of California at Los Angeles Law School – academic accomplishments in light of highest level of education attained by parents; parent primary occupation; number of years spent in a single- parent home; age of applicant at the time of a parents death (if applicable); total parent income and assets during the previous year and explanation, if given, if level of income was different during applicants high school years; number of hours worked per week during college years; and any statement provided describing socioeconomic disadvantages overcome.
Economic and Racial Diversity at UCLA Law School UCLA School of Law Fall 2002 SES Admission Summary SESAll Others AppsAdmitsEnrolledAppsAdmitsEnrolled Native American1004672 African American30198331135 Chicano/Latino5126134783611 Asian632017122115837 White8630172521400129 Other/Unknown57169172423457 Total288111646321848241 Source: Andrea Sossin-Bergman, director of admissions, UCLA Law School, November 2002
Economic and Racial Diversity at UCLA Law School Source: Sossin-Bergman, November 2002
Economic Affirmative Action: Public Support Source: EPIC/MRA poll (conducted January 29–February 3, 2003); Los Angeles Times poll (conducted January 30–February 2, 2003); and Newsweek poll (conducted January 16–17, 2003).
Economic Affirmative Action: Graduation Rates Source: Carnevale and Rose, Socioeconomic Status, p. 149
Contact Information and Sources Richard D. Kahlenberg Senior Fellow The Century Foundation 1755 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20036 202-745-5476 firstname.lastname@example.org www.tcf.orgwww.tcf.org; www.equaleducation.orgwww.equaleducation.org Americas Untapped Resource: Low-Income Students in Higher Education (Century Foundation Press, 2004), edited by Richard D. Kahlenberg, with chapters by Anthony Carnevale and Stephen Rose; Michael Timpane and Arthur Hauptman; and Lawrence Gladieux. Richard D. Kahlenberg, The Remedy: Class, Race, and Affirmative Action (New York: Basic Books, 1996)