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Substance Use & Abuse Contributing Factors, Physiological & Sociological Effects, Legal Issues.

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Presentation on theme: "Substance Use & Abuse Contributing Factors, Physiological & Sociological Effects, Legal Issues."— Presentation transcript:

1 Substance Use & Abuse Contributing Factors, Physiological & Sociological Effects, Legal Issues

2 Contributing Factors  Personal Problems  Beliefs and perceptions about the benefits of substance use  Lack of knowledge of consequences  Self-esteem, self-efficacy, wanting to fit in  Personality factors  depression, other addictions  Psychological well being (abusive home, Poor coping skills, mental illness)

3 Contributing Factors  Behavioural Factors  Teenagers tend to be heavy and frequent users of substances (binge drinking especially)  Teenagers often use more than one substance  Academic achievement (low achievement = higher risk)  Teenagers take on higher-risk activities  Teenagers may lack developed self-control, more impulsive behaviours  Curiosity for experimentation

4 Contributing Factors  Environmental Factors  Attitudes/values of parents and peers  Parental, sibling and peer use of substances  Advertising media  Accessibility of substances  Social and cultural norms/views  Economic status

5 Drug Use Continuum  There is no predictable or measureable movement from stage to stage; every person is different  Patterns can be influenced by many external factors as well as a person’s desire to take part in using the substance

6 Drug Use Continuum  Stage #1  Non-use  Never used a particular drug  Stage #2  Experimental Use  Has tried a substance once or several times  Use is motivated by curiosity about drug effects and peer influence

7 Drug Use Continuum  Stage #3  Occasional Use  Use is infrequent and irregular  Confined to special occasions or when opportunities arise  Availability, accessibility, affordability

8 Drug Use Continuum  Stage #4  Regular Use  Use has predictable pattern (but not regular frequency)  Actively seeks to experience drug effect or participate with peers  Feels in control of drug use (take it or leave it)

9 Drug Use Continuum  Stage #5  Dependence Use  Regular and predictable pattern  Physiological or psychological need for the drug  Out of control when using, but will use despite these affects  Drugs often used alone  Plan daily activities around drug use

10 Effects of Drugs  Physiological  Drugs affect the way the brain sends, receives and communicates information  Imitates natural chemical messengers  Over-stimulates “reward circuit”  Sociological  Problems for individuals, families, and communities

11 Physiological Effects – Imitating Chemical Messengers  Some drugs have similar structures to neurotransmitters that allow your brain to communicate with your body  These drugs “fool” the brain’s receptors which sends an abnormal message


13 Physiological Effects – Over- stimulating the “Reward Circuit”  Cause nerve cells to release abnormally large amounts of neurotransmitters or prevent the recycling needed to shut off the signal  Mainly dopamine  controls movement, emotion, motivation, feelings of pleasure  Sets in motion a reinforcing pattern that “teaches” people to repeat the rewarding behavior of abusing drugs

14 Physiological Effects – Over- stimulating the “Reward Circuit”  The brain adapts to the surges in dopamine by producing less dopamine or by reducing the number of dopamine receptors in the reward circuit  Reduces the abuser’s ability to enjoy the drugs and also other events in life that previously brought pleasure  Compels the addicted person to keep abusing drugs in an attempt to bring the dopamine function back to normal  Requires more  tolerance!

15 Sociological Effects  Substance abuse has a major impact on individuals, families, and communities.  The effects of substance abuse contribute to costly social, physical, mental, and public health problems. These problems include:  Teenage pregnancy  HIV/AIDS  Other sexually transmitted diseases  Domestic violence  Child abuse  Motor vehicle crashes  Physical fights  Crime  Homicide

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