Presentation on theme: "Health Status Health Behavior and Variability in Healthcare Spending"— Presentation transcript:
1Health Status Health Behavior and Variability in Healthcare Spending RADM Penelope Slade-Sawyer, P.T., M.S.W. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS)Director, Office of Disease Prevention and Health PromotionActing Director, President’s Council on Physical Fitness and SportsOffice of the Secretary, Office of Public Health and Science
2Factors Contributing to Geographic Variation in Health Care Spending Prices paid for medical servicesHealth and illness status of residents of a given regionRegional preferences about the use of healthcare servicesResidual variationBy changing the way they live, individual Americans could change their personal health status and the health landscape of the Nation dramaticallyCongressional Budget Office, Geographical Variation in Health Care Spending, 2008
4Two thirds of Medicare spending is for people with five or more chronic conditions
5Percent of Healthcare Spending for Individuals with chronic conditions by type of insurance
6People with Multiple Chronic Conditions are much more likely to be hospitalized
7Spending for inpatient hospital care increases with the number of chronic conditions
8Healthcare Spending Increases with the Number of Chronic Conditions
9The Five Most Costly Conditions as a Percentage of Total Health Expenditures: United States, 2002 Source: Olin GL, Rhoades JA. The five most costly medical conditions, 1997 and 2002: estimates for the U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population. Statistical Brief #80. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. Web site: Accessed April 7, 2006.
10Smoking Prevalence of Adults* by state * Persons aged > 18 years who reported having smoked over 100 cigarettes during their lifetime or who currently smoke everyday or some days. Estimates were weighted by age and sex distributions of each state or area populationSource: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), 2006
11Developing chronic diseases is not an inevitable consequence of aging BehaviorsPoor diet (low fruit and vegetable intake)High cholesterolHigh blood pressureLack of physical activityTobacco useChronic DiseasesType 2 diabetescongestive heart failureStrokehypertensionDeveloping chronic diseases is not an inevitable consequence of aging; in many cases, their origins are grounded in health-damaging behaviors practiced by people every day for much of their lives. Evidence indicates that with education and social support, people can and will take charge of their health. For many Americans, individual behavior and lifestyle choices influence the development and course of these chronic conditions. Unhealthy behaviors, such as a poor diet, lack of physical activity, and tobacco use are risk factors for many chronic conditions and diseases. A high calorie diet and sedentary lifestyle commonly result in excessive weight gain. Overweight and obesity are risk factors for a large number of chronic diseases, most significantly, type 2 diabetes, congestive heart failure, stroke, and hypertension. Encouraging individuals to adopt healthy habits and practices may reduce the burden of chronic disease in communities throughout the United States.
12Overweight and obesity raise the risk for: type 2 diabeteshigh blood pressurehigh cholesterol levelscoronary heart diseasecongestive heart failureangina pectorisstrokeasthmaosteoarthritismusculoskeletal disordersgallbladder diseasesleep apnea and respiratory problemsgoutbladder control problemspoor female reproductive health– complications of pregnancy– menstrual irregularities– infertility– irregular ovulationcancers of the– uterus– breast– prostate– kidney– liver– pancreas– esophagus– colon and rectum
14Geographic variation in Public Health Spending is even greater than variation in Medicare Spending Public Health ActivitiesMonitor community health statusInvestigate and control disease outbreaksEducate the public about health risks and prevention strategiesEnforce public health laws and regulationsInspect and assure the safety and quality of water, air, and other resources necessary for good healthPublic Health SpendingState government’s per capita spending on public health activities varied by a factor of 30 in 2003 (more than 400$ per person in Hawaii, less than $75 per person in Iowa)Variation even great on the local level (less than 1$ per capita to more than 200$ per capita in 2005)It is important to recognize that geographic variation in public health resources may contribute to gaps and inequities in our population’s health and may drive the development of chronic health conditions in certain populations. Public health spending funds a wide range of activities including (listed above). The National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO) reported spending a median of $30 per person
15Based on analysis of public health expenditures among the nation’s nearly 3000 local public health agencies. Public health agencies in the highest quintile of spending provided a broader scope of clinical preventive services, population-based services, medical treatment services and specialty services when compared with their lower spending counterparts. Medical spending per medicare beneficiary was 11% higher in communities within the lowest quintile of public health agency spending, compared with communities with the highest level of spending. This inverse association existed for both inpatient and outpatient Medicare spending and after risk adjustment of data.Glen P Mays, Sharla A. Smith. Geographic Variation in Public Health spending: correlates and consequences. Public Health Services and Systems Research
16Percentage of Adults Who Are Obese,* by State *Body mass index > 30, or ~ 30 pounds overweight for a 5'4" person Source: CDC, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.
17Differences in Prevalence of Obesity 2006--2008 HispanicWhite – Non HispanicBlack Non-HispanicEspecially important is the increase in the number of people treated for conditions clinically linked to obesity. Common morbidities associated with obesity include coronary heart disease, hypertension and stroke, type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancer, chronic conditions that account for the largest percentage of healthcare costs.Source: CDC, MMWR. Differences in Prevalence of Obesity Among Black, White, and Hispanic Adults --- United States, For this study analysis, CDC analyzed the 2006−2008 BRFSS data.
18Prevalence of Physical Activity*, 2007 This map displays the prevalence of people in each state meeting physical activity recommendations. Recommended physical activity is defined as at least 5 days a week for 30 minutes a day of moderate intensity activity or at least 3 days a week for 20 minutes a day of vigorous intensity activity.*Recommended physical activity is defined as at least 5 days a week for 30 minutes a day of moderate intensity activity or at least 3 days a week for 20 minutes a day of vigorous intensity activity
19times/day and vegetables three or more times/day, by state (2007) Percentage of U.S. adults aged ≥ 18 years who consumed fruit two or moretimes/day and vegetables three or more times/day, by state (2007)Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2007
20Percent of Adults Ages 18+ with Diagnosed Diabetes, by State, 2007 7% – 7.9%6% – 6.9%≥ 8%< 5.9%National Average = 7.8%Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). Percentage of Adults with Diagnosed Diabetes By State, Link:
21County Level Estimates of Diagnosed Diabetes — County Level Estimates of Diagnosed Diabetes — Percentage of Adults in Texas, 2005County Level Estimates of Diagnosed Diabetes —Percentage of Adults in Colorado, 2005However, variability exists even at the county level
22Healthy People 2010Overarching goals: 1) increase quality and years of healthy life ) eliminate health disparitiesFocus Areas includePhysical Activity and FitnessNutrition and Weight StatusDiabetesHeart Disease and StrokeTobacco UseCancerExamples of New Objectives (for Healthy People 2020)Early and Middle Childhood Health, Adolescent HealthHealthcare Associated InfectionsHealthy People 2010 presents a comprehensive set of disease prevention and health promotion objectives developed to improve the health of all people in the United States during the first decade of the 21st century. Aims to address risk factors and determinants of health and the diseases and disorders that affect our communities. Set targets for the nation. Recognizing the variability in populations and the importance of targeting messages and resources at certain groups is important. These are just an example of a few objectives retained from 2010 and some new objectives which will be included in the 2020 Objectives.As the population of the United States ages substantially over the next several decades, the prevalence of chronic diseases--and their impact on health care costs--will likely increase.Each individual's health is shaped by many factors including medical care, social circumstances, and behavioral choices.(4) Increasingly, there is clear evidence that the major chronic conditions that account for so much of the morbidity and mortality in the U.S., and the enormous direct and indirect costs associated with them, in large part are preventable-and that to a considerable degree they stem from, and are exacerbated by, individual behaviors. In particular, overweight and obesity, lack of physical activity, and smoking greatly increase the risk of developing the most serious chronic disorders. Most of the dollars spent on health care in the United States, however, are for the direct care of medical conditions, while only a very small portion is targeted on preventing those conditions.(5) As Americans see health care expenditures continue to increase, it is important to focus on strategies that reduce the prevalence and cost of preventable diseases.
23By changing the way they live, Americans could change their personal health status and the health landscape of the Nation dramatically."So many of our health problems can be avoided through diet, exercise and making sure we take care of ourselves. By promoting healthy lifestyles, we can improve the quality of life for all Americans, and reduce health care costs dramatically." By changing the way they live, individual Americans could change their personal health status and the health landscape of the Nation dramatically.