2 -Ideological Foundation for Political Liberalism- Revolutionary Ideas-Ideological Foundation for Political Liberalism-
3 Liberty The notion of individual human rights A new type of government in which the people are sovereignThe importance of a representative assemblyThe importance of a written constitutionThe notion of self-determinationFreedom to accumulate property
4 Equality Equality of rights and civil liberties Equality before the lawNo special privileges for the richEquality of opportunity“Careers Open to Talent”Inherent tension between liberty and equality
5 Roots of Liberalism Judeo-Christian and Greek roots Enlightenment FoundationLocke’s Notion of the Rights of Englishmen
6 British North America “All Men are Created Equal” The significance of the American constitutionThe influence of the American RevolutionThe impact of the American Revolution
7 The French RevolutionMore fundamental and profound consequences than the American RevolutionFrance = most powerful and populous state in EuropeMassive social revolutionWorldwide impactBecomes model for future revolutions
8 How Should We Look at the French Revolution? “Series of revolutions which became more radical as leadership cascaded down through French society.”
9 The Events of the French Revolution Watch for the different revolutions within the Revolution!
10 Pre-1789: Causes of the French Revolution King Louis XVI (an absolute monarch) was spending LOTS of money.France had costly debts from the American Revolution, Marie Antoinette, and the military.The American Revolution inspired the Third Estate to begin fighting against the King.King & Aristocracy need more money, so need to levy an new tax- only Estates-General can do this
11 The Estates-General An old feudal assembly that had not met since 1614 Three Estates: Clergy, Nobility, All OthersThe significance of the voting procedureThe miscalculation and lack of social awareness of the aristocracy
12 The Third Estate Who were they? Third Estate was dominated by the middle classBlending of aristocratic and bourgeois classes by 1789Middle class = Big WinnersRevolutionary goals of the middle class
13 An Agenda of Classical Liberalism Representative government did not mean democracy or “mob rule”Estates-General became the National Assembly in June of 1789 with the power to frame a constitutionTennis Court Oath
14 What were the Motivations of these Revolutionaries? Poverty and HungerLow wages and fear of unemploymentHeightened expectations and the exposure to a political perspectiveStrong dislike for and distrust of the wealthyThe role of conspiracy
15 A Case Study: Storming the Bastille Events of the night of July 13, 1789Reasons for the attack on the Bastille the next morningThe stubbornness of the governor of the fortressCelebrations on the night of July 14thSparks tremendous popular revolution all over France
16 “The Great Fear”Independent revolutionary agitation in the countrysideRumors of Royalist troops becoming wandering vandalsFear breeds fear and peasants start marchingWithin 3 weeks of July 14, the countryside of France had been completely changedAbolition of the Nobility
17 Declaration of the Rights of Man—August 27, 1789 A Declaration of Independence and Bill of Rights in one.
18 The Court Returns to Paris Mounting unemployment and hunger in Paris in the fall of 1789“October Days”Women nearly killed the QueenThe Royal Family returns to Paris on October 6, 1789
19 France Becomes a Constitutional Monarchy September 1791National Assembly wrote a new constitution, creating a constitutional monarchy in France.France ruled as a constitutional monarchy for almost a year, with King Louis XVI as the limited monarch, and several clubs part of the National Assembly.August 1792Radicals stormed the Tuileries and took the King into custody.End of the Sane RevolutionSTOP DAY 1
20 France Becomes a Republic September the “September Massacres”The National Assembly began executing nobles without a trial.The National Assembly was changed to the National Convention.A. The government changed to a “republic” -- a representative democracy.B. King Louis XVI was no longer needed for the government.
21 January 1793King Louis XVI was put on trial and executed by the guillotine for treason.Peasants broke out in rebellion against the nobles.HOWEVER: Some peasants and nobility were still loyal to the King.--> Those loyal to the monarchy were termed “counterrevolutionaries” and they became the adversaries of the radicals in charge of the new Republic
22 Popular Political Mobilization Revolutionary Talka. More than 500 new newspapersb. --Oath of Loyaltyc. “Liberte, Equalite, Fraternite!”2. Revolutionary Symbols3. Revolutionary Clubsa. --The Jacobins4. Revolutionary Leaders
23 K. Growing Radicalism Reasons: --Snowball Effect --Unsatisfied Expectations--Outbreak of WarResults:-Increasing Violence- Use of the Guillotine--Change in Political Leadership
24 L. Robespierre’s Reign of Terror The Committee of Public SafetyThe Concept of “Total War”Maximum price ceilings on certain goodsDominated by Jacobins- Hunt for Enemies of the Revolution
25 L. The Reign of Terror (cont) Execution of 40,000 “Enemies of the Nation”Stress on radical definition of equalityWanted a legal maximum on personal wealthWanted a regulation of commercial profitsEnd of Robespierre’s dictatorship on July 28, 1794
26 France Becomes a Republic (again) : The Directory is establishedFive officers as the executiveTwo legislative bodiesMilitary is used to maintain control of countryENTER NAPOLEON BONAPARTEThe French people loved Napoleon and the Directory was unable to maintain order without him . . .
27 Directory OverthrownNapoleon used the power and influence of the military to win the support of the people.The Directory was overthrown by Napoleon in 1799.Napoleon organized a new government.
28 France Becomes an Absolute Monarchy By 1801, Napoleon had gained absolute power and crowned himself “Emperor of the French.”
29 Napoleon’s Policies (that made him popular) Helped the economy by setting prices, supporting new industry, and building roads and bridgesCreated a government-controlled school systemEstablished the Napoleonic Code (a set of laws) that supported equality and religious toleration
30 Napoleon’s EmpireFrom , Napoleon took over many countries with military force.Napoleon build up an empire for France, peaking in 1812.
31 Napoleon’s Fall Why did his empire begin to crumble? People in the conquered states revolted against French rule.Napoleon invaded Russia in Russia used the “scorched earth policy” so the French had no supplies --> Most of the army was lost during the Russian winter.An 1813 alliance of Russia, Great Britain, Austria, and Prussia defeated Napoleon.
32 Effects of the French Revolution Democratic ideals of “Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity” were spread throughout Europe.People wanted a change in government from absolute monarchies, and were inspired by the changes in France.Nationalism, or strong feelings of pride in one’s country, were built up by Napoleon’s conquests.