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The French Revolution -Key Concepts-.

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Presentation on theme: "The French Revolution -Key Concepts-."— Presentation transcript:

1 The French Revolution -Key Concepts-

2 -Ideological Foundation for Political Liberalism-
Revolutionary Ideas -Ideological Foundation for Political Liberalism-

3 Liberty The notion of individual human rights
A new type of government in which the people are sovereign The importance of a representative assembly The importance of a written constitution The notion of self-determination Freedom to accumulate property

4 Equality Equality of rights and civil liberties
Equality before the law No special privileges for the rich Equality of opportunity “Careers Open to Talent” Inherent tension between liberty and equality

5 Roots of Liberalism Judeo-Christian and Greek roots
Enlightenment Foundation Locke’s Notion of the Rights of Englishmen

6 British North America “All Men are Created Equal”
The significance of the American constitution The influence of the American Revolution The impact of the American Revolution

7 The French Revolution More fundamental and profound consequences than the American Revolution France = most powerful and populous state in Europe Massive social revolution Worldwide impact Becomes model for future revolutions

8 How Should We Look at the French Revolution?
“Series of revolutions which became more radical as leadership cascaded down through French society.”

9 The Events of the French Revolution
Watch for the different revolutions within the Revolution!

10 Pre-1789: Causes of the French Revolution
King Louis XVI (an absolute monarch) was spending LOTS of money. France had costly debts from the American Revolution, Marie Antoinette, and the military. The American Revolution inspired the Third Estate to begin fighting against the King. King & Aristocracy need more money, so need to levy an new tax- only Estates-General can do this

11 The Estates-General An old feudal assembly that had not met since 1614
Three Estates: Clergy, Nobility, All Others The significance of the voting procedure The miscalculation and lack of social awareness of the aristocracy

12 The Third Estate Who were they?
Third Estate was dominated by the middle class Blending of aristocratic and bourgeois classes by 1789 Middle class = Big Winners Revolutionary goals of the middle class

13 An Agenda of Classical Liberalism
Representative government did not mean democracy or “mob rule” Estates-General became the National Assembly in June of 1789 with the power to frame a constitution Tennis Court Oath

14 What were the Motivations of these Revolutionaries?
Poverty and Hunger Low wages and fear of unemployment Heightened expectations and the exposure to a political perspective Strong dislike for and distrust of the wealthy The role of conspiracy

15 A Case Study: Storming the Bastille
Events of the night of July 13, 1789 Reasons for the attack on the Bastille the next morning The stubbornness of the governor of the fortress Celebrations on the night of July 14th Sparks tremendous popular revolution all over France

16 “The Great Fear” Independent revolutionary agitation in the countryside Rumors of Royalist troops becoming wandering vandals Fear breeds fear and peasants start marching Within 3 weeks of July 14, the countryside of France had been completely changed Abolition of the Nobility

17 Declaration of the Rights of Man—August 27, 1789
A Declaration of Independence and Bill of Rights in one.

18 The Court Returns to Paris
Mounting unemployment and hunger in Paris in the fall of 1789 “October Days” Women nearly killed the Queen The Royal Family returns to Paris on October 6, 1789

19 France Becomes a Constitutional Monarchy
September 1791 National Assembly wrote a new constitution, creating a constitutional monarchy in France. France ruled as a constitutional monarchy for almost a year, with King Louis XVI as the limited monarch, and several clubs part of the National Assembly. August 1792 Radicals stormed the Tuileries and took the King into custody. End of the Sane Revolution STOP DAY 1

20 France Becomes a Republic
September the “September Massacres” The National Assembly began executing nobles without a trial. The National Assembly was changed to the National Convention. A. The government changed to a “republic” -- a representative democracy. B. King Louis XVI was no longer needed for the government.

21 January 1793 King Louis XVI was put on trial and executed by the guillotine for treason. Peasants broke out in rebellion against the nobles. HOWEVER: Some peasants and nobility were still loyal to the King. --> Those loyal to the monarchy were termed “counterrevolutionaries” and they became the adversaries of the radicals in charge of the new Republic

22 Popular Political Mobilization
Revolutionary Talk a. More than 500 new newspapers b. --Oath of Loyalty c. “Liberte, Equalite, Fraternite!” 2. Revolutionary Symbols 3. Revolutionary Clubs a. --The Jacobins 4. Revolutionary Leaders

23 K. Growing Radicalism Reasons: --Snowball Effect
--Unsatisfied Expectations --Outbreak of War Results: -Increasing Violence- Use of the Guillotine --Change in Political Leadership

24 L. Robespierre’s Reign of Terror
The Committee of Public Safety The Concept of “Total War” Maximum price ceilings on certain goods Dominated by Jacobins- Hunt for Enemies of the Revolution

25 L. The Reign of Terror (cont)
Execution of 40,000 “Enemies of the Nation” Stress on radical definition of equality Wanted a legal maximum on personal wealth Wanted a regulation of commercial profits End of Robespierre’s dictatorship on July 28, 1794

26 France Becomes a Republic (again)
: The Directory is established Five officers as the executive Two legislative bodies Military is used to maintain control of country ENTER NAPOLEON BONAPARTE The French people loved Napoleon and the Directory was unable to maintain order without him . . .

27 Directory Overthrown Napoleon used the power and influence of the military to win the support of the people. The Directory was overthrown by Napoleon in 1799. Napoleon organized a new government.

28 France Becomes an Absolute Monarchy
By 1801, Napoleon had gained absolute power and crowned himself “Emperor of the French.”

29 Napoleon’s Policies (that made him popular)
Helped the economy by setting prices, supporting new industry, and building roads and bridges Created a government-controlled school system Established the Napoleonic Code (a set of laws) that supported equality and religious toleration

30 Napoleon’s Empire From , Napoleon took over many countries with military force. Napoleon build up an empire for France, peaking in 1812.

31 Napoleon’s Fall Why did his empire begin to crumble?
People in the conquered states revolted against French rule. Napoleon invaded Russia in Russia used the “scorched earth policy” so the French had no supplies --> Most of the army was lost during the Russian winter. An 1813 alliance of Russia, Great Britain, Austria, and Prussia defeated Napoleon.

32 Effects of the French Revolution
Democratic ideals of “Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity” were spread throughout Europe. People wanted a change in government from absolute monarchies, and were inspired by the changes in France. Nationalism, or strong feelings of pride in one’s country, were built up by Napoleon’s conquests.

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