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Reform, Resistance, Revolution

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Presentation on theme: "Reform, Resistance, Revolution"— Presentation transcript:

1 Reform, Resistance, Revolution

2 Imperial Reform 1760: George III inherited throne of Great Britain, age 22 Collapse of political coalition that led Britain to victory over France King’s new ministers set out to reform the empire William Pitt is replaced by George Grenville, Minister of the Treasury

3 The Grenville Ministry
John Wilkes Journalist for North Briton criticized King Member of Parliament “Wilkes and Liberty” War put Britain in debt Revenues needed to police colonies – Grenville insists colonists contribute financially to fund their own defense

4 Indian Policy and Pontiac’s War
Indian and policy Fulfill wartime promises Proclamation Line of 1763 Pontiac’s War germ warfare (smallpox blankets) Paxton Boys: Anti-Indian frontier reaction

5 The Sugar Act 1764 – duties placed on Madeira wine, coffee, molasses
Colonists obtained cheaper molasses from French Launched Grenville’s war against smugglers Complicated paperwork and harsh penalties Tried to make enforcement of Customs laws more profitable than accepting bribes

6 The Currency Act and the Quartering Act
Currency Act of 1764: Forbade colonies to issue any paper money as legal tender Quartering Act of 1765 To quarter redcoats in private homes & taverns

7 The Stamp Act Stamp tax on legal documents and publications in the colonies “no taxation without representation” vs. virtual representation Internal vs. external taxes Colonist offer – Requisitions (colonial assemblies determine how to raise money asked for by the crown)

8 The Stamp Act Crisis Resistance to Stamp Act: 1765 – lasted almost one year, then repealed Patrick Henry Stamp Act Congress Stamp Act unconstitutional and should be repealed Says virtual representation does not apply Patrick Henry

9 Nullification “Sons of Liberty” and street violence
Stamp Act nullified de facto Agents resign Merchants and nonimportation resistance “Sons of Liberty”

10 Repeal Repeal Stamp Act (1766)
Declaratory Act (1766): perceived differently in colonies and Britain Revenue Act (1766): 1 penny tax on any molasses imported to colonies

11 The Townshend Crisis King George : government of “measures, not men”
Charles Townshend member of Parliament and the Cabinet Townshend has a hard-line attitude towards colonies William Pitt

12 The Townshend Program Townshend Revenue Act (1767)
Taxed imports colonies could only legally get from Britain Purpose: pay salaries of colonial governors and judges, freeing them from control of colonial assemblies British troops shifted from frontier to urban ports Charles Townshend

13 The Boston Massacre Increasing confrontations between population and British soldiers in Boston Sons of Liberty grow bolder March 5, 1770: The Massacre British: Captain Thomas Preston and others Defense team: John Adams and Josiah Quincy, Jr. Britain’s failed first attempt at military coercion

14 Engraving by Paul Revere

15 Slaves and Women Anti-slavery movement in British empire by mid-1700s
Quakers, Evangelicals, Methodists oppose slavery Even slave owners like Patrick Henry condemn the practice, but keep slaves for practical reasons Sarah Osborn and education for slaves Phillis Wheatley, freed slave and literary celebrity by age 20 Boston Patriots push for end to slavery Women’s role in nonimportation Phillis Wheatley

16 "On being brought from Africa to America":
Twas mercy brought me from my Pagan land, Taught my benighted soul to understand That there's a God, that there's a Saviour too: Once I redemption neither sought nor knew. Some view our sable race with scornful eye, "Their colour is a diabolic dye." Remember, Christians, Negroes, black as Cain, May be refin'd, and join th' angelic train.´

17 The Last Imperial Crisis
Lord North attempts to save East India Company, Britain’s largest corporation Southeastern England and colonies purchased smuggled Dutch tea Millions of pounds of unsold tea left in East India Co. warehouses Issue to Lord North was save East India Co.

18 The Tea Crisis Lord North’s solution: make East India Co. tea cheaper than smuggled tea Tea Act (1773) Repealed duty on bringing tea to Britain Retained duty on sending tea to colony Gave monopoly on British empire tea trade to East India Company Sons of Liberty resistance Direct threats against ships Boston “Tea Party”

19 Britain’s Response: The Coercive Acts
Boston Port Act (1774) Quartering Act (1774) The Administration of Justice Act (1774) Massachusetts Government Act (1774) To colonists, above become the “Intolerable Acts”

20 The First Continental Congress
12 colonies (all except Georgia) Philadelphia in September 1774 Nonimportation and nonexportation Crown and Parliament must repeal Coercive Acts Quebec Act All Revenue Acts Principle of no legislation without consent The Association: promoted boycotts and protests

21 The Second Continental Congress
Minutemen become Continental army George Washington made commander Response to the Conciliatory Proposition Olive Branch Petition Thomas Jefferson and “The Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms” Continental Congress assumed Crown’s functions of governance

22 Independence Areas supporting independence
New England Virginia and colonies South Overthrow of royal governments mid-Atlantic colonies William Franklin Thomas Paine Common Sense Lord George Germain Russians and “Hessians” Declaration of Independence Thomas Paine

23 Conclusion Britain’s self-filling prophecy nightmare
British feared colonies’ independence unless major reforms were put in place Resistance of the colonists confirmed Britain’s fears Colonists feared that British government would deprive them their rights as Englishmen Mutual confidence was undermined

24 Sources Murrin, John M. Liberty, Equality, Power: A History of the American People. Thomson Publishing: 2005.

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