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Reform, Resistance, Revolution. Imperial Reform 1760: George III inherited throne of Great Britain, age 22 1760: George III inherited throne of Great.

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Presentation on theme: "Reform, Resistance, Revolution. Imperial Reform 1760: George III inherited throne of Great Britain, age 22 1760: George III inherited throne of Great."— Presentation transcript:

1 Reform, Resistance, Revolution

2 Imperial Reform 1760: George III inherited throne of Great Britain, age : George III inherited throne of Great Britain, age 22 Collapse of political coalition that led Britain to victory over France Collapse of political coalition that led Britain to victory over France Kings new ministers set out to reform the empire Kings new ministers set out to reform the empire William Pitt is replaced by George Grenville, Minister of the Treasury William Pitt is replaced by George Grenville, Minister of the Treasury

3 The Grenville Ministry John Wilkes John Wilkes Journalist for North Briton criticized King Journalist for North Briton criticized King Member of Parliament Member of Parliament Wilkes and Liberty Wilkes and Liberty War put Britain in debt War put Britain in debt Revenues needed to police colonies – Grenville insists colonists contribute financially to fund their own defense Revenues needed to police colonies – Grenville insists colonists contribute financially to fund their own defense

4 Indian Policy and Pontiacs War Indian and policy Indian and policy Fulfill wartime promises Proclamation Line of 1763 Pontiacs War Pontiacs War germ warfare (smallpox blankets) germ warfare (smallpox blankets) Paxton Boys: Anti-Indian frontier reaction Paxton Boys: Anti-Indian frontier reaction

5 The Sugar Act 1764 – duties placed on Madeira wine, coffee, molasses 1764 – duties placed on Madeira wine, coffee, molasses Colonists obtained cheaper molasses from French Colonists obtained cheaper molasses from French Launched Grenvilles war against smugglers Launched Grenvilles war against smugglers Complicated paperwork and harsh penalties Complicated paperwork and harsh penalties Tried to make enforcement of Customs laws more profitable than accepting bribes Tried to make enforcement of Customs laws more profitable than accepting bribes

6 The Currency Act and the Quartering Act Currency Act of 1764: Currency Act of 1764: Forbade colonies to issue any paper money as legal tender Forbade colonies to issue any paper money as legal tender Quartering Act of 1765 Quartering Act of 1765 To quarter redcoats in private homes & taverns To quarter redcoats in private homes & taverns

7 The Stamp Act Stamp tax on legal documents and publications in the colonies Stamp tax on legal documents and publications in the colonies no taxation without representation vs. virtual representation no taxation without representation vs. virtual representation Internal vs. external taxes Internal vs. external taxes Colonist offer – Requisitions (colonial assemblies determine how to raise money asked for by the crown) Colonist offer – Requisitions (colonial assemblies determine how to raise money asked for by the crown)

8 The Stamp Act Crisis Resistance to Stamp Act: 1765 – lasted almost one year, then repealed Resistance to Stamp Act: 1765 – lasted almost one year, then repealed Patrick Henry Patrick Henry Stamp Act Congress Stamp Act Congress Stamp Act unconstitutional and should be repealed Stamp Act unconstitutional and should be repealed Says virtual representation does not apply Says virtual representation does not apply Patrick Henry

9 Nullification Sons of Liberty and street violence Sons of Liberty and street violence Stamp Act nullified de facto Stamp Act nullified de facto Agents resign Merchants and nonimportation resistance Sons of Liberty

10 Repeal Repeal Stamp Act (1766) Repeal Stamp Act (1766) Declaratory Act (1766): perceived differently in colonies and Britain Declaratory Act (1766): perceived differently in colonies and Britain Revenue Act (1766): 1 penny tax on any molasses imported to colonies Revenue Act (1766): 1 penny tax on any molasses imported to colonies

11 The Townshend Crisis King George : government of measures, not men King George : government of measures, not men Charles Townshend member of Parliament and the Cabinet Charles Townshend member of Parliament and the Cabinet Townshend has a hard- line attitude towards colonies Townshend has a hard- line attitude towards colonies William Pitt

12 The Townshend Program Townshend Revenue Act (1767) Townshend Revenue Act (1767) Taxed imports colonies could only legally get from Britain Purpose: pay salaries of colonial governors and judges, freeing them from control of colonial assemblies British troops shifted from frontier to urban ports British troops shifted from frontier to urban ports Charles Townshend

13 The Boston Massacre Increasing confrontations between population and British soldiers in Boston Increasing confrontations between population and British soldiers in Boston Sons of Liberty grow bolder Sons of Liberty grow bolder March 5, 1770: The Massacre March 5, 1770: The Massacre British: Captain Thomas Preston and others British: Captain Thomas Preston and others Defense team: John Adams and Josiah Quincy, Jr. Defense team: John Adams and Josiah Quincy, Jr. Britains failed first attempt at military coercion Britains failed first attempt at military coercion

14 Engraving by Paul Revere

15 Slaves and Women Anti-slavery movement in British empire by mid-1700s Anti-slavery movement in British empire by mid-1700s Quakers, Evangelicals, Methodists oppose slavery Quakers, Evangelicals, Methodists oppose slavery Even slave owners like Patrick Henry condemn the practice, but keep slaves for practical reasons Even slave owners like Patrick Henry condemn the practice, but keep slaves for practical reasons Sarah Osborn and education for slaves Sarah Osborn and education for slaves Phillis Wheatley, freed slave and literary celebrity by age 20 Phillis Wheatley, freed slave and literary celebrity by age 20 Boston Patriots push for end to slavery Boston Patriots push for end to slavery Womens role in nonimportation Womens role in nonimportation Phillis Wheatley

16 "On being brought from Africa to America": Twas mercy brought me from my Pagan land, Taught my benighted soul to understand That there's a God, that there's a Saviour too: Once I redemption neither sought nor knew. Some view our sable race with scornful eye, "Their colour is a diabolic dye." Remember, Christians, Negroes, black as Cain, May be refin'd, and join th' angelic train.´

17 The Last Imperial Crisis Lord North attempts to save East India Company, Britains largest corporation Lord North attempts to save East India Company, Britains largest corporation Southeastern England and colonies purchased smuggled Dutch tea Southeastern England and colonies purchased smuggled Dutch tea Millions of pounds of unsold tea left in East India Co. warehouses Millions of pounds of unsold tea left in East India Co. warehouses Issue to Lord North was save East India Co. Issue to Lord North was save East India Co.

18 The Tea Crisis Lord Norths solution: make East India Co. tea cheaper than smuggled tea Lord Norths solution: make East India Co. tea cheaper than smuggled tea Tea Act (1773) Tea Act (1773) Repealed duty on bringing tea to Britain Repealed duty on bringing tea to Britain Retained duty on sending tea to colony Retained duty on sending tea to colony Gave monopoly on British empire tea trade to East India Company Gave monopoly on British empire tea trade to East India Company Sons of Liberty resistance Sons of Liberty resistance Direct threats against ships Direct threats against ships Boston Tea Party Boston Tea Party

19 Britains Response: The Coercive Acts Coercive Acts Coercive Acts Boston Port Act (1774) Boston Port Act (1774) Quartering Act (1774) Quartering Act (1774) The Administration of Justice Act (1774) The Administration of Justice Act (1774) Massachusetts Government Act (1774) Massachusetts Government Act (1774) To colonists, above become the Intolerable Acts To colonists, above become the Intolerable Acts

20 The First Continental Congress 12 colonies (all except Georgia) 12 colonies (all except Georgia) Philadelphia in September 1774 Philadelphia in September 1774 Nonimportation and nonexportation Nonimportation and nonexportation Crown and Parliament must repeal Crown and Parliament must repeal Coercive Acts Coercive Acts Quebec Act Quebec Act All Revenue Acts All Revenue Acts Principle of no legislation without consent Principle of no legislation without consent The Association: promoted boycotts and protests The Association: promoted boycotts and protests

21 The Second Continental Congress Minutemen become Continental army Minutemen become Continental army George Washington made commander George Washington made commander Response to the Conciliatory Proposition Response to the Conciliatory Proposition Olive Branch Petition Olive Branch Petition Thomas Jefferson and The Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms Thomas Jefferson and The Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up ArmsThe Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up ArmsThe Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms Continental Congress assumed Crowns functions of governance Continental Congress assumed Crowns functions of governance

22 Independence Areas supporting independence Areas supporting independence New England New England Virginia and colonies South Virginia and colonies South Overthrow of royal governments Overthrow of royal governments mid-Atlantic colonies mid-Atlantic colonies William Franklin William Franklin Thomas Paine Thomas Paine Common Sense Common Sense Lord George Germain Lord George Germain Russians and Hessians Russians and Hessians Declaration of Independence Declaration of Independence Thomas Paine

23 Conclusion Britains self-filling prophecy nightmare Britains self-filling prophecy nightmare British feared colonies independence unless major reforms were put in place British feared colonies independence unless major reforms were put in place Resistance of the colonists confirmed Britains fears Resistance of the colonists confirmed Britains fears Colonists feared that British government would deprive them their rights as Englishmen Colonists feared that British government would deprive them their rights as Englishmen Mutual confidence was undermined Mutual confidence was undermined

24 Sources Murrin, John M. Liberty, Equality, Power: A History of the American People. Thomson Publishing: Murrin, John M. Liberty, Equality, Power: A History of the American People. Thomson Publishing: 2005.


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