2 “Man’s mind, once stretched by a new idea, never regains its original dimensions” Oliver Wendell Holmes
3 Objectives Demonstrate two basic techniques of styling long hair Demonstrate mastery of various blow-dry styling techniquesDemonstrate the proper use of thermal ironsDemonstrate various thermal iron manipulations and explain how they are usedThermal, or heat, methods of styling the hair have been in use for centuries. The sun has been used to dry the hair for specific styles and to speed up the processing of early perms and hair lighteners. Thermal waving and curling is the art of waving and curling straight or pressed hair with thermal irons using special manipulative skills. The irons are either heated by means of electricity or with gas stoves. Thermal styling using irons was developed in 1875 by a Frenchman named Marcel Grateau. In recognition of his contribution to hairstyling, thermal waving is still known as marcel waving.Blow-drying is known as a “quick service” in the salon today. Quick services became popular after the development of the precision haircut trend. They replaced weekly shampoo and sets and provided for a quicker, more versatile, and more natural look. In our fast-paced society, the stylist who has mastered the quick service of thermal styling will be in great demand. You’ll need to learn how to select the best possible equipment to achieve the desired style for each client. As with all other styling services, blow-drying requires some special treatment and care. We’ll learn what those requirements are in today’s lesson and you’ll begin your journey to mastering these very important skills.
4 Thermal StylingThe process of drying and styling damp hair in one operationToday’s women desire styles that require less time and effort to maintain
5 Equipment, Implements, Materials Blow-dryerCombs and picksEQUIPMENT, IMPLEMENTS, MATERIALSBlow-dryer. An electrical device designed for drying and styling hair in a single service.HandleSlotted nozzle. Nozzle attachment is also called a concentrator; it directs the air stream to any section of hair more intensely.Small fanHeating elementSpeed/heat controls. Some have cooling buttons.Diffuser. Attachment that causes air to flow more softly and helps accentuate or keep textural definition.Combs and picks. Designed to distribute and part the hair. Available in a wide variety of sizes and shapes. Length and spacing of teeth vary from comb design to design. Closely spaced teeth remove definition from the curl creating a smooth surface; widely spaced teeth shape larger sections for more surface texture. Picks on the end of combs lift the hair away from the head.
6 Equipment, Implements, Materials BrushesSectioning clipsBrushesClassic styling brush. Half-rounded rubber-based brush with smooth round-ended nylon quills (7 or 9 rows). They are heat resistant, antistatic, ideal for smoothing and untangling all hair types. Classic brushes are more suitable for blow-drying styles requiring less volume. These brushes have excellent airflow.Paddle brush. Large flat base, well suited for mid- to long-length hair. Ball-tipped nylon pins and staggered pin patters do not snag the hair.Grooming brush. Generally oval with pure natural bristles or quills of bristle-and-nylon mix. Bristles help distribute scalp oils, stimulate the circulation of blood to the scalp, add polish and shine to fine or normal hair. These are great for combing out updos.Vent brush. With their ventilated design, these are used to speed up the blow-drying process and are ideal for blow-drying fine hair and adding lift at the scalp.Round brush. Available in different diameters. Hair should wrap twice around brush; smaller brushes add more curl while larger ones straighten the hair and bevel the ends of the hair. These brushes can be used to lift hair at the scalp; metal cylinder bases create stronger curl similar to ones produced with an electric roller. Use the cooling button on the blow-dryer before releasing the hair. Teasing brush. Nylon styling brush that has a tail for sectioning, along with a narrow row of bristles. This brush is perfect for back-combing hair and then smoothing hair into a style using both sides of the bristles.Sectioning clips. Usually metal or plastic and have long prongs to hold wet or dry sections of hair in place. Keep wet hair not being styled sectioned off and separate from the section being styled.
8 Styling Products Foam or mousse Gels Liquid gels or texturizers Straightening gelVolumizersPomade or waxSilicone shinersHair spray or finishing spraySTYLING LOTIONS: Known as liquid tools, styling lotions give styles hold and add shine and curl or take curl away.Questions to consider. How long does the style need to hold? What will the environment be? What hair type does the client have? Liquid tools range from light to very firm hold.Foam or mousse. Builds body and volume into hair. Use on damp hair and dry into hair. Good for fine hair; holds for 6 to 8 hours in dry conditions.Gels. Firm-bodied and usually clear or transparent. Comes in tube or bottle and has strong hold. Creates long-lasting body as a result of its high resin level.Liquid gels or texturizers. Lighter and more viscous, or liquid, in form.Straightening gel. Relax the hair for a smooth straight look, with the most hold in dry outdoor conditions.Volumizers. Add volume to shape, especially at the base, when hair is blown dry.Pomade or wax. Adds considerable weight to the hair by causing strands to join together, showing separation in the hair. Easily molds dry hair. Use sparingly on dry hair.Silicone shiners. Add gloss and sheen to the hair while creating textural definition. Non-oily products are excellent for all hair types. Used for providing lubrication and protection while blow drying and for finishing at the very end to add shine.Hair spray or finishing spray. Available in a variety of holding strengths in aerosol and nonaerosol sprays.
9 Blow-Dry Cautions Don’t hold in one place too long Direct airflow Direct hot air away from scalpMove in back-and-forth motionUse cooling button to set stylePartially dry before style blow-dryingCAUTIONSDo not hold the dryer too long in one place or else the scalp could burn.Air should flow in same direction as hair is wound.Direct hot air away from scalp.Move in back-and-forth motion, unless using the cooling button to cool a specific section.Partially dry the hair before style blow drying. This is due to the hair’s elasticity and is especially important on damaged or chemically treated hair.
10 Blow-Dry Procedure Apply product Mold hair Achieve volume Insert round brushCool sectionPROCEDURE FOR BLOW-DRY STYLING SHORT, LAYERED, CURLY HAIR TO PRODUCE A SMOOTH AND FULL FINISHApply product. Distribute styling product through the hair with your fingers, and comb through with a wide-tooth comb.Mold hair. Using the comb, mold the hair into the desired shape while still wet.Use round brush; apply mousse. For volume and lift, similar to that which you would get from a roller set, use a small round brush. Apply mousse or spray volumizer at the base. Section and part hair according to size of curl desired.Determine degree of lift and insert brush. Use round brush at the base of the curl. The degree of lift determines the type of volume you will achieve. Using roller setting technique, dry each section either full base or half base. For maximum lift, insert brush on base and direct hair section up at a 125-degree angle. Roll hair down to base with medium tension. Direct the stream of air from blow-dryer over curl in back-and-forth motion.Cool section. When section is completely dry, press the cooling button and cool down the section to strengthen the curl formation.3.4.
11 Finished Style Remove brush Remove brush. Release the brush by unwinding section from the brush. For less lift at scalp, begin by holding section at a 90-degree or 70-degree angle, following the same procedure. Make sure scalp and hair are completely dry before combing out the style or the shape will not last. Finish with hair spray.
12 Blow-Dry Short, Curly Hair Attach diffuserApply gelDirect hairDiffuse hairRelax curlTighten curlAdd shineNOTE: Have students follow along LP 15.1, H-1BLOW-DRY SHORT, CURLY HAIR IN ITS NATURAL WAVE PATTERNAttach the diffuser to the blow dryer.Apply a liquid gel on the client’s hair.Direct hair. With a wide-tooth comb or your fingers, encourage the hair into the desired shape.Diffuse hair. Diffuse the hair gently, pressing the diffuser on and off the hair without over manipulating the hair, until each area of the head is dry.Relax curl. To relax or soften the curl, slowly and gently run your fingers through the curl when the hair is almost dry.Tighten curl. For a tighter curl, scrunch the hair by placing your hand over a section of hair while it is being diffused, forming a fist with the hair in your hand. Using a pulsing motion, release and repeat until the section is dry.Add shine. For more shine, finish with a silicone spray or product to add the desired shine.
13 Diffuse Long, Curly Hair Apply productWork one sectionUse diffuserDIFFUSE LONG, CURLY OR EXTREMELY CURLY HAIR IN ITS NATURAL WAVE PATTERNApply product. Apply a styling product or silicone product after towel-blotting hair.Work one section. For easier control, section the hair and work on one particular section at a time.Use diffuser. Attach the diffuser to the blow dryer and diffuse the hair by letting the hair sit on top of the diffuser and pulsing the dryer toward the scalp and then away, repeating until the section is dry. Alternatively, gently run the section being dried through your fingers and bring the diffuser toward your hand.
14 Blow-Dry Straight or Wavy Hair Apply styling productUse brushBegin at napeInsert brush at scalpWork by sectionFinish stylingBLOW-DRY STRAIGHT OR WAVY HAIR WITH MAXIMUM VOLUMEApply styling product. Apply a mousse, volumizing spray, or lightweight gel to dampen the hair.Use brush. Using a vent brush or classic styling brush, distribute the hair into the desired shape.Begin at the nape. Build your shape from the bottom up, working from the nape up toward the crown. When you begin at the nape, hold the wet hair above the nape in a sectioning clip.Insert the brush into the hair at the scalp. While turning the brush downward and away from the scalp, allow the brush to pick up a section of hair and begin drying. Direct the airflow toward the top of the brush, moving in the desired direction.Work a section at a time. Work in sections, lifting and drying the sections, then brushing them in the desired direction when they are completely dry. Repeat all over the head, directing the hair at the sides either away or forward. The bang (fringe) area (fringe) could be dried either onto the forehead or away from the face.Finish styling. Use an appropriate styling product to achieve the desired finish.
16 Blow-Dry Blunt or Long Layers Apply styling productStart at napeFollow brush with nozzleWork up to crownCool hairBLOW-DRY BLUNT OR LONG LAYERED, STRAIGHT TO WAVY HAIR INTO A SMOOTH STRAIGHT STYLEApply styling product. Attach the nozzle or concentrator attachment to the blow dryer for more controlled styling. Part and section the hair so that only the section you are drying is not in clips. Apply a light gel or a straightening gel.Start at nape. Using 1-inch subsections, start your first section at the nape of the neck and use a classic styling brush to dry the hair straight and smooth. Place the brush under the first section and hold the hair low.Follow brush with nozzle. Follow the brush with the nozzle of the dryer while bending the ends of the hair in the desired direction, either under or flipped outward.Continue using the same technique working up to the occipital area in 1-inch sections. To keep the shape flat and straight, continue using low elevation. For more lift and volume, hold the section straight out from the head or overdirect upward.Work up to the crown, continuing to take 1-inch sections. On the longer sections toward the top of the crown, you could switch to a paddle brush, using the curve of the brush to add bend to the ends of the hair.Cool hair. After each section is blown dry, follow by using the cooling button on the blow dryer to help set each section and to keep it smooth. For a fuller look, switch to a round brush.
17 Blow-Dry Straight or Wavy Hair Dry hair above earDry hair at top of headDirect bang (fringe)Dry hair above the ear. Continue by subdividing the hair on the side, and start with the section above the ear. Continue working in 1-inch sections. Hold at a low elevation and follow with the nozzle of the dryer facing toward the ends. Bend the ends under by turning the brush for a rounded edge, or bend outward for a flipped edge.Dry hair at top of head. Work in the same manner across the top. If there is a bang (fringe), dry it in the desired direction. To dry the bang (fringe) straight and onto the forehead, point the nozzle of the dryer down over the bang (fringe) and dry it straight using your fingers or a classic styling brush to direct the hair.Direct bang (fringe). To direct the bang (fringe) away from the face, brush the bang (fringe) back and push the hair slightly forward with the brush, creating a curved shaping. Place the dryer on a slow setting and point the nozzle toward the brush. The bang (fringe), when dry, will fall away from the face and slightly to the side, for a soft look.PERFORM STANDARD CLEANUP AND SANITATION.
18 Thermal Irons Two parts Inner edge Outer edge Rod Shell THERMAL IRONS: Provide an even heat that is completely controlled by the stylist. Thermal irons should be made of the best quality steel to hold an even temperature.Two partsRod. A perfectly round, solid steel prong.Shell. Also perfectly round with the inside grooved so that the rod can rest in it when the irons are closed.Inner edge. The edge nearest the stylist.Outer edge. The farthest from the stylist.Three classificationsConventional stove-heated. Also called marcel.Electric self-heated.Electric self-heated, vaporizing.CAUTION: Do not use electric vaporizing irons on pressed hair because the moisture could cause hair to revert to its overly curly state.Also, do not use thermal irons on chemically straightened hair as it could cause damage.
19 Thermal Irons Three classifications Marcel Electric self-heated Electric vaporizing
20 Testing Thermal Irons Heat irons Clamp heated iron over tissue Note if paper scorchesLet cool as neededTESTING THERMAL IRONSHeat irons.Clamp heated irons over tissue paper and hold for 5 seconds.If paper scorches or turns brown, irons are too hot.Let cool a bit before using. Overly hot irons can burn, scorch, or damage hair and can discolor white hair. Fine, lightened, or badly damaged hair withstands less heat than normal hair.
21 Care of Thermal Irons Wash with soap and water Use fine sandpaper or steel woolOil joint of ironsCARE OF THERMAL IRONS: Keep them free from rust and carbon.Wash in soap solution with a few drops of ammonia to remove dirt and grease.Use fine sandpaper or steel wool with a little oil to remove rust and carbon and to polish the irons.Oil the joint of the irons to make sure you get more movement.
22 Thermal Iron Comb Size Holding comb COMB USED WITH THREMAL IRONS Size. Should be about 7” long, made of hard rubber or other nonflammable substance, and should have fine teeth.Holding the comb. Hold between thumb and all four fingers of the left hand, with the index finger resting on the backbone of the comb for better control and one end of the comb resting against the outer edge of the palm. This position ensures a strong hold and a firm movement.
23 Manipulating Thermal Irons Grasp handles with dominant handPlace three middle fingers on back of lower handle with the little finger in front and thumb in front of the upper handlePractice rolling cold ironsMANIPULATING THERMAL IRONSGrasp handles in dominant hand far enough away from joint to avoid heat.Place three middle fingers on the back of the lower handle with the little finger in front of the lower handle and thumb in front of the upper handle.Practice rolling cold irons in your hand, first forward, then backward.Avoid any sway or motion in the arm; use only the fingers as you roll handles in either direction.
24 Thermal Waving Preparation Shampoo hairDrape clientHeat the ironPREPARATIONShampoo the client’s hair and dry it completely.Drape client for dry hair service. Secure a neck strip around client’s neck. Place a cape over the neck strip and fasten it so that cape does not touch the client’s skin. Fold uncovered portion of the neck strip down over cape.Heat the irons.
25 Thermal Waving Procedure Comb the hairPart the hairTurn ironRoll ironTHERMAL WAVING WITH CONVENTIONAL THERMAL IRONS: Thermal waving requires no setting lotions or creams.NOTE: Hand out LP 15.1, H-3 procedure sheet and have students follow along as you explain the procedures. When you begin a practical demonstration of the procedure, have students put the handout away because reading it will be distracting during the demonstration.Comb the hair thoroughly, following its directional growth.Part the hair. With the comb, pick up a strand of hair about 2 inches (5 cm) in width. Insert the iron in the hair with the groove facing upward.Turn iron. Close the iron and give it a 1/4 turn forward (away from you). At the same time, draw the hair with the iron about 1/4 inch (.625 cm) to the left, and direct the hair 1/4 inch (.625 cm) to the right with the comb.Roll iron. Roll the iron one full turn forward and away from you. When doing this, keep the hair uniform with the comb. You will find that the hair has rolled on a slight slant on the prong of the iron. Keep this position for a few seconds in order to allow the hair to become sufficiently heated throughout.
26 Thermal Waving Procedure Reverse movementOpen ironDraw the hairRoll ironReverse movement. Reverse the movement by simply unrolling the hair from the iron and bringing it back into its first resting position. When this movement is completed, you will find the comb resting somewhat away from the iron.Open iron. Open the iron with your little finger and place it just below the ridge or crest by swinging the rod of the iron toward you, and then closing it. The outer edge of the groove should be directly underneath the ridge just produced by the inner ridge.Draw the hair. Keeping the iron perfectly still, direct the hair with the comb upward about 1 inch (2.5 cm), thus forming the hair into a half circle. To perform this step properly, do not move the comb from the position explained in step 6.Roll iron. Without opening the iron, roll it 1/2 turn forward and away from you. In this movement, keep the comb perfectly still and unchanged.
27 Thermal Waving Procedure Slide ironBegin second ridgeWave next strandStyle hairSlide iron. Slide the iron down about 1 inch (2.5 cm). This movement is accomplished by opening the iron slightly, gripping it loosely, and then sliding it down the strand.Begin second ridge. After completing step 9, you will find the iron and comb in the correct position to make the second ridge. This is the beginning of a right-moving wave, in which the hair is directed opposite to that of a left-moving wave.Wave next strand. After completely waving one strand of hair, wave the next strand to match. Pick up the strand in the comb and include a small section of the waved strand to guide you as you form a new wave. When waving the second strand of hair, be sure to use the same comb-and-iron movements you used when waving the first strand of hair. This will make the waves match.Style and finish the hair as desired.
28 Cleanup and Sanitation Discard neck stripDisinfect combs and implementsSanitize workstationWash hands
29 Electric Thermal Irons Straight hairPressed hairWigs and hairpiecesTHERMAL CURLING WITH ELECTRIC THERMAL IRONS: Requires no setting creams or lotions.Straight hair. Permits quick styling; eliminates working with wet hair and does away with need for rollers and long hair-drying process.Pressed hair. Permits styling hair without danger of its returning to its former overly curly condition. Thermal curling prepares hair for any desired style.Wigs and hairpieces. Presents a quick and effective method for their styling.
32 Iron Manipulation Exercises Practice rotationsReleasing the hairGuiding the hair strandRemoving the ironsUse comb for protectionCURLING IRON MANIPULATIONS: Illustrations show a grip with only the little finger used for opening the clamp. Some stylists prefer to use the little finger plus the ring finger for this purpose. Either method is correct.Practice rotations. Develop a smooth rotating movement by practicing turning the irons while opening and closing them at regular intervals; practice rotating the irons in both directions (downward and upward).Releasing the hair. Practice releasing the hair by opening and closing the irons in a quick, clicking movement.Guiding the hair strand. Practice guiding the hair strand into the center of the curl as you rotate the irons. This ensures that the end of the strand is firmly in the center of the curl.Removing the curl from irons. Practice removing the curl from the irons by drawing the comb to the left and the rod to the right.Use the comb to protect the client’s scalp from burns.
33 Curling Short Hair Shampoo and dry hair Heat thermal iron Section and part hairComb hairTHERMAL IRONS CURLING METHODSNOTE: You may want students to adjust this procedure to match your techniques.Hand out LP 15.1, H-4 procedure sheet and have students follow along as you explain the procedures. When you begin a practical demonstration of the procedure, have students put the handout away because reading it will be distracting during the demonstration.Shampoo and dry hair. Divide the head into five sections. The first section should be about 2-1/2 inches (6.25 cm) wide and extend from the center of the forehead to the nape of the neck. Divide the two side panels in half, from the top parting to the neck, to create four additional sections.Heat thermal iron (large or jumbo size).Section and part hair. Begin by sectioning and parting the base of each curl to match the size of the curl desired. It is important to consider hair length, density, and texture. The base is usually about 1-1/2 inches to 2 inches (3.75 to 5 cm) in width, and 1/2 inch (1.25 cm) in depth.Comb hair. After sectioning off the base, comb the hair smooth, and straight out from the scalp. Loose hairs may result in an uneven and ragged curl.
34 Curling Short Hair First curl Turn iron Open and close iron Remove curlFirst curl. After the iron has been heated to the desired temperature, pick up a strand of hair and comb it smoothly. With the groove on top, insert the iron about 1 inch (2.5 cm) from the scalp and pull the hair over the rod in the direction of the curl. Hold for a few seconds to form a base.Turn iron. Hold the ends of the hair strand with your thumb and two fingers of your left hand (right hand if you are left handed), using a medium degree of tension. Turn the iron downward (toward you) with your right hand.Open/close iron rapidly. Guide the ends of the strand into the center of the curl as you rotate the iron. FigureRemove curl. The result of this procedure will be a smooth, finished curl, with the ends firmly fixed in the center. Remove the iron from the curl. Figure
35 Curling Medium-Length Hair Section hairInsert hair into ironTurn ironPROCEDURE FOR CURLING MEDIUM-LENGTH HAIR (USING ONE LOOP OR “FIGURE 6")Section hair. Section and form the base of the curl as described for short hair.Insert hair into iron. Insert the hair into the open iron at the scalp. Pull the hair over the rod in the direction of the curl and close the shell. Hold the iron in this position for about 5 seconds to heat the hair, and then slide it up to 1 inch (2.5 cm) from the scalp. The shell must be on top.Turn iron. Turn the iron downward 1/2 revolution. Pull the end of the strand over the rod to the left, directing the strand toward the center of the curl.
36 Curling Medium-Length Hair Direct endsMake a complete revolutionClose shell and slide ironSmooth endsDirect ends. Complete the revolution of the iron, and directing the ends toward the center.Make another complete revolution of the iron. The entire strand has now been curled with the exception of the ends. Enlarge the curl by opening the shell. Insert ends of the curl into the opening created between the shell and the rod.Close the shell and slide the iron toward the handles. This technique will move the ends of the strand into the center of the curl. Rotate the iron several times to even out the distribution of the hair in the curl.Smooth the ends. When the curl is formed and the ends are freed from between the rod and the shell, make one complete revolution of the iron inside the curl. This smoothes the ends and loosens the hair away from the iron. Use the comb to help remove the curl from the iron. Slowly draw the iron in one direction, while drawing the hair in the opposite direction with the comb. To protect the client during the curling process, use the comb between the scalp and the iron.
37 Curling Hair Section hair Insert hair Roll iron Pick up ends Roll and click ironsPROCEDURE FOR CURLING HAIR (USING TWO LOOPS OR “FIGURE 8")Section hair. Section and form the base of the curl as described for short hair.Insert hair. Insert the hair into the open iron about 1 inch (2.5 cm) from the scalp. Pull the hair over the rod in the direction in which the curl is to move and close the shell. Hold the iron in this position for about 5 seconds to heat the hair. Hold the strand of hair with a medium degree of tension.Roll iron. Roll the iron under; click and roll it until the groove is facing you.Pick up ends. With the left hand, pick up the ends of the hair.Roll and click iron. Continue to roll and click the iron, keeping it the same distance from the scalp.
38 Curling Hair Draw hair strand toward tip of iron Draw strand, push ironForm two loopsRoll and click ironRotate ironDraw the hair strand toward the tip of the iron.Draw strand, push iron. Draw the strand a little to the right and, at the same time, push the iron slightly to the left.Form two loops. By pushing the iron forward, and pushing the hair with the left hand, you will form two loops around the closed iron, with the ends of the strand extending out between the loops.Roll and click iron. Roll under and click the iron until the ends of the hair disappear.Rotate iron. Rotate the iron several times to even out the distribution of the hair in the curl and to facilitate the movement of the curl off the iron.
39 Other Curl Types Spiral curl End curl OTHER TYPES OF CURLS Spiral curl. A method of curling hair by winding a strand around the rod; creates hanging curls suitable for medium to long hairstyles.Part hair in sections for each curl.Insert irons at an angle with bowl (groove) on top near the base of the strand.Rotate irons until all hair is wound.Hold curl in this position for 4 to 5 seconds.Remove irons in usual manner.End curls. Used to give a finished appearance to hair ends. Turn hair ends over or under as desired.
40 Curl Bases Volume-based Full-based Create lift; 135-degree angle Strong curl; 125-degree angleVOLUME THERMAL IRON CURLS: Used to create volume or lift in a finished hairstyle; the degree of lift desired determines the type of volume curls to be used.Volume-base thermal curls. Provide maximum lift or volume as curl is placed high on base.Section off baseHold curl strand at 135-degree angle.Slide irons over strand about 2" from scalp.Wrap strand over rod with medium tension.Maintain position for 5 seconds. This heats strand and sets base.Roll curl in usual manner and firmly place it forward and high on its base.
42 Finished Thermal Curl Settings Clips curls in placeBrush hair and placeFINISHED THERMAL CURL SETTINGS: Clip each curl in place until whole head is complete and ready for styling. Brush hair, work up from neckline, and push waves into place as you progress through entire head.
43 Safety Measures Get instructions for use of irons Keep irons clean Do not overheatTest temperatureHandle carefullyPlace hot irons in safe place to coolDon’t place handles too close to heater
44 Safety Measures Properly balance irons in heater Use hard rubber or nonflammable combsDo not use metal combsPlace comb between scalp and ironCurl only clean, dry hairAvoid fishhooksUse gentle setting on chemically treated hair
45 Styling Long Hair–Up Valuable Service Weddings Proms Other evening eventsSTYLING LONG HAIR/UPDOS: When longer hair is arranged up and off the neck and shoulders and secured with pins or other implements, it is known as an updo.ANALOGY: Have you ever watched someone knit a sweater or create a design with macrame? Did you notice how they carefully laid out the yarn or jute, separating colors, planning where ornamentation might need to go. Both require a great deal of organization and planning. The same theories apply in styling long hair. You need to have a plan; you need to appropriately section the hair and clip hair out of the way while you work. Let’s take a look at how to create some interesting styles and updos with long hair.VALUABLE SERVICEWeddingsPromsOther evening events. Practicing basic techniques will help you improve your basic skills with long hair and allow you to express your creative talents.
46 Client Consultation Determine client desires Use magazines Suggest trial runIf bridal, bring headpieceCLIENT CONSULTATIONDetermine client desires.Use magazines with bridal pictures or other current styles. If service is for a wedding, suggest a trial run before the actual wedding; have client bring headpiece.
47 Chignon Part hair Secure ponytail CHIGNON: Suitable for elegant or casual occasions. Can be dressed up with ornamentation. If hair is straight and silky, hot rollers will be helpful. If hair is wavy to curly, blow-dry hair straighter to smooth it out. If excessively curly, press hair first or leave it natural for a textured-looking chignon.PROCEDURE FOR CHIGNONPart hair. Using a grooming bristle brush, part the hair on whichever side you choose, and brush it into a low ponytail at the nape.Secure ponytail. Secure the ponytail with an elastic band, keeping the hair as smooth as possible. Use the side of the bristles on the brush to smooth the hair. Place two bobby pins onto the band and spread them apart, one on each side. Place one bobby pin in the base of the ponytail. Stretch the band around the ponytail base. Place the second bobby pin in the base. Lock the two pins together.
48 Chignon Part the hair Smooth and back-brush Roll under and secure Part the hair. Part a small section of hair from the underside of the ponytail, wrap it around the ponytail to cover the elastic, and secure with a bobby pin underneath.Smooth and back-brush. Smooth out ponytail and hold it with one hand, then begin back-brushing from underneath ponytail with other hand. Gently smooth out ponytail after back-brushing, using the sides of the bristles.Roll under and secure. Roll the hair under and toward the head to form the chignon. Secure on the left and right undersides of the roll with bobby pins.
49 Chignon Fan out and secure Finish with spray Add flowers or ornamentationFan out and secure. Fan out both sides by spreading the chignon with your fingers. Secure with hairpins, pinning close to the head. Use bobby pins if more hold is needed.Finish with a strong finishing spray.Add flowers or a hair ornament to dress up the chignon
50 Basic French Twist Brush hair Reach in front Move hair inward and upwardBASIC FRENCH TWISTNOTE: Hand out LP 15.1, H-4 procedure sheet and have students follow along as you explain the procedures. When you begin a practical demonstration of the procedure, have students put the handout away because reading it will be distracting during the demonstration.HINT: Performing an updo on long hair can often be accomplished more effectively if the hair is shampooed the day before the style. The use of hot electric rollers provides for more curl to allow easier manipulation of rolls and loops in the style.Brush all the hair smoothly into a ponytail at the occipital bone.Reach in front. With your free hand, reach in front of the hand that is holding the ponytail, with the thumb pointing down toward the client’s nape.Move hair inward and upward. Grab the ponytail with your thumb still pointing down and twist the hair in the direction in which your palm is facing, moving the hair inward and upward.
51 Basic French Twist Twist hair Tuck ends into top Fan out hair ends Twist the hair. As you move toward the crown, twist the hair into a funnel shape and secure the twist with hairpins by pinning into the seam, making sure not to expose the pins.Tuck the ends into the top of the funnel of the twist near the crown.Fan out hair ends. For a less formal or younger look, let the hair ends fan out and fall loosely over the sides of the twist, instead of tucking them into the top of the twist. Another option is to form curls, loops, or knots with the hair at the top of the twist.
52 Classic French Twist Section crown and side sections Back-comb entire back areaSmooth hairPin hairCLASSIC FRENCH TWIST: Mostly for evening and black-tie events. Shape is larger than the basic twist and provides for more creativity in the front area. Inspect from every angle as you create the finished look to ensure balance and proportion.PROCEDURE FOR CLASSIC FRENCH TWISTSection off the crown area and the two side sections.Back-comb the entire back area, taking vertical sections.Smooth hair. Using the side bristles of a grooming brush or a teasing brush, gently smooth all the hair of the back section to one side of the head (in this example all the hair will move to the left). Hold the hair to that side by reaching over the client’s head with your free hand.Pin hair. Begin pinning the hair at the center of the nape, moving upward with bobby pins. Overlap the pins by criss-crossing them to lock into place. Repeat until you reach the back of the crown.
53 Classic French Twist Twist hair at nape Tuck ends into top and pin Twist hair at sideTwist hair at nape. With the brush, bring the hair from the left side over the center line and twist from the center of the nape. Move upward and inward, tucking the ends into the fold as you move up, to create a funnel shape. Secure with hairpins into the seam as you move up, hiding the pins in the seam.Tuck all the ends into the top of the twist and pin.Twist hair at side. Move to a side section and lightly back-brush the section. Twist section with seam facing the back of the head, covering the part as you twist. Secure with a bobby pin at the top of the side section, leaving the ends out.
54 Classic French Twist Repeat on other side Make 3 subsections Slice out subsectionSecure sectionPin the loopsRepeat with center sectionRepeat on the other side.Make three subsections. Remove the sectioning clip from the top section. Make three subsections horizontally across the top of the head.Slice out a subsection. Beginning with the section closest to the back of the crown, slice out a subsection about a third of the width of the horizontal section.Secure section. Back-brush and smooth the subsection, using the sides of the brush bristles. Loop the section over your fingers and secure at the base of the loop on the scalp with a bobby pin. Take care not to expose the pin.Pin the loops. Take the other two sections and form looped curls in the same manner. Pin the loops as close to the top of the twist as you can get, checking for balance and proportion.Repeat with the center horizontal section, making two or three looped curls, depending on what the density of the hair will allow.
55 Classic French Twist Twist, loop, and pin side Style fringe Spray with firm-hold sprayTwist, loop and pin side. Go back to the side area, and with the hair remaining out from the side, twist, loop, and pin. Again, check in your mirror for balance and proportion.Style fringe. Style the section in the front near the bang (fringe) as you wish. This section could also be brought back and added to the other looped curls if your client is comfortable with all her hair off her face, or sweep the hair loosely to the side and leave the ends hanging softly down. Here is where your creativity comes into play as you make the best design decision for your client.Spray with a firm-hold finishing spray, and check to make sure there are no exposed pins.
56 Summary and Review What is thermal waving or curling? Name three types of irons that are used in thermal waving.SUMMARY AND REVIEWWe have learned that styling the hair with a hand-held blow-dryer and curling irons has become a standard hairstyling technique. We simply apply the principles of wet hairstyling with these “quick service” tools. First, we mold the hair, then slice out a section. We establish the base with the brush and dryer or curling irons. We follow the stem or strand in the direction of the style and finish the curl by creating a circle around the brush or rod. We then comb or brush the hair into the desired style and use light spray to add shine and holding power.Let’s review:What is thermal waving or curling?ANSWER: The art of waving and curling straight or pressed hair with thermal irons (either electrically heated or stove-heated) using special manipulative techniques.Name three types of irons that are used in thermal waving.ANSWER:Conventional (regular) stove heatedElectric self-heatedElectric self-heated, vaporizing
57 Summary and ReviewWhat procedure should you follow to avoid burning the scalp with iron curling and blow-drying?What is blow-dry styling?What procedure should you follow to avoid burning the scalp with iron curling and blow-drying?ANSWER: When iron curling, use the comb between the scalp and irons. When blow-drying, move moderately hot air back and forth on the hair and away from the scalp; avoid holding dryer too long in one place and directly on the scalp.What is blow-dry styling?ANSWER: The technique of drying and styling damp hair in one operation using a blow-dryer and a comb and/or brush.
58 Summary and ReviewList several safety measures to be followed when using thermal ironsList several safety measures to be followed when using thermal irons.ANSWER:Use thermal irons only after receiving instruction in their use.Keep thermal irons clean.Do not overheat the iron, because this can damage the ability of the iron to hold heat uniformly.Test the temperature of the iron on tissue paper or a damp towel before placing it on the hair. This will safeguard against burning the hair.Handle thermal iron carefully to avoid burning yourself or the client.Place hot irons in a safe place to cool. Do not leave them where someone might accidentally come into contact with them and be burned.When heating a conventional iron, do not place the handles too close to the heater. Your hand might be burned when removing the iron.Make sure the iron is properly balanced in the heater, or it might fall and be damaged or injure someone.Use only hard rubber or nonflammable combs. Celluloid combs are flammable and must not be used in thermal curling.Do not use metal combs; they can become hot and burn the scalp.Place a comb between the scalp and the thermal iron when curling or waving hair to prevent burning the scalp.The client’s hair must be clean and completely dry to ensure a good thermal curl or wave.Do not allow the hair ends to protrude over the iron; this causes fishhooks (hair that is bent or folded).When ironing lightened, tinted, or relaxed hair, always use a gentle heat setting.
59 Summary and ReviewList and describe the various styling products used in blow-dry stylingHow is volume achieved with thermal curls?List and describe the various styling products used in blow-dry styling.ANSWER: Foam or mousse, gel, liquid gels, texturizers, straightening gels, volumizers, pomade, wax, silicone, hair spray.How is volume achieved with thermal curls?ANSWER: By placing the curl very high on its base; hold the curl strand at a 135-degree angle and wrap with medium tension.
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