Presentation on theme: "Nail Structure and Growth"— Presentation transcript:
1 Nail Structure and Growth Cosmetology:Nail Structure and GrowthMilady’s Standard Cosmetology
2 “Only those who dare to fail greatly can ever achieve greatly” Robert Francis Kennedy
3 Objectives Describe the structure and composition of nails Discuss how nails growLEARNING MOTIVATION (WHY?)A key goal for many of you during your training here is to learn how to expertly groom, strengthen, and beautify the nails. In order to do that effectively, it is essential to learn about the nail, its structure, and how it grows. While we love to wear attractive and well-designed nails, their primary purpose is to protect the ends of the fingertips, much like the talons, claws, and hoofs of animals and birds. If you have ever worn long nails or nail extensions for a long period of time and then removed them or cut them, you may have noticed that the ends of your fingertips were quite tender and sensitive to touch while unprotected. In addition, the appearance of the nails can reflect the general health of the body. So, let’s take a closer look at the structure and growth of the nail.
4 The Nail An appendage of the skin Technical term: onyx THE NAIL Definition. An appendage of the skin; the horny, translucent, protective plate that protects the tips of fingers and toes. It is part of the integumentary system.Onyx. The technical term for the nail.
5 Composition of the Nail KeratinNail plateHealthy nailNail porosityCOMPOSITIONKeratin. A protein that forms the base of all horny tissue; it’s the same protein found in skin and hair.Nail plate. Contains no nerves or blood vessels.Healthy nail. Whitish and translucent in appearance with the pinkish color of the nail bed showing through.Nail porosity. Water can pass through more easily than normal skin. Water content of the nail is related to the humidity of the environment.15% to 25% water content.Water content affects nail’s flexibility. The less water content, the more brittle the nail.Oil-based conditioner. Reduces the loss of water in the nail as does the use of nail polish.
6 Nail Anatomy Nail bed Matrix Nail plate Cuticle, eponychium, hyponychiumSpecialized ligamentsNail foldsNAIL ANATOMY: Nail anatomy is the same in fingernails and toenails. The nail unit consists of several basic parts:Nail bedMatrixNail plateCuticle, eponychium, hyponychiumSpecialized ligamentsNail folds
7 Nail Bed Skin where nail plate rests Extends from lunula to free edge Attached to nail plateSupplied with many nervesNAIL BEDSkin where nail plate rests.Extends from lunula to just before free edge.Attached to nail plate. The bed epithelium forces the plate to grow toward the end of the digit instead of growing straight up off the matrix.Supplied with many nerves.
8 Nail Matrix Where nail is formed Composed of matrix cells Contains nerves, lymph, blood vesselsExtends from under nail fold (lunula)Injury to matrix affects growthMATRIXWhere nail is formed.Composed of matrix cells that produce the nail plate.Contains nerves, lymph, and blood vessels to nourish nails.Extends from under nail fold at base of nail plate. It can be seen as a whitish half-moon shape called lunula. The light color is caused by reflection of light where the matrix and connective tissue of the nail bed join.Injury to matrix can affect the growth of the nail.
9 Nail Plate Horny nail plate or body Rests on nail bed Formed by matrix cellsConstructed in layersFree edge extends over tipNAIL PLATE: The most visible and functional part of the nail unit.Horny nail plate or nail body.Rests on/slides across nail bed.Formed by matrix cells.Constructed in layers. Layers are visible when the nail splits.Free edge extends over tip of finger or toe.
10 Cuticle Loose and flexible Seals against foreign matter Prevents injury and infectionCUTICLE: Cuticle is the dead, colorless tissue attached to nail plate. It comes from the underside of the skin that lies above the natural nail plate.If normal, it is loose and flexible. However, it is very sticky and can be difficult to remove from nail plate.Seals area against foreign material and microorganisms.Helps prevent injury and infection.
11 Eponychium and Hyponychium Eponychium: extension of cuticle at base of nail body that partly overlaps lunula (living tissue)Hyponychium: thickened skin beneath free edgeEponychium is the extension of the cuticle at the base of the nail body that partly overlaps the lunula. The eponychium is not the same as the cuticle; it is living tissue.Hyponychium is the thickened skin beneath the free edge. It seals the free edge of the nail to the normal skin, thus preventing external moisture, bacteria, or fungi from getting under the nail.
12 Specialized Ligaments Attach the nail bed and matrix to underlying boneLocated at base of matrix and around edges of nail bedSPECIALIZED LIGAMENTS: Ligament is a tough band of fibrous tissue that connects bones or holds an organ in place.• Attach the nail bed and matrix to underlying bone.• Located at base of matrix and around edges of nail bed.
13 Nail Folds Folds of normal skin surrounding nail plate Form nail groovesGrooves are slits on sides of nailNAIL FOLDSFolds of normal skin surrounding nail plate.Form nail grooves.Grooves are the slits or furrows on the sides of the nail on which the nail moves as it grows.
14 Nail Growth Grows forward from matrix Grows in variety of shapes Growth is 1/10” per monthGrows faster in summer than winterChildren’s nails grow faster than older people’sNAIL GROWTH: Nail growth is influenced by nutrition, general health, and disease.THE GROWTH PROCESSGrows forward, starting at matrix and extending over fingertip.Grows in a variety of shapes.Average growth is 1/10" per month.Growth is faster in summer than winter.Children’s nails grow faster than adults’. Nails of the elderly grow at a slower rate.
15 Nail Growth Middle nail grows fastest; thumb slowest Toenails grow slower than fingernailsNot shed automaticallyMiddle finger nail grows fastest.Thumbnail grows slowest. Nail growth increases during last trimester of pregnancy.Toenails grow slower than fingernails. However, they are harder and thicker.Unlike hair, nails are not shed automatically.
16 Nail Malformation Caused by disease, injury, infection Fingernail replacement takes 4 – 6 monthsToenail replacement takes 9 – 12 monthsNAIL MALFORMATION: Disease, injury, or infection can affect the formation of the nails. If matrix remains in good condition, a normal nail will be replaced. Replacement normally takes 4 to 6 months. Toenails take from 9 to 12 months to be fully replaced.
17 Summary and Review Describe a normal healthy nail What is the technical term for nail?What substance composes the nail plate?SUMMARY AND REVIEWWell-manicured nails, whether natural or artificially applied, have always been recognized as an indication of good grooming. It is important to also remember that nails originate in the epidermal layer of the skin and, like hair, their condition is dependent upon the individual’s overall health. Nails contain the chemical substance called keratin and can be cut without pain. You cannot apply any topical product that will cause nails to grow, but a balanced diet filled with the daily required vitamins and nutrients will help produce healthy, disorder-free nails. Remember that your creativity in providing quality nail services must be grounded in a thorough knowledge and awareness of the structure and physiology of the nails.Let’s review.Describe a normal healthy nail.ANSWER: A normal healthy nail is firm and flexible, shiny, and slightly pink in color. Its surface is smooth and unspotted, with no hollows or wavy ridges.What is the technical term for nail?ANSWER: Onyx.What substance composes the nail plate?ANSWER: The nail is composed mainly of keratin, the same protein found in skin and hair.
18 Summary and Review Name the basic parts of the nail What part of the nail contains the nerve and blood supply?Explain how the nail growsName the basic parts of the nail.ANSWER: Nail bed, matrix, nail plate, cuticle, specialized ligaments, nail folds, eponychium, and hyponychium.What part of the nail contains the nerve and blood supply?ANSWER: The matrix contains nerves, lymph, and blood vessels to nourish the nail.Explain how the nail grows.ANSWER: A normal nail grows forward, starting at the matrix and extending over the tip of the finger.
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