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Chapter 1 The Search for Understanding Table of Contents Exit.

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1 Chapter 1 The Search for Understanding Table of Contents Exit

2 Key Questions What is psychology? What do psychologists hope to achieve? How did psychology emerge as a field of knowledge? What are the major perspectives in psychology? What roles and specialties are found in psychology and related fields? What is critical thinking? How does psychology differ from false explanations of behavior?

3 Key Terms 1.Psychology 2.Overt behaviors 3.Covert behaviors 4.Empirical evidence 5.Data 6.Scientific observation 7.Research method 8.Developmental psychologists 9.Learning theorists 10.Personality theorists 11.Sensation & perception psychologists 12.Comparative psychologists 13.Biopsychologists 14.Gender psychologists 15.Social psychologists 16.Cultural psychologists 17.Description 18.Understanding 19.Prediction 20.Psychometrics 21.Control 22.Philosophy 23.Stimulus 24.Introspection 25.Experimental self-observation 26.Structuralists 27.Functionalism 28.Natural selection 29.Educational psychology 30.Industrial psychology 31.Behaviorism 32.Stimuli 33.Responses 34.Conditioned response 35.Cognitive Behaviorism 36.Behavior modification 37.Gestalt psychology 38.Unconscious 39.Repressed 40.Psychoanalysis 41.Neo-Freudians 42.Psychodynamic theories 43.Humanism 44.Determinism 45.Free will 46.Self-Image 47.Self-evaluation 48.Frame of reference 49.Self-actualization 50.Eclectic 51.Cognitive psychologists 52.Psychologists 53.Clinical psychologists 54.Counseling psychologists 55.Scientist practitioner model 56.Psychoanalyst 57.Counselor 58.Psychiatric social workers 59.Basic Research 60.Applied research 61.Critical thinking 62.Palmistry 63.Phrenology

4 What is Psychology? Psychology Psyche: Mind Logos: Knowledge or study Definition: The scientific study of human and animal behavior Behavior: Overt, i.e. can be directly observed (crying) Mental Processes: Covert, i.e. cannot be directly observed (remembering) Table of Contents Exit

5 Empiricism: The Goals To measure and describe behaviors To gather empirical evidence: Information gained from direct observation and measurement To gather data: Observed facts Table of Contents Exit

6 Fig. 1.1 Results of an empirical study. The graph shows that horn honking by frustrated motorists becomes more likely as air temperature increases. This suggests that physical discomfort is associated with interpersonal hostility. Riots and assaults also increase during hot weather. Here we see a steady rise in aggression as temperatures go higher. However, research done by other psychologists has shown that hostile actions that require physical exertion, such as a fist fight, may become less likely at very high temperatures. (Data from Kenrick & MacFarlane, 1986.) Table of Contents Exit

7 Scientific Observation Definition: Designed and structured to answer questions about the world Research Method: A systematic procedure for answering scientific questions Table of Contents Exit

8 What Might a Psychologist Research? Development: Course of human growth and development Learning: How and why it occurs in humans and animals Personality: Traits, motivations, and individual differences Sensation and Perception: How we come to know the world through our five senses Table of Contents Exit

9 What Might a Psychologist Research? (cont.) Comparative: Study and compare behavior of different species, especially animals Biopsychology: How behavior is related to biological processes, especially activities in the nervous system Gender: Study differences between males and females and how they develop Social: Human and social behavior Table of Contents Exit

10 What Might a Psychologist Research? (cont.) Cultural: How culture affects behavior Animals: Natural laws governing the behavior of any living creature Table of Contents Exit

11 What Are the Goals of Psychology? Description of Behaviors: Naming and classifying various observable, measurable behaviors Understanding: The causes of behavior(s), and being able to state the cause(s) Prediction: Predicting behavior accurately Control: Altering conditions that influence behaviors in predictable ways Positive Use: To control unwanted behaviors, (e.g., smoking, tantrums, etc.) Negative Use: To control peoples behaviors without their knowledge Table of Contents Exit

12 Article Indian girl 2002

13 A Brief History of Psychology Wilhelm Wundt: Father" of Psychology 1879: Set up first lab to study conscious experience Introspection: Looking inward (i.e., examining and reporting your thoughts, feelings, etc.) Experimental Self-Observation: Incorporates both introspection and objective measurement; Wundt s approach Table of Contents Exit

14 History of Psychology: Structuralism Wundt s ideas brought to the U.S. by Tichener and renamed Structuralism Structuralists often disagreed, and no way to prove who was correct! Structuralists: Introspection was a poor way to answer many questions Table of Contents Exit

15 History of Psychology: Functionalism William James (American) and Functionalism How the mind functions to help us adapt and survive Functionalists admired Darwin and his Theory of Natural Selection: Animals keep features through evolution that help them adapt to environments Educational Psychology: Study of learning, teaching, classroom dynamics, and related topics Table of Contents Exit

16 History of Psychology: Behaviorism and Cognitive Behaviorism Behaviorism: Watson and Skinner Psychology must study observable behavior objectively Watson studied Little Albert with Rosalie Raynor; Skinner studied animals almost exclusively Cognitive Behaviorism: Ellis and Bandura Our thoughts influence our behaviors; used often in treatment of depression Table of Contents Exit

17 B.F. Skinner Pigeons playing table tennis Watsons life Watsons life

18 History of Psychology: Gestalt Gestalt Psychology: The whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Studied thinking, learning, and perception in whole units, not by analyzing experiences into parts Key names: Wertheimer, Perls Table of Contents Exit

19 Fig. 1.2 The design you see here is entirely made up of broken circles. However, as the Gestalt psychologists discovered, our perceptions have a powerful tendency to form meaningful patterns. Because of this tendency, you will probably see a triangle in this design, even though it is only an illusion. Your whole perceptual experience exceeds the sum of its parts. Table of Contents Exit



22 History of Psychology: Freud Psychoanalytic: Freud Our behavior is largely influenced by our unconscious wishes, thoughts, and desires, especially sex and aggression Freud performed dream analysis and was an interactionist (combination of our biology and environment makes us who we are) Repression: When threatening thoughts are unconsciously held out of awareness Recent research has hypothesized that our unconscious mind is partially responsible for our behaviors Table of Contents Exit

23 History of Psychology: Neo- Freudians New or recent; some of Freud s students who broke away to promote their own theories Key names: Adler, Anna Freud, Horney, Jung, Rank, Erikson Psychodynamic theories: Which emphasize internal motives, conflicts, and unconscious forces Table of Contents Exit

24 History of Psychology: Humanism Humanism: Rogers and Maslow Goal of psychology is to understand subjective human experience Each person has innate goodness and is able to make free choices (contrast with Skinner and Freud) Determinism: Behavior is determined by forces beyond our control Table of Contents Exit

25 History of Psychology: Humanism Humanists helped stimulate interest in psychological needs for love, self-esteem, belonging, self-expression, creativity, and spirituality. Such needs, they believe, are as important as our biological needs for food and water. For example, newborn infants deprived of human love may die just as surely as they would if deprived of food

26 Humanism: Some Concepts Self-image: Your perception of your own body, personality, and capabilities Self-evaluation: Positive and negative feelings you have about yourself Frame of Reference: Mental or emotional perspective used for evaluating events Self-actualization (Maslow): Fully developing one s potentials and becoming the best person possible Free will: The human ability to make choices Table of Contents Exit

27 Psychology Today Biopsychology: Our behavior can be explained through physiological processes Uses brain scans to gather data (MRI, PET) Looks at neurotransmitters Cognitive: Study thoughts, memory, expectations, perceptions, and other mental processes Eclectic: Drawing from many sources Table of Contents Exit

28 5 ways to Look at Behavior Psychodynamic View Behavioristic View Humanistic View Biopsychological View Cognitive View Read page 15-16

29 Critical Thinking Imagine that you are a psychologist. You client, Linda, who is Native American, tells you that spirits live in the trees near her home. Is Linda suffering from a delusion? Is she abnormal?

30 Cultural Awareness Many thoughts and behaviors are influenced by our culture Psychologists need to be aware of the impact cultural diversity may have on our behaviors What is acceptable in one culture might be unacceptable in another Cultural Relativity: Behavior must be judged relative to the values of the culture in which it occurs Norms: Rules that define acceptable and expected behavior for members of various groups

31 Many Flavors of Psychologists Psychologists: Usually have masters or doctorate; Trained in methods, knowledge, and theories of psychology Clinical Psychologists: Treat more severe psychological problems Counseling Psychologists: Treat milder problems, such as adjustment disorders Not all psychologists perform therapy!

32 Specialties in Psychology Psychiatrists: MD; usually use medications to treat problems; Generally do not have extensive training in providing talk therapy Psychoanalysts: Receive post-PhD. or M.D. training in Freudian psychoanalysis at an institute Clinical: Treat psychological problems or do research on clinical topics Counselor: Adviser who helps solve marriage, career, work, or school problems Psychiatric Social Workers: Many have masters degrees and perform psychotherapy Presently a very popular profession PAGE 19

33 Critical Thinking: Key Principles Few truths transcend the need for empirical testing Evidence varies in quality Authority or claimed expertise does not automatically make an idea true Critical thinking requires an open mind

34 Critical Thinking Ability to analyze, evaluate, and synthesize information What would you expect to see if the claim were true? Gather evidence relevant to the claim Evaluate the evidence Draw a conclusion Oftentimes used in research

35 Pseudo-Psychology An unfounded system that resembles psychology Schemes that give an appearance of science, but are actually false P.T. Barnum: Always have a little something for everybody Barnum Effect: A tendency to consider personal descriptions accurate if they are stated in very general terms Horoscopes Palm readings Fortunes

36 Pseudo-Psych Not on handout Uncritical Acceptance: Tendency to believe positive or flattering descriptions of yourself Fallacy of Positive Instances: When we remember or notice things that confirm our expectations and forget the rest Crossing over with John Edward

37 Assignment Horoscope assignment Review your horoscope for 3 straight days. Write horoscope Write interpretation of horoscope Write belief of horoscope Write where horoscope was from.

38 Quiz Quiz next class over Chapter 1

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