Presentation on theme: "Milady’s Standard Cosmetology"— Presentation transcript:
1Milady’s Standard Cosmetology PedicuringMilady’sStandardCosmetology
2“Achievement seems to be connected with action “Achievement seems to be connected with action. Successful men and women keep moving. They make mistakes, but they don’t quit”Conrad Hilton
3ObjectivesIdentify the equipment and materials needed for a pedicure and explainList the steps in the pedicure pre-service procedureDemonstrate the proper procedures and precautions for a pedicureLEARNING MOTIVATION (WHY?)Now that we have covered all the basic elements for efficient and effective manicuring, we need to take a look at pedicuring skills and their importance. The word pedicure has its root in the Latin ped for “foot” and cura for “care”, and means the care of the feet and toenails. A pedicure includes trimming, shaping, and polishing toenails as well as foot massage. This is a standard service performed by licensed cosmetologists and nail technicians. Pedicures are a basic part of good foot care for any client. They are particularly important during the summer months when clients wear sandals or spend a great deal of time at the pool or beach. However, the winter months should not be forgotten. Even though your clients’ feet are bundled up with socks and closed shoes or boots, they may get wet from snow and sleet and can experience dryness, cracking, fatigue, and cramping. We need to be sure to inform our clients that a pedicure is the ultimate time-out and will soften and relax the feet as well as make them feel pampered.Proper foot care through pedicuring improves both personal appearance and basic foot comfort. Regularly pedicured and properly cared for feet are also a must for the professional cosmetologist who spends a great number of hours daily standing.It has also been said that providing a client with a good pedicure is a sure way of gaining a client for life and ultimately selling many other cosmetology services to that client.
4Objectives Describe the proper technique to use in filing toenails Describe the proper technique for trimming the nailsDemonstrate your ability to perform foot massage properlyUnderstand proper cleaning and disinfecting of pedicure equipment
5Pedicure Supplies Pedicuring station Stool and footrest Pedicure basin Toe separatorsFoot file or paddleToenail clippersLiquid soapFoot lotionPedicure slippersSUPPLIESPedicuring station. Includes a comfortable chair with armrests for the client, a footrest, an ergonomic chair for the nail technician.Pedicuring stool and footrest. A low stool that will make it easier for the technician. Some come with a footrest for the client.Pedicure basin or bath. Filled with warm water and liquid soap to soak client’s feet. Must be large enough to immerse both feet.Toe separators. Foam rubber toe separators or cotton used to keep toes apart while polishing the nails.Foot file or paddle. Used to exfoliate dry skin or smooth calluses.Toenail clippers. Use professionally designed tool.Liquid soap. Contains mild detergent for cleansing feet.Foot lotion, oil, or cream. Use to condition and moisturize feet and for foot massage.Pedicure slippers. Disposable paper or foam slippers needed for clients who have not worn open-toe shoes and want to avoid smudging polish.
6Pedicure Instruments Toenail clippers Curette PEDICURE INSTRUMENTS Toenail clippers. Made for cutting toenails.Curette. Used for removal of debris from nail folds and cuticle area.
7Pedicure Instruments Nail rasp Abrasive nail and foot files Foot files or paddlesNippersNail rasp. Metal file designed to be used in one direction; mainly used along the side wall of the nail plate on the great toenail.Abrasive nail and foot files. Abrasive nail files are used to file the free edge of toenails and, in some cases, to thin them. Medium grit is usually best.Foot files or paddles. These are larger than those designed for fingernails and toenails. They are used for reducing dry, flaky skin and to smooth foot calluses.Nippers. Used to remove dead tags of skin, but great care must be taken to avoid cutting, tearing, or ripping living tissue. Never use on a diabetic client in whom risk of infection is high.
8Pedicure Equipment Pedicure carts Water baths PEDICURE EQUIPMENT Pedicure carts. Carts have drawers and/or shelves for organizing and storing instruments and products. Some even have room for a footbath.Water baths. Portable units must be manually filled and emptied after each client. Technician’s chair should be adjustable in height to accommodate the foot bath. There are also fully plumbed pedicure basin chairs or“thrones.” They are not portable and have hot and cold water as well as a drain.
9Pedicure Pre-Service Procedure Complete pre-service sanitationStation set-upArrange towelsSet up manicure tableFill basin with warm waterGreet client with a smileComplete consultationTHE PEDICURE: The pedicure has three parts: the pre-service, the pedicure itself, and the post-service.PRE-SERVICEComplete pre-service sanitation. Follow standard procedure learned in previous chapter.Set up station. Should be comfortable and ergonomically correct; should include pedicuring stool, client chair, and footrest for your client.Arrange towels. Spread one terry cloth towel on the floor in front of client’s chair to put feet on during pedicure. Put another towel over footrest for drying feet.Set up standard manicure table. Add toe separators, an abrasive foot file/paddle, toenail clippers, liquid soap, foot lotion, oil or cream, rapid nail dryer, pedicure slippers.Fill basin with warm water. Add measured amount of liquid soap to the bath (follow manufacturer’s directions).Greet client with a smile.Complete client consultation. Record responses and observations. Check for nail disorders and decide if it is safe to proceed. Determine if client is diabetic or has psoriasis or other medical conditions. If infection or inflammation is present, refer to physician.
11Pedicure Service Guidelines Follow product directionsDevelop efficient performanceEliminate distractionsBe gentle, but firmProperly grasp footPEDICURE SERVICE GUIDELINESFollow product directions.Develop efficient performance.Eliminate distractions.Be gentle, but firm.Grasp foot between thumb and fingers at mid-tarsal area.Locks the foot, making it rigid instead of flexible and loose. Allows placing of thumb or index finger at point on bottom of foot where the two skin creases meet on ball of foot. This spot is usually located at beginning of the longitudinal arch.Firm grip has calming effect helps overcome any apprehension about having feet touched.
12Five Basic Pedicure Steps The soakNail careSkin careMassagePolishing nails (optional)
13Pedicure Procedure Remove shoes and socks Soak feet for 5 minutes Dry feet thoroughlyRemove shoes and socks. Ask client to remove shoes, socks, and hose and roll pant legs to the knees.Soak feet. Put client’s feet in soap bath for 5 minutes to soften and clean the feet before you begin the pedicure.Dry feet thoroughly. Make sure you dry between the toes. Ask client to place both feet on the towel you have placed on the floor.
14Pedicure Procedure Remove polish Clip toenails File nails Remove existing polish. Remove polish from little toe on left foot working toward big toe. Repeat with the right foot.Clip nails. Carefully clip the toenails of the left foot so that they are even with the end of the toe. Don't clip nails too short. Take care not to break the hyponychium, which is an important part of the seal that protects the toe nail unit from infection.File nails. Carefully file the nails of the left foot with an appropriate abrasive file. File them straight across, rounding them slightly at the corners to conform to the shape of the toes. Smooth rough edges with the fine side of an abrasive file. Repeat this step on the other foot.
15Pedicure Procedure Use foot file Rinse foot Repeat steps 7 and 8 on other footBrush nailsUse foot file. Use foot file on ball and heel of foot to smooth dry skin and calluses. Do not try to completely remove a client's calluses. Removing this protective layer can lead to blisters, irritation, or infections.Rinse foot. Place left foot in foot bath.Repeat steps 7 and 8 on right foot.Brush nails. While the left foot is in the foot bath, brush nails with nail brush. Remove the foot and dry thoroughly.
16Pedicure Procedure Apply cuticle remover Removing cuticle tissue Brush nailsApply cuticle remover. Use a new cotton-tipped wooden push or eye dropper to apply cuticle remover to left foot. Begin with the little toe and work toward the big toe.Removing cuticle tissue. When performing a pedicure, do not push back the eponychium. Carefully remove the cuticle tissue using a wooden or metal pusher, taking care not to break the important seal it creates between the nail plate and eponychium. Use a nipper to carefully remove any loose tags of dead skin, but don't cut, rip, or tear the living skin; this could lead to serious infections, as well.Brush nails. Ask your client to dip left foot into foot bath. With the left foot over the foot bath, brush with nail brush to remove bits of debris and cuticle remover. Dry the foot thoroughly and place foot on towel.
17Pedicure Procedure Apply lotion, cream, or oil Massage foot Proceed with steps on right footRemove traces of lotionApply polishApply lotion, cream, or oil. Apply lotion, cream, or oil to foot for skin conditioning and massage. Use a firm touch to avoid tickling your client’s feet.Massage foot. Perform foot massage on the left foot. Then place foot on a clean towel on the floor.Proceed with steps on the right foot.Remove traces of lotion. Remove traces of lotion, cream or oil from toenails of both feet with a small piece of cotton or plastic-backed cotton pad that has been saturated with polish remover.Apply polish. Insert the toe separators. Apply base coat, two coats of color, and top coat to toenails. Spray with rapid polish dryer to prevent smudging of the polish. Place feet on a towel to dry.
19Pedicure Post-Service Schedule another appointmentAdvise clientRecommend take-home productsDisinfect pedicure basinClean table and disinfect implementsPOST-SERVICESchedule another appointment.Advise client. Advise client about proper foot care and that wearing too-tight shoes and very high heels can lead to foot problems.Recommend take-home products.Disinfect pedicure basin. Following every pedicure, disinfect the pedicure basin according to the procedure for disinfecting foot spas.Clean table and disinfect implements. Return table to its basic set-up.
20Disinfecting Foot Spas Must be completed after each clientDrain and removeClean surfacesDisinfectRinse and dryDISINFECTING FOOT SPAS: This procedure must be done after each customer.Drain and remove. Drain all water and remove all foreign matter from spa.Clean surfaces. Clean surfaces and walls of foot spa with soap or detergent and rinse with clean, clear water.Disinfect. Disinfect with an approved disinfectant and according to manufacturer’s instructions.Rinse and dry. Rinse and wipe dry with a clean towel.
21Daily Disinfecting Procedure Remove and clean screenWash screen and inletFlush system with low-sudsing, warm water for 10 minutesRinse, drain, and let air-dryDISINFECT FOOT SPA DAILY: At the end of each day, this procedure must be done.Remove and clean screen. Clean all debris trapped behind screen of each foot spa.Wash screen. Wash screen and inlet with soap or detergent and clean, clear water.Flush system. Flush the system with low-sudsing soap and warm water for 10 minutes.Rinse, drain, and let air-dry.
22Bi-Weekly Disinfecting Procedure Complete daily procedureFill spa with bleach solutionCirculate solution for 10 minutesSoak in solution for 6–10 hoursDrain and flush systemDISINFECT FOOT SPA BI-WEEKLY: Every 2 weeks, follow this procedure.Follow daily procedure. After completing daily procedure, fill foot spa tub (5 gallons) with water and 4 teaspoons of 5% bleach solution.Circulate solution. Circulate solution through foot spa system for 10 minutes.Soak in solution. Soak for 6 to 10 hours.Drain and flush. After soaking, drain and flush system. NOTE: Never place client’s foot in water containing disinfectant.
23Foot Massage: Basic Movements Effleurage: stroking movementsPetrissage: kneading, squeezing, frictionPercussion/tapotement: striking/hackingFOOT MASSAGE: This is an excellent way to build client loyalty. Be gentle but firm; avoid tickling the foot. Massage stimulates blood flow and is relaxing to client. There are three basic hand movements:Effleurage. Light or hard stroking movements; relaxes muscles, improves circulation to small, surface blood vessels.Petrissage. Kneading, squeezing, and friction; increases movement by stretching muscles and tendons.Percussion/tapotement. Sides of hands are used to strike skin in rapid succession; used for improving circulation.
24Foot Massage Techniques Relaxer movement to jointsEffleurage on top of footFOOT MASSAGE TECHNIQUES: These directions are for the left foot.Relaxer movement to joints. Rest client’s foot on foot rest or stool. Grasp leg just above ankle with left hand to brace leg and foot. Use right hand to hold left foot just beneath toes and rotate foot in circular motion.Effleurage on top of foot. Place both thumbs on top of foot at instep. Move thumbs in circular movements in opposite directions down center of top of foot. Continue to toes. Keep one hand in contact with foot or leg. Slide one hand at a time back firmly to instep and rotate back down to toes. Repeat 3 to 5 times.
25Foot Massage Techniques Effleurage on heelEffleurage on toesJoint movement for toesEffleurage on heel. Use same thumb movement as in previous step. Start at base of toes and move from ball of foot to heel, rotating thumbs in opposite direction. Slide hands back to top of foot. Repeat 3 to 5 times.Effleurage movement on toes. Start with little toe, using thumb on top and index finger on bottom of foot. Hold each toe and rotate with thumb. Start at base of toe and work toward end of toes. Repeat 3 to 5 times.Joint movement for toes. Start with the little toe and make a figure eight with each toe. Repeat 3 to 5 times.
26Foot Massage Techniques Thumb compressionMetatarsal scissorsThumb compression. Friction movement. Make a fist with fingers, keeping thumb out. Apply firm pressure with thumb and move your fist up the heel toward the ball of foot. Work from left side of foot and back down right side toward heel.Metatarsal scissors. This is a petrissage massage movement. Place fingers on top of foot along the metatarsal bones with thumb underneath foot. Knead up and down along each bone by raising thumb and lower fingers to apply pressure.
27Foot Massage Techniques Fist twist compressionEffleurage on instepPercussion/tapotement movementFist twist compression. Friction or deep rubbing movement. Place left hand on top of foot and make fist with right hand. Left hand will apply pressure while right hand twists around bottom of foot.Effleurage on instep. Place fingers at ball of foot. Move fingers in circular movements in opposite directions. Massage to end of each toe, gently squeezing tip of each toe.Percussion/tapotement movement. Use fingertips to perform percussion or tapotement movements to lightly tap over the entire foot to complete massage.
28More on Pedicuring Basic product types Add-on products Soaks, abrasives, massage preparations, cuticle removersAdd-on productsCallus softeners, masques, hot paraffin baths, pedicure slippers, pedicure sandalsMORE ON PEDICURINGBasic product typesSoaks. Use in pedicure bath to soften skin.Abrasives. Help with the removal and smoothing of dry, flaky skin and calluses.Massage preparations. Consist of oils, creams, and lotions used to lubricate, moisturize, and invigorate skin.Cuticle removers. Designed to soften cuticles for removal from nail plate. They are highly alkaline, corrosive, and fast-acting. Do not leave on nail plate too long. Avoid placing on living skin.Add-on products. Enhance and expedite pedicure experience.Callus softeners. Soften and smooth calluses.Masques. Composed of mineral clays, moisturizing agents, skin softeners.Hot paraffin baths. Stimulate circulation, reduce inflammation, promote circulation.Pedicure slippers. Disposable paper or foam slippers for clients who have not worn open-toe shoes.Pedicure sandals. Have built-in toe separators that can be purchased and brought for each pedicure.
29Full Service Pedicure Procedure The soakNail careRemove polishApply cuticle removerUse curetteTrim toenailsTHE SOAK: Place the soaking product into the water according to manufacturer’s recommendation. Ensure water is no more that 104 degrees F. Allow the client to soak for approximately 5 minutes.NAIL CARE: Remove one foot from the bath and dry it with a towel.Remove polish.Apply cuticle remover. Apply remover and/or callus softeners where needed. This will give the product time to work while you care for the nails.Use curette. Gently push the soft tissue folds away from the walls of the lateral nail plate. If there is extra buildup of debris between the nail plate and surrounding tissue it should be gently removed with the curette. Place the rounded side of the spoon toward the wall of living skin. A gentle scooping motion is then used along the nail plate to remove any loose debris.Trim toenails. The nails should now be carefully trimmed using the toenail nippers. The nippers are used like a pair of scissors. The nail is trimmed in a number of small cuts to avoid flattening it out and injuring the hyponychium during the process. Place the nipper over the free nail edge and slightly tilt the top of the nipper back toward the nail plate. This reduces the possibility of cutting the soft tissues of the hyponychium under the free edge. Give the nipper a slight squeeze before actually cutting the nail.
30Full Service Pedicure Procedure Remove cuticle tissueSmooth edges of nail plateSmooth remainder of nailRepeat on other footRemove cuticle tissue. The curette is also used to remove cuticle tissue from the top of the nail plate. The eponychium should not be pushed back on toenails. Any small break in the seal created by the cuticle and eponychium may increase the chance of infections. To remove the cuticle tissue, carefully draw the curette over the plate away from the eponychium in a sweeping “C” type motion from the nail fold toward the center of the nail plate.Smooth edges of nail plate. The small nail rasp is then used to smooth the edges of the nail plate along the nail grooves. The rasp is narrow and will only file the nail in one direction. It can be used to remove, smooth, and round off any sharp points or edges.Smooth remainder of nail. The abrasive file should then be used to finally shape and smooth the rest of the nail. If the nail is very thick, a file can be used to slightly thin the nail plate.Repeat process on other foot. After completing the nail service on one foot place it back in the foot bath and repeat the process described above on the other foot. The entire nail trimming process should take approximately 15 minutes.
31Full Service Pedicure Procedure Skin care: exfoliate, smooth calluses, rinse, apply masque, scrub and treat calluses on other footSKIN CAREExfoliate. Exfoliating scrubs can now be used to remove the dry or scaly skin. One foot is again removed from the bath and the scrub is liberally applied. Using a massaging motion, scrub the dry skin off the foot. Use extra pressure (which creates more friction) on the heels and other areas where more callus and dry skin builds up.Smooth calluses. During this process, the abrasive foot paddle is used to smooth and reduce the thicker areas of callus. Remember that callus protects the underlying skin from irritation and is there for a purpose. Remove only enough to make the client comfortable. Calluses should be softened and smoothed—not excessively thinned or removed. You may need to educate your client about callus formation and the protective function it provides. Also discuss products for home use to help soften and condition calluses between salon appointments.Rinse. The foot is then rinsed in the bath. Do not forget to clean between the toes.Apply masque. After rinsing and cleaning the foot, apply the masque according to manufacturer’s recommendations. Afterward, wrap the foot in a clean towel and place it on the foot rest.Scrub and treat calluses on other foot. The abrasive scrubbing and callus smoothing process is then completed on the other foot. The entire process should take approximately 10 minutes. (A hot wax service may be added instead of a skin masque as a separate add-on part of the pedicure.)
32Full Service Pedicure Procedure MassageMASSAGERelaxer movement to joints. Rest client’s foot on foot rest or stool. Grasp leg just above ankle with left hand to brace leg and foot. Use right hand to hold left foot just beneath toes and rotate foot in circular motion.Effleurage on top of foot. Place both thumbs on top of foot at instep. Move thumbs in circular movements in opposite directions down center of top of foot. Continue to toes. Keep one hand in contact with foot or leg. Slide one had at a time back firmly to instep and rotate back down to toes. Repeat 3 to 5 times.Effleurage on heel. Use same thumb movement as in previous step. Start at base of toes and move from ball of foot to heel, rotating thumbs in opposite direction. Slide hands back to top of foot. Repeat 3 to 5 times.Effleurage movement on toes. Start with little toe, using thumb on top and index finger on bottom of foot. Hold each toe and rotate with thumb. Start at base of toe and work toward end of toes. Repeat 3 to 5 times.Joint movement for toes. Start with the little toe and make a figure eight with each toe. Repeat 3 to 5 times.Thumb compression. Friction movement. Make a fist with fingers, keeping thumb out. Apply firm pressure with thumb and move your fist up the heel toward the ball of foot. Work from left side of foot and back down right side toward heel.Metatarsal scissors. This is a petrissage massage movement. Place fingers on top of foot along the metatarsal bones with thumb underneath foot. Knead up and down along each bone by raising thumb and lower fingers to apply pressure.Fist twist compression. Friction or deep rubbing movement. Place left hand on top of foot and make fist with right hand. Left hand will apply pressure while right hand twists around bottom of foot.Effleurage on instep. Place fingers at ball of foot. Move fingers in circular movements in opposite directions. Massage to end of each toe, gently squeezing tip of each toe.Percussion/tapotement movement. Use fingertips to perform percussion or tapotement movements to lightly tap over the entire foot to complete massage.
33Full Service Pedicure Procedure Apply polishPost-pedicure procedureAPPLY NAIL POLISH (OPTIONAL): Insert toe separators during this procedure. Remove all traces of massage products from the toenails with polish remover or alcohol to ensure proper adhesion of polish. Apply base coat, two coats of polish, and a topcoat. Place feet on a towel and allow the polish to dry. A rapid nail polish dryer can speed up this process.POST-PEDICURE PROCEDURE
34Summary and Review Name 5 pedicure supplies SUMMARY AND REVIEW We have talked about how important regular hand and foot care are to good hygiene and wellness. As aprofessional cosmetologist you should never downplay the importance of these services in the salon. There is simply no reason why a woman, regardless of her position or responsibilities, should not have well-manicured hands and attractive nails. In addition, there are many who need help with proper foot care. Many cannot reach their feet or properly grip and squeeze nail care implements due to age, arthritis, weight, or other disabilities. These clients need proper hand and foot care just like everyone else. The professional technician who offers quality manicures and pedicures will be doing these clients a great service as well as generating increased personal revenue.Let’s review.Name five pedicure supplies.ANSWER: Pedicuring station, pedicuring stool and footrest, pedicure basin or bath, toe separators, foot file or paddle, toenail clippers, liquid soap, foot lotion or cream, pedicure slippers.
35Summary and Review List the steps in the pedicure pre-service At what angle should you hold your nippers when cutting natural nail and why?List the steps in the pedicure pre-service.ANSWER:Complete pre-service sanitation.Set up station.Arrange towels.Set up standard manicure table.Fill basin with warm water.Greet client with a smile.Complete client consultation.At what angle should you hold your nippers when you are cutting the natural nail and why?ANSWER: Forty-five degrees to reduce possibility of injury to underlying tissue.
36Summary and ReviewDescribe the proper technique to use when filing toenailsDescribe the proper technique to use when trimming the toenailsDescribe the proper technique to use when filing toenails.ANSWER: File them straight across, rounding them slightly at the corners to conform to the shape of the toes.Smooth rough edges with the fine side of an abrasive file.Describe the proper technique to use when trimming the toenails.ANSWER: Don’t clip nails too short. Take care not to break the hyponychium, which is an important part of the seal that protects the toe nail unit from infection.
37Summary and Review List the steps in the pedicure post-service Name and describe 6 foot massage techniquesList the steps in the pedicure post-service.ANSWER:Schedule another appointment.Advise client.Recommend take-home products.Disinfect pedicure basin.Clean table and disinfect implements.Name and describe six foot massage techniques.Relaxer movement to the joints of the foot.Effleurage on top of foot.Effleurage on heel.Effleurage movement on toes.Joint movement for toes.Thumb compression (friction movement)Metatarsal scissors (petrissage movement)Fist twist compression (friction movement)Effleurage on instep.Percussion or tapotement movement over entire foot.
38Summary and Review Explain why calluses should never be removed Why must you be especially careful when giving a pedicure to a diabetic client?Explain why calluses should never be removed.ANSWER: Calluses protect the underlying skin from irritation and are there for a purpose. Remove only enough of the callus to make the client comfortable. They should be softened and smoothed, not excessively thinned or removed.Why must you be especially careful when giving a pedicure to a diabetic client?ANSWER: The risk of infection from accidental injury is great.
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