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Politics in the Gilded Age 1865-1900. Immigration Anti-foreign/Nativist Movement Anti-foreign/Nativist Movement Know-Nothing Party Know-Nothing Party.

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Presentation on theme: "Politics in the Gilded Age 1865-1900. Immigration Anti-foreign/Nativist Movement Anti-foreign/Nativist Movement Know-Nothing Party Know-Nothing Party."— Presentation transcript:

1 Politics in the Gilded Age

2 Immigration Anti-foreign/Nativist Movement Anti-foreign/Nativist Movement Know-Nothing Party Know-Nothing Party Pre 1880 Pre 1880 immigrants came from Germany, British Isles immigrants came from Germany, British Isles high literacy high literacy Post 1880: New Immigration Post 1880: New Immigration Mediterranean, Slavic, Eastern European Mediterranean, Slavic, Eastern European poor literacy, arrive impoverished poor literacy, arrive impoverished Reasons for leaving Reasons for leaving population explosion population explosion Persecution Persecution exaggerated letters – streets paved with gold exaggerated letters – streets paved with gold

3 Ellis Island

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10 City Problems Waste disposal of packaged products, sewage Waste disposal of packaged products, sewage Criminals Criminals Homeless roaming the streets Homeless roaming the streets Slums Slums dumbbell tenement – one toilet, poor ventilation dumbbell tenement – one toilet, poor ventilation disease spreads disease spreads

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12 Machine Politics/Boss System Political Machines control who gets elected Political Machines control who gets elected Boss Tweed Boss Tweed helped immigrants in exchange for votes helped immigrants in exchange for votes government leaders then have to give them kickbacks/money from government projects government leaders then have to give them kickbacks/money from government projects Provides services/infrastructure for cities Provides services/infrastructure for cities above the law – controls judges/politicians above the law – controls judges/politicians

13 Politics Conservative Presidencies Conservative Presidencies – Forgettable Presidents – Forgettable Presidents laissez faire policies laissez faire policies Presidencies Presidencies Rutherfraud B. Hayes (Election of 1876) ended Reconstruction in exchange for vote Garfield Killed by civil servant – eventually led to civil service reform – who gets what background jobs Pendleton Act Chester Arthur elected due to strong boss system of New York

14 Tariff Controversy $145 million budget surplus per year due to high tariffs $145 million budget surplus per year due to high tariffs Solutions Solutions pork-barrel bills pork-barrel bills lower tariffs lower tariffs

15 Railroad regulation Hesitant to intervene Hesitant to intervene Wabash Case Wabash Case states cant regulate interstate railroads states cant regulate interstate railroads Interstate Commerce Act Interstate Commerce Act creates Interstate Commerce Commission creates Interstate Commerce Commission supposed to regulate commerce, but hard to enforce supposed to regulate commerce, but hard to enforce

16 Trusts competition hurts prices so companies unite to control prices/earnings competition hurts prices so companies unite to control prices/earnings hurts customer hurts customer Vertical Integration Vertical Integration control all areas of production control all areas of production oil from ground to gas station oil from ground to gas station Horizontal Integration Horizontal Integration competitive companies from same industry form a trust competitive companies from same industry form a trust Monopolize industry Monopolize industry Rockefellers One-Two Punch Rockefellers One-Two Punch

17 Agrarian Discontent Land not as productive Land not as productive grasshoppers, overused soil, droughts grasshoppers, overused soil, droughts Land easy to tax Land easy to tax Trusts Trusts barbed wire, fertilizer, harvester trusts push prices too high barbed wire, fertilizer, harvester trusts push prices too high Railroads control price of transportation Railroads control price of transportation ½ population farmers, but cant organize – consolidation not part of American independence ethos ½ population farmers, but cant organize – consolidation not part of American independence ethos Rising expenses plus lower prices for goods Rising expenses plus lower prices for goods cant pay back debts cant pay back debts want free silver want free silver

18 Crisis of 1890s: The common man fights back Populism Populism Peoples Party (Populists) came from Farmers Alliance Peoples Party (Populists) came from Farmers Alliance Big gains in 1892 election Big gains in 1892 election

19 Populist Goals Free coinage silver Free coinage silver Graduated income tax based on wealth Graduated income tax based on wealth Government ownership of utilities – railroad, telephone, telegraph Government ownership of utilities – railroad, telephone, telegraph Direct election of Senators/ One term presidents Direct election of Senators/ One term presidents Initiatives and Referendums Initiatives and Referendums Shorter workday Shorter workday Immigration Restrictions Immigration Restrictions Solicited black vote Solicited black vote black participation only increased anti-voting laws in South black participation only increased anti-voting laws in South

20 Election of 1896

21 free silver free silver William Jennings Bryan William Jennings Bryan Messiah Messiah Democrat Democrat Cross of Gold speech Cross of Gold speech Populists have no party since Bryans silver views are theirs Populists have no party since Bryans silver views are theirs Republicans create massive war chest from all industrialists/bankers who fear free silver Republicans create massive war chest from all industrialists/bankers who fear free silver Millions show up to vote Millions show up to vote William McKinley wins William McKinley wins Beginning of modern politics Beginning of modern politics Isolationism to internationalism Isolationism to internationalism Shift in politics – next 30 years, people become apathetic politically, Republicans dominate Shift in politics – next 30 years, people become apathetic politically, Republicans dominate


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