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Cosmetology: History & Career Opportunities

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1 Cosmetology: History & Career Opportunities
Milady Standard Cosmetology NOTE: This presentation follows LP 1.1 of the “Cosmetology Course Management Guide”. INTRODUCTION: Becoming aware of the history of cosmetology will help us understand current trends as well as plan for success in the future. We must also understand what our own goals and objectives are in the field of cosmetology (or path you have chosen) before we can put into place a plan of action for success. As we learn more about this new chosen profession, our goals will change and grow as will our action plan. Let’s take a look at where this great industry began and what the future holds for you in your new career. ©2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved

2 “Everyone who got where he is had to begin where he was”
MILADY’S Standard COSMETOLOGY Instructor Support Slides “Everyone who got where he is had to begin where he was” ACTIVITY: Divide the students into groups and have them brainstorm about all the qualities and skills they believe are required of a cosmetologist and what they have observed during their own visits to a salon. Ask for a volunteer to act as the “scribe” and record their responses on the flip chart or board. After numerous items have been listed, discuss their suggestions. You may want to supplement their ideas with the following: NOTE: Be sure to have a small token reward for the volunteer to demonstrate that volunteers are rewarded and that volunteering is painless. There are many roles that cosmetologists (or related profession) will have to fulfill throughout their career. Robert Louis Stevenson Advice giver Professional expert in practical skills areas Artistic design creator Trustworthy Businessperson Self-promoter Poised and well-groomed Effective communicator Current with trends and technologies

3 Objectives Describe the origins of appearance enhancement
Describe the advancements made in cosmetology in the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries List the career opportunities available to a licensed beauty practitioner

4 Your Career In this demanding career, you must:
be a talented hairstylist be a personal services expert be a businessperson be a self-promoter be a well-groomed salesperson practice sanitation and safety precautions have up-to-date knowledge ASK: Can all agree that the skills and characteristics we have talked about will be essential to success in this field? Now, let’s take a look at the initial steps you need to take to succeed in school first.

5 Reaching Your Goals Attend all classes Arrive for class early
Be prepared Listen attentively Take notes Take advantage of review sessions Ask questions Seek further education Like what you do NOTE: The information on this slide is found in Chapter 2: Life Skills. The following strategies will help ensure your success. Attend all classes. You can’t learn if you are not present. Arrive for class early. This helps you to be in the right mindset for learning. Be prepared. Make sure you have all the required materials for the class. Listen attentively. Pay attention to what’s going on in class and what the instructor has to say. Take notes. Highlight important points. This will help you review later. Take advantage of review sessions. Pay close attention when the instructor summarizes; follow along in your notes. Ask questions. When something is not clear, ask, ask, ask. Seek further education. Never stop learning…it is lifelong. Read industry magazines; remain abreast of changes in the industry. Like what you do. To gain the most from your career, you should enjoy it to the fullest and not view it as drudgery. The field of cosmetology offers so much variety; make it fun. Be committed to your success.

6 Early History Cosmetology/barbering Archeological studies Implements
Cosmetology/barbering. Derived from the Greek word “kosmetikos,” which means “skilled in the use of cosmetics.” The term “barber” is derived from the Latin word “barba,” which means “the beard” or “the hair of the beard.” Archeological studies. Reveal that haircutting and hairstyling were practiced as early as the ice age, more than 10,000 years ago. Implements. Studies show that the following tools were used: sharpened flints, oyster shells, bone, animal sinew or tendons, and strips of hide.

7 Early History Egyptians Chinese Greeks
EGYPTIANS: They were the first we know of to extract herbal and flower essence through distillation and to use cosmetics for beautification, religious ceremonies, and preparation of the deceased for burial. The first evidence of nail care was prior to 3,000 BC in Egypt and China. Egyptian men and women of high social rank stained their nails with red-orange henna. Kings and queens wore deep red; lower rank persons wore only pale colors. They used minerals, insects, berries, tree bark, nuts, herbs, and leaves to color hair, skin, and nails. CHINESE: During the Shang Dynasty (1600 BC), Chinese aristocrats rubbed a tinted mixture of gum Arabic, gelatin, beeswax, and egg whites onto their nails to turn them crimson or ebony. In the Chou Dynasty (1100 BC) gold and silver were the royal colors. GREEKS: During the Golden Age (500 BC), hairstyling became a highly developed art. The Greeks used perfumes and cosmetics in religious rites, grooming, and for medicinal purposes. They built elaborate baths and excellent methods of dressing hair and caring for skin and nails. Women wore white lead on their faces, kohl on their eyes, and vermillion on their cheeks and lips. The red pigment was made by grinding cinnabar, a mineral that is the chief source of mercury, to a fine powder. It was mixed with ointment or dusted on the skin the same way as modern day cosmetics.

8 Early History Romans Middle Ages Renaissance
ROMANS: The Romans made lavish use of fragrances and cosmetics. They used facials made of milk and bread or fine wine. Other facials were made of corn, flour, and milk or fresh butter. A mixture of chalk and white lead was used as a facial cosmetic. Hair color indicated class in society. Noblewomen wore red; middle-class women wore blonde; poor women wore black. Romans developed methods for bleaching and dyeing hair. MIDDLE AGES: Tapestries, sculptures, and artifacts from the Middle Ages (476 AD and lasting until about 1450) show towering headdresses, intricate hairstyles, and the use of cosmetics on skin and hair. Women wore colored makeup on their cheeks and lips, but not their eyes. RENAISSANCE: This is the period when Western civilization made transition from medieval to modern history. They shaved their eyebrows and hairline to show a great expanse of forehead for a look of greater intelligence. Men and women wore elaborate, elegant clothing. Fragrances and cosmetics were used. Highly colored preparations for lips, cheeks, and eyes were discouraged. Hair was carefully dressed and adorned with ornaments or headdresses.

9 Early History Victorian Age
VICTORIAN AGE: From 1837 to 1901, this was one of the more austere and restrictive periods in history. Makeup and showy clothing were discouraged. Women used masks and packs of honey, eggs, milk, oatmeal, fruits, vegetables, and other natural ingredients. Women pinched their cheeks and bit their lips to induce natural color rather than use cosmetics.

10 The Barber Pole Pole = Staff Bottom = Basin
White Bandages = Stop Blood The barber pole, the symbol of the barber surgeon, has its roots in a medical procedure called bloodletting that was once thought to strengthen the immune system. Pole = Staff. Patients held a staff tightly in order for the veins in the arm to stand out. Bottom = Basin. Basin was the vessel that caught the blood. White Bandages = Stop Blood. The bandages used to stop the bleeding were hung on the staff to dry. The stained bandages would twist around the pole forming the red/white candy-cane pattern. Another interpretation is that the red represented the blood, the blue the veins, and white the bandages. Barbers still use the symbol today.

11 The 20th Century 1920s 1930s Twentieth Century The invention of motion pictures changed the standards of feminine beauty. The era also brought a new prosperity to the United States and all forms of beauty began to follow trends. Max Factor introduced makeup that wouldn’t cake or crack. Charles Nessler invented a heavily wired machine that supplied electrical current to metal rods for perm waving. Madame C. J. Walker began selling her scalp conditioning and healing treatment called “Madam Walker’s Wonderful Hair Grower.” In 1910, she moved her company to Indianapolis where she built a factory, hair salon, and training school. 1920s Cosmetic advertising expenditures soared and became one of the largest sources for advertising dollars in women’s magazines by end of 1920s. 1930s The preheat perm method was introduced in 1931. In 1932, Ralph L. Evans and Everett G. McDonough invented the first machineless permanent wave using chemicals and moistened pads. In 1932, Charles Revson marketed the first nail polish (as opposed to stain). Also, Lawrence Gelb introduced the first permanent haircolor product and found the company still known today as Clairol.

12 The 20th Century 1940s  1940s The cold wave method of permanent waving was introduced. Tube mascara was introduced. Weekly hair appointments boomed and then died. Vidal Sassoon introduced geometric cuts. Hair weaving with foils was introduced and hair color became gentler. Spa pedicures first offered in 1998.

13 Late 20th & Early 21st Century
Cosmetology industry grew and expanded Hair color became a multibillion-dollar industry Hair color products create color from blond to black NOTE: This slide is not contained in text or LP 1.1. The cosmetology industry saw more growth and expansion than at any other time in history. Hair color that started as henna and vegetable extracts became a multibillion-dollar industry of professional products. These products create color from blond to black and everything in between. NOTE TO INSTRUCTOR: Now is a great time to view Cosmetology DVD Series, disk 1, History of Cosmetology. NOTE: You might mention that technology in the 21st century is advancing faster than ever. Every day new products and tools are being invented and designed for use in this industry.

14 Early 21st Century Age of specialization Day spas Men’s specialty spas
NOTE TO INSTRUCTOR: Now is a great time to view Cosmetology DVD Series, disk 1, History of Cosmetology. NOTE: You might mention that technology in the 21st century is advancing faster than ever. Every day new products and tools are being invented and designed for use in this industry.

15 A Career in Hairstyling
Haircolor specialist Texture specialist Haircutting specialist Salon trainer Distributor sales consultant Cosmetology instructor Salon management NOTE TO EDUCATOR: Discuss each position briefly. Haircolor specialist. You may become the color specialist and trainer within your salon or even for a product manufacturer. Texture specialist. You may become the texture specialist and trainer within your salon or even for a product manufacturer. Cutting specialist. After you develop your own unique way of cutting hair, you will want to continue to learn and train with other well-known haircutters. You may become a trainer within your own salon for haircutting. Salon trainer. You may be hired by a product company or large salon chain to work as a salon trainer. Training may range from technical training to management training to interpersonal skills training. Distributor sales consultant: Also known as a DSC. You may be hired by a distributorship to perform training on products, trends, and techniques in the salons they serve. Cosmetology instructor. After attaining success in the salon, you may feel called to share your knowledge with others. One way to do that is by working as an instructor in a licensed school. Salon management. Opportunities include inventory manager, department head, educator, special events manager, assistant manager, and general manager. With experience, you could add “salon owner” to your list of career opportunities.

16 Other Career Opportunities
Product educator Distributor Freelance makeup artist Hairstyling or nail tech for photo shoots, film, etc. Retail sales Medical esthetician ACTIVITY: Have students work in pairs and share with each other what positions they want to hold when they graduate and why. Have them write it down. Give them 5 to 7 minutes for discussion. As you continue through the career opportunities contained in the lesson plan, ask them if any of them had a goal for that particular position and conduct a brief discussion. At the conclusion of this section of the lesson plan, ask the group if any of them had a career goal different than anything discussed. If so, be prepared to conduct a brief discussion about the pros and cons of such a goal. Then have the students turn in what they have written down. Hold their papers in their files until graduation, at which time you will return them and let the students see how their interests may have changed.

17 Summary The world of cosmetology offers vast opportunities
The salon industry grossed $59.4 billion in 2005 The world of cosmetology offers limitless opportunities and a wide variety of career avenues from which to choose. It may interest you to know that the industry grossed $59.4 billion in revenue in 2005 according to the Green Book 2006.

18 Summary To succeed, you must be Dependable Ambitious
Willing to work hard Technically accurate Personally driven Positive You can enjoy a substantial “chunk” of that money if you are dependable, ambitious, and willing to work hard and if you develop the technical skills and personal characteristics necessary to achieve success. The positive behaviors necessary to achieve your desired level of success will not develop overnight. It is essential that you begin practicing success behaviors and patterns while you are in school so that you will be more competitive when you enter the workforce in a few short months.

19 Review What are the origins of appearance enhancement?
Name the advancements made in cosmetology during the 19th, 20th, and early 21st centuries List some career opportunities for licensed beauty practitioners What are the origins of appearance enhancement? The origins are found in ancient cultures when it was often allied with the practice of medicine. Ancient ruins and archaeological excavations have given us proof that even in prehistoric times men and women were interested in making themselves more attractive. Paintings, sculptures, and the written word are the means by which we can study the fascinating practices of hair, skin, and nail care by early cultures. Name the advancements made in cosmetology during the 19th, 20th, and early 21st centuries. In the 19th century, barbers no longer performed minor surgeries or practiced dentistry. Beginning in the 20th century, industrialization brought a new prosperity to the United States and hairstyling began to follow trends. Americans were influenced by newspapers, magazines, radio, and motion pictures. Each decade presented more and more grooming aids and cosmetics than ever before. By the 1970s, we saw more products for hair, skin, and nail care. By the 1980s, there was an expanded awareness of physical fitness and nutrition, and spas proliferated throughout the country. List some of the career opportunities available for licensed beauty practitioners. Haircolor specialist, texture specialist, cutting specialist, salon trainer, DSC, cosmetology instructor, salon manager

20 one unit of study toward
Congratulations! You’ve just completed one unit of study toward program completion! NOTE: Have assignments prepared for students upon completion of this lesson. FOR EXAMPLE: Have students complete Chapter One of the Milady’s Standard Cosmetology Study Guide. Have students complete Chapter One of Milady’s Theory Workbook. Have students review and complete Chapter One of the Standard Student CD-ROM. Refer students to Chapter One of the Web Tutor for Milady’s Standard Cosmetology, which is a content-rich, web-based teaching and learning aid that reinforces and clarifies complex concepts. It includes study sheets, glossary, flash cards, discussion topics, online chapter quizzes in three formats, web links, and so much more. Assign students different research projects based on the history of cosmetology. The Internet offers many websites that contain information about the hairstyles and cosmetics used in Ancient Egypt, Rome, and Greece. In addition, sites can be found that depict styles of each century and many decades back to the 13th century. Have them write a brief essay on hairstyles and cosmetics and how they impacted each generation. Give extra credit for pictures that are downloaded and accompany the report. Using their research, have students build different bulletin boards depicting different eras in hair design. Have students visit different salons and interview personnel filling the various positions discussed in this chapter. Have them list the pros and cons of their assigned positions and report them to the full class at an assigned time.

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