2“Competition is a by-product of productive work, not its goal “Competition is a by-product of productive work, not its goal. A creative man is motivated by the desire to achieve, not by the desire to beat others”Ayn Rand
3ObjectivesDefine the nature of electricity and the two types of electric current..Define electrical measurements.Understand the principles of electrical equipment safety.Define electric modalities used in cosmetology.LEARNING MOTIVATION (WHY?)As a professional in the beauty enhancement industry, you must know how electricity works in order to maintain a safe environment for yourself, your co-workers and your clients. Electricity is the primary source of energy needed, literally, to run the world. We need it to control and maintain the professional environment in our schools and salons. Electricity is responsible for such things as the lighting, ventilation, temperature, and possibly even the hot water we use. It must be used intelligently and safely.Electricity is also necessary in the salon for use with blow-dryers, curling irons, lotion heaters, wax heaters, facial equipment, cash registers, telephones, computers, manicure drills, and so much more. While it is not necessary for us to become electrical engineers, it is important for us to have a working knowledge of how electricity is created and how we can use it safely in the salon.OPENING ACTIVITY: Explain to the students that you are continuing the unit of study of cosmetology sciences and that you will be covering electricity in detail in the next few lessons. Divide students into small groups. Ask them to discuss and record everything they did between waking up this morning and arriving for school, beginning with the alarm clock going off. After they have completed their list, have them indicate which tasks or events used electricity. For example, alarm went off — electricity (unless battery-powered alarm clock); took shower — electricity (if hot water heater is electric). After they have completed their group assignment, conduct a discussion about how during their first 2 hours or so of being awake today nearly every aspect of their lives was affected by electricity.
4ObjectivesExplain electromagnetic radiation and the visible spectrum of light.Describe the types of light therapy and their benefits.
5Electricity Electric current Conductor ELECTRICITY: A form of energy. Electricity does not occupy space or have physical or chemical properties so it is not matter. It is a form of energy that, when in motion, exhibits magnetic, chemical, or thermal effects.Electric current. This is the flow of electricity along a conductor. All substances can be classified as either conductors or insulators, depending on the ease with which a current can be transmitted through them.Conductor. Any substance, material, or medium that conducts electricity. Most metals are good conductors. Copper is good and used in electric wiring and electric motors. Pure water does not conduct electricity, but the ions in ordinary water make it a good conductor.
6Insulator Nonconductor – does not easily transmit electricity Rubber SilkWoodGlassCementComplete circuitINSULATOR: Also known as a nonconductor is a substance that does not easily transmit electricity. All these are good insulators of electricity:• Rubber• Silk• Wood• Glass• CementElectric wires are composed of twisted metal threads (conductors) covered with silk (insulator).COMPLETE CIRCUIT: The path of an electric current from the generating source through conductors back to its original source.
7Types of Electric Current Direct current (DC)Alternating current (AC)ConvertersRectifiersTYPES OF ELECTRICITY CURRENTDIRECT CURRENT (DC): Constant, even-flowing current, traveling in one direction. It produces a chemical reaction. Batteries use direct current.ALTERNATING CURRENT (AC): Rapid, interrupted current flowing in one direction, then another. It produces a mechanical action. Appliances plugged into the wall use an alternating current.CONVERTERS: Apparatus used to change direct current into alternating current.RECTIFIERS: Apparatus used to change alternating current into direct current.
8Electrical Measurements Volt: measures pressureAmpere: measures strengthMilliampere: 1/1000th of an ampOhm: measures resistanceWatt: measures energy used in 1 secondKilowatt: equals 1000 wattsELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTSVolt (V). Measures the pressure that forces electric current forward. Higher voltage increases strength of current because more electrons are moving; lower is weaker. (Example: An air conditioner uses a great deal more power than a table fan.)Ampere (A). Also called amp. Measures the strength of current running through a wire (the number of electrons flowing through a wire). The amp capability of the cord must be compatible with the amps put out by the appliance. If current is too strong for the cord, the appliance can be ruined.Milliampere. 1/1000th of an ampere. Used for facials and scalp treatments; amps would be too strong.Ohm (O). Measures resistance of an electric current. The force or voltage must be stronger than the resistance of ohms for electricity to flow through a wire.Watt (W). Measures how much electric energy is used in 1 second. Example: A 60-watt light bulb uses 60 W of energy per second.Kilowatt (kW). Equals 1000 watts. Our electric bills are measured in kilowatt hours (KWH).
9Safety Devices Fuse Circuit breaker SAFETY DEVICES Fuse. Prevents the overheating of electric wires.ACTIVITY: Take students to the fuse box in the school (if there is one) and explain to them what happens when a fuse blows out. Explain the cause and procedure to reestablish the circuit. Have one student actually change a fuse.Circuit breaker. Breakers have largely replaced fuses. Circuit breakers don’t require replacement every time a switch is thrown. It shuts down with the first indication of overheating or circuit trouble. The problem must be corrected (e.g., turning off one of many electrical appliances that are running) and the switch can be reset with all safety factors in place again.ACTIVITY: Take students to the circuit breaker in the school. If all breakers are not marked, have students make a project of determining which switches relate to which areas of the facility and label them properly. Demonstrate how a breaker can be thrown and re-set.
10Electrical Equipment Safety Inspect regularlyDon’t overload circuitsCheck for UL approvalEnsure appliances are groundedELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT SAFETYInspect regularly to determine safe working order.Never overload circuits. To do so could cause electrical shock, burn, or fire.Check for UL approval. Underwriter’s Laboratory (UL) certifies the safety of electrical appliances.ACTIVITY: Have students inspect their kit items such as curling irons, blow-dryers, and other equipment in the classroom for UL approval.Ensure appliances are grounded. All electrical appliances should have at least two electrical connections: one “live” one to supply current to the circuit and a second “ground” connection that completes the circuit and carries the current and safely away to the ground. One prong is larger than the other to ensure that the plug can only be inserted into the socket correctly, which prevents electric shock in the event of a short circuit.Three-pronged plugs are even safer. The third, round prong is an extra ground to guarantee the safe path of electricity if the first ground fails or is improperly connected.
11Hints for Safety Ensure UL certification Read instructions Disconnect when not in useInspect equipment regularlyKeep wires, plugs, equipment in good repairUse one plug per outletHINTS FOR SAFETYEnsure UL certification.Read instructions on equipment use.Disconnect appliances when not in use.Inspect equipment regularly.Keep wires, plugs, equipment in good repair.Use one plug per outlet.
13Hints for Safety Avoid contact with water or metal Don’t leave client Keep cords off floorDon’t clean area when plugged inDon’t touch 2 metallic objects if either is connected to currentAvoid contact with water or metal when using electricity (you and client).Don’t leave room when client is connected to any electrical device.Keep cords off floor and away from feet to avoid tripping.Don’t attempt to clean around electric outlet while equipment is plugged in.Don’t touch two metallic objects at same time if either is connected to current.
14Hints for Safety Don’t step on or set objects on cords Don’t let cords become twisted or bentPull plug, not cordDon’t repair unless qualifiedDon’t force plugs into outletsDon’t step on or set objects on electrical cords.Don’t allow cords to become twisted or bent.Disconnect appliance by pulling plug, not cord.Don’t repair electrical appliances unless you are qualified to do so.Never tamper with wiring or plugs to get them to fit into a receptacle they were not designed for.
15Electrotherapy Electrotherapy: electronic facial treatments Wall plate ModalitiesElectrodesELECTROTHERAPY: Electronic facial treatments.WALL PLATE: Facial stimulators plug into a wall socket and produce currents used for electronic facial treatments, which are called electrotherapy.MODALITIES: The currents are called modalities and produce different effects on the skin. In this profession, we are concerned with only Galvanic, Sinusoidal, Faradic, and the Tesla high-frequency currents.ELECTRODE: An apparatus made of carbon, glass, or metal that conducts the electric current from the machine to the client’s skin. Each modality requires two electrodes (one negative and one positive) except for the Tesla high-frequency.
16Polarity Positive pole (anode, red) Negative pole (cathode, black) Test oneTest twoPOLARITY: The positive or negative state of electric current.Electrotherapy equipment has a negatively charged pole and a positively charged pole.• Positive pole, anode, red. Marked with a “p” or plus (+) sign.• Negative pole, cathode, black. Marked with an “n” or minus (-) sign.
17Polarity Test One Separate tips and immerse in saltwater Set on galvanic current and turn up intensityAs water is decomposed, more active bubbles will accumulate at negative polePOLARITY TEST ONESeparate tips and immerse in glass of saltwater.Turn selector switch to galvanic current and turn up intensity.As water is decomposed, more active bubbles will accumulate at negative pole.
18Polarity Test TwoPlace conducting cord tips on blue moistened litmus paperPaper under positive pole will turn redPaper under negative pole will stay bluePOLARITY TEST TWOPlace tips of two conducting cords on two separate pieces of blue moistened litmus paper.Paper under positive pole will turn red.Paper under negative pole will stay blue. If using red litmus paper, the positive pole will remain red and the negative pole will turn blue.
19Galvanic Current Active electrode Inactive electrode GALVANIC CURRENT: Most common. It is a constant, direct current, having a positive and a negative pole, producing chemical changes when it passes through the tissues and fluids of the body. Produces two different chemical reactions depending upon pole used.• Active electrode. Used on the area to be treated.• Inactive electrode. The opposite pole from the active electrode.
20Positive Pole Results Acidic reactions Closes pores Soothes nerves Decreases blood supplyContracts blood vesselsFirms tissuesPulls acid solutions into skinPOSITIVE POLE RESULTSAcidic reactionsCloses poresSoothes nervesDecreases blood supplyContracts blood vesselsHardens or firms tissuesPulls acid solutions into skin
21Negative Pole Results Alkaline reactions result Opens pores Stimulates nervesIncreases blood supply to skinExpands blood vesselsSoftens tissuesSoftens and liquefies grease depositsForces alkaline solutions into skinNEGATIVE POLE RESULTS: CAUTION: Don’t use negative galvanic current on skin with broken capillaries, pustular acne, or on client with high blood pressure.• Alkaline reactions• Opens pores• Stimulates (irritates) nerves• Increases blood supply to skin• Expands blood vessels• Softens tissues• Softens and liquefies grease deposits• Forces alkaline solutions into skin
22Iontophoresis Cataphoresis Anaphoresis Desincrustation IONTOPHORESIS: The process of introducing water-soluble products in the skin with the use of electric current such as the use of the positive and negative poles of a galvanic machine.Cataphoresis. Forces acidic substances into deeper tissues using galvanic current from the positive toward the negative pole.Anaphoresis. The process of forcing liquids into tissues from the negative toward the positive pole.Desincrustation. Process used to soften and emulsify grease deposits (oil) and blackheads in hair follicles and pores. Frequently used to treat acne, milia, and comedones.
23High-Frequency Current Tesla: commonly called violet rayBenefitsStimulates blood circulationIncreases glandular activityAids in elimination and absorptionIncreases metabolismImproved germicidal actionRelieves congestionHIGH-FREQUENCY CURRENT (TESLA): Characterized by high rate of oscillation or vibration and commonly called the violet ray. Used for scalp and facial treatments. Used to treat thinning hair, itchy scalp, excessively oily or dry skin and scalp. Primarily heat producing. No muscular contractions; effects are stimulating or soothing depending on method. Usually made from glass or metal, and only one is used to perform a service.BENEFITS OF TESLA CURRENT• Stimulates circulation of blood• Increases glandular activity• Aids in elimination and absorption• Increases metabolism• Improved germicidal action• Relieves congestionCAUTION: Never use Tesla high-frequency current on clients who are pregnant, epileptic, or asthmatic, or who have high blood pressure, excessive fillings in the teeth, sinus blockage, a pacemaker, or metal implants.
24Other Electrical Equipment Hood dryers or heat lampsCurling or flat ironsHeating capsProcessing or accelerating machinesSteamer or vaporizerOTHER ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT: NOTE: Display, demonstrate each electrical implement. Pass them around the room; let students handle them.Hood hair dryers or heat lamps. Use to dry hair or shorten chemical processing time. When used for chemical processing, hair is covered with aerated plastic cap.Curling or flat irons. They have built-in heating elements and plug into wall outlet. Available in many types and sizes.Heating caps. Electrical devices that provide uniform heat when placed on head. Mainly used for corrective hair and scalp treatments.Processing or accelerating machine. Shorten the time it takes to process chemical hair services. They dispense a hot water vapor inside hood. Haircolor processed at 90 degrees F will process twice as fast as at room temperature of 72 degrees.Steamer or vaporizer. Produce moist heat that can be applied to head or face.
25Light Therapy Visible light Electromagnetic radiation Wavelength Long wavelengthsShort wavelengthsLIGHT THERAPYVISIBLE LIGHT: Electromagnetic radiation we can see.Electromagnetic radiation. Also called radiant energy; it carries or radiates energy through space on waves.Wavelength. The distance between two successive peaks. Similar to waves caused when a stone is dropped on the surface of still water.Long wavelengths. Have low frequency, meaning the number of waves is less frequent within a given length.Short wavelengths. Have higher frequency because the number of waves is more frequent within a given length.
26Electromagnetic Spectrum Visible light (35% of natural light)Ultraviolet and infrared raysVisible spectrumELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM: The entire range of wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation (radiant energy).Visible light. Makes up 35% of natural sunlight.Ultraviolet rays and infrared rays. Invisible because their wavelengths are beyond the visible spectrum of light. Invisible rays make up 65% of the natural sunlight.Visible spectrum. Violet has shortest wavelength and red the longest. Infrared is just below red; ultraviolet is just above violet. Infrared and ultraviolet rays are not really light at all; they are invisible wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation.
27Infrared Rays 60% of natural sunlight Long wavelengths Deepest penetrationProduce most heatLamps should be 30” from skin5-minute exposure timeCheck client comfort frequentlyNever leave client unattendedINFRARED RAYSMake up 60% of natural sunlightHave long wavelengthsPenetrate the deepestProduce the most heatLamps should be at least 30" from skinExposure time is about 5 minutesCheck client comfort frequentlyNever leave client unattended
28Visible Light Rays White light Blue light Red light VISIBLE LIGHT RAYS: Primary source of lights used for facial and scalp treatments. Bulbs used for therapeutic visible light therapy are white, red, and blue.White light. Combination of all the visible rays of the spectrum and has all the same benefits.Blue light. Used only on oily skin; contains few heat rays, is the least penetrating, and has some germicidal and chemical benefits.Red light. Used on dry skin in combination with oils and creams; penetrates the deepest and produces the most heat.
29Ultraviolet Rays Ultraviolet Rays – 5% of natural sunlight Short wavelengthsPenetrate the leastProduce chemical effectsKill germsULTRAVIOLET RAYS: Make up 5% of natural sunlight and are referred to as cold rays or actinic rays.• Short wavelengths• Least penetrating rays• Produce chemical effects• Kill germs
30Ultraviolet Disadvantages Can cause skin cancer1,000,000 cases diagnosed annually1 in 5 Americans will develop skin cancer90% result from UV radiation and tanning bedsDISADVANTAGES OF ULTRAVIOLET RAYSCan cause skin cancer. Over one million new cases of skin cancer are diagnosed annually. It is estimated that one in five Americans will develop skin cancer and 90% of those will be the result of UV radiation from the sun and tanning beds.
31Ultraviolet Ray Application Lamp should be 30” – 36” from skin2 – 3 minute exposure initiallyIncrease to 7 – 8 minutesAvoid overexposureNever leave client unattendedAPPLICATION OF ULTRAVIOLET RAYSLamp should be 30" - 36" from skin.Therapy should begin with exposure of 2 to 3 minutes.Therapy can increase gradually to 7 or 8 minutes. Overexposure can cause painful burns and blistering, increase risk of skin cancer, cause premature aging of skin. NEVER leave client unattended during exposure time.
32Light and Heat Energy – Nail Technology CatalystsUV lightLIGHT AND HEAT ENERGY IN NAIL TECH• Catalysts. Used to make reactions happen more quickly. Heat used as an energy source. Absorb energy like a battery; energy passed to initiator and reaction begins.• UV light. UV rays are invisible and have short wavelengths, least penetrating rays, produce chemical effects, and kill germs. Used for light-cured nail enhancements.
33Summary and ReviewDescribe the 2 types of electric current and give examples of eachList 4 main types of electrical measurements. What do they measure?SUMMARY AND REVIEWIt is clear that electricity plays a huge role in the everyday operation of a cosmetology salon. We have learned that a general understanding of the basics of electricity and the various currents is very important because many of the devices and pieces of equipment we use in beauty services are electrical. We cannot perform various skin care services safely and effectively without understanding which form of electrical current will give the best results for the desired service. Let’s consider the remaining review questions found in Chapter 7.Let’s review.Describe the two types of electric current and give examples of each.ANSWER: Direct current and alternating current. Direct current is a constant, even-flowing current that travels in one direction only and produces a chemical reaction (e.g., flashlights, cellular telephones, cordless electric clippers).Alternating current is a rapid and interrupted current, flowing first in one direction and then in the opposite direction (e.g., hair dryers, curling irons).List the four main types of electrical measurements. What do they measure?ANSWER: volt, amp, ohm, watt. A volt measures the pressure or force that pushes the flow of electrons forward through a conductor. An amp measures the strength of an electric current. An ohm measures the resistance of an electric current. A watt is a measurement of how much electric energy is being used in 1 second.
34Summary and ReviewList and describe 2 main electric modalities or currents used in cosmetologyList and describe 2 main types of light therapy• List and describe the two main electric modalities or currents used in cosmetology.ANSWER: Galvanic current is a contact and direct current having a positive and negative pole and producing a chemical change when it passes through the tissues and fluids of the body. Tesla high frequency is a thermal or heat-producing current with a high rate of oscillation or vibration. Commonly called violet ray and used for scalp and facial treatments. Does not produce muscle contractions; effects can be either stimulating or soothing.• List and describe the two main types of light therapy.ANSWER: Infrared rays make up 60% of natural sunlight; penetrate the deepest and produce the most heat. Ultraviolet rays are referred to as cold or actinic rays and make up 5% of natural sunlight; least penetrating, produce chemical effects and kill germs; prompt skin to produce vitamin D.
35Summary and Review What is electromagnetic radiation? Name 2 important precautions to observe when using light therapyWhat is electromagnetic radiation? What is visible light? What is white light?ANSWER: Electromagnetic radiation, also known as visible light and radiant energy, carries, or radiates, energy through space on waves. The waves are similar to those caused when a stone is dropped on the surface of water.Visible light, also known as electromagnetic radiation, can be seen. Visible light makes up 35% of natural sunlight. White light, referred to as combination light because it is a combination of all the visible rays of the spectrum, has the benefits of all the rays of the visible spectrum.Name two important precautions to observe when using light therapy.ANSWER: Always protect client’s eyes; practitioner should wear safety goggles. Avoid overexposure that can produce painful burns and blistering, increase risk of skin cancer, and cause premature aging.
36one unit of study toward Congratulations!You’ve just completedone unit of study towardprogram completion!