2What is Social Psychology? Some Definitions Social Psychology: Scientific study of how individuals behave, think, and feel in social situations; how people act in the presence (actual or implied) of othersCulture: Ongoing pattern of life that is passed from one generation to another
3Social RolesSocial Role: Patterns of behavior expected of people in various social positions (e.g. daughter, mother, teacher, President)Ascribed Role: Assigned to a person or not under personal control (son, daughter)Achieved Role: Attained voluntarily or by special effort (teacher, mayor, President)Role Conflict: When two or more roles make conflicting demands on behavior
4GroupsGroup Structure: Network of roles, communication, pathways, and power in a groupGroup Cohesiveness: Degree of attraction among group members or their commitment to remaining in the groupCohesive groups work better togetherStatus: Level of social power and importance
5NormsNorm: Accepted, but usually unspoken, standard of appropriate behaviorThe functioning of any group is greatly affected by its norms.Does the amount of trash already discarded in an area affect the likelihood that people will add to the litter? -
6Fig. 20. 1 Results of an experiment on norms concerning littering Fig Results of an experiment on norms concerning littering. The prior existence of litter in a public setting implies that littering is acceptable. This encourages others to “trash” the area. (From Cialdini, Reno, & Kallgren, 1990.)
7Littering Anyone?Seeing others had littered implied a lax norm about whether littering was acceptableThe cleaner the public is kept, the less it will need cleanedCialdini, Reno, & Kallgren, 1990
8Personal SpacePersonal Space -Area surrounding the body that is defined as private and is subject to personal controlProxemics: Systematic study of human use of personal space, especially in social settings
9Spatial NormsIntimate Distance: Most private space immediately surrounding the body; 18 inches from the skin. Reserved for special people or special circumstancesPersonal Distance: Maintained in interactions with friends. 18 inches to 4 feet from body; arm’s lengthSocial Distance: Impersonal business & casual interaction takes place; 4 to 12 feetPublic Distance: Formal interactions take place; 12 feet or more /for meetings and speeches
10Fig Typical spatial zones (in feet) for face-to-face interactions in North America. Often, we must stand within intimate distance of others in crowds, buses, subways, elevators, and other public places. At such times, privacy is maintained by avoiding eye contact, by standing shoulder to shoulder or back to back, and by positioning a purse, bag, package, or coat as a barrier to spatial intrusions.
11Mere Exposure EffectMere Exposure Effect - Repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases our liking of themEX) Hear a new song on the radio, don’t initially like it. But a week later after hearing it over and over on the radio you love it!
12Mere Exposure EffectThere mere exposure effect works for human faces as well and promotes fondness for the people with whom we spend time.Two researchers (Moreland & Beach) demonstrated the mere exposure effect by enrolling 4 women, all whom were judged equally attractive, in student college class.First never attended classSecond went 5 timesThird 10 timesFourth attended 15 classesAfter the course ended, students judged who they felt was most attractive
13Mere Exposure EffectThe students judged the woman who had attended most often as the most attractiveWhy?Our ancestors benefited from the mere exposure effect. Familiar faces were less likely to be dangerous or threatening than unfamiliar faces. Some researchers believe we are born with a tendency to bond with those who are familiar to us, and to be leery of those we don’t know.
14Social Perception- Behind the Mask Attribution Theory: Making inferences about the causes of one’s own behavior and others’ behaviorConsistency: Person’s behavior changes very little in many different circumstancesDistinctiveness: Noticing that a behavior only occurs under certain circumstances
15More Attribution Concepts Fundamental Attribution Error (Actor-Observer Bias: ):Tendency to attribute behavior of others to internal causes (personality, motives, and traits). Ignoring any external causesTendency to attribute behavior of ourselves to external causes (situations & circumstances)
16Social Perception (cont.) Situational Demands: Pressures to behave in certain ways in particular settings and social situationsExamples?
17Other Attribution Concepts Discounting: Downgrading internal explanations of behavior when a person’s actions seem to have strong external causesFamous athlete endorsing a product. You know they don’t really love or use that shaving ceamConsensus: Degree to which people respond alike. In attribution, implies that responses are externally caused
18Affiliation- The need to affiliation-Come Together Need to Affiliate: Desire to associate with other people; appears to be a basic human traitSocial Comparison: Making judgments about ourselves by comparing ourselves to others. E.g. comparing our feelings and abilities to those of other people
19Social ComparisonDownward Comparison: Comparing yourself with someone who ranks lower than you on some area (e.g. money, attractiveness)Upward Comparison: Comparing ourselves to someone who ranks higher than we do on some area; may be used for self-improvement (something we strive for)
21Interpersonal Attraction Interpersonal Attraction –affinity to another personPhysical Proximity: Physical nearness to another person in terms of housing, school, work, and so onPhysical Attractiveness: Person’s degree of physical beauty as defined by his or her cultureHalo Effect: Tendency to generalize a favorable impression to unrelated personal characteristics, ignore the bad and focus on the one good thing
22Interpersonal Attraction (cont.) Similarity: Extent to which two people are alike in terms of age, education, attitudes, and so onSimilar people are attracted to each otherHomogamy: Tendency to marry someone who is like us in almost every way
23Selecting a Mate- Reflections in a Social Mirror Page 657
24Self-DisclosureSelf-Disclosure - Process of revealing private thoughts, attitudes, feelings and one’s history to othersShould be used cautiously and sparingly when you are the therapist performing therapyMay lead to countertransference in therapyReciprocity: moderate self-disclosure leads to Return of sharing private thoughts in kindOverdisclosure: Self-disclosure that exceeds what is appropriate for a relationship or social situation
26Social Exchange Theory Social Exchange – transfer of attention, information, affection, favors between two peopleSocial Exchange Theory: Rewards must exceed costs for relationships to endure; we unconsciously weigh social rewards and costsComparison Level: Personal standard used to evaluate social rewards and costs in a social exchange/ individual and based on one’s historyRelationship needs to be profitable enough to maintain it
27Love and AttachmentRomantic Love: Marked by high levels of interpersonal attraction, sexual desire, and heightened arousalLiking: Relationship based on affection without passion and commitmentsSecure Attachment: Stable and positive emotional bondMutual Absorption: When two lovers almost always attend only to each otherAvoidant Attachment: Fear of intimacy and a tendency to resist commitment to othersAmbivalent Attachment: Mixed emotions about relationships; conflicting feelings of affection, anger and emotional turmoil
28Evolution and Mate Selection Evolutionary Psychology – the study of the evolutionary origins of human behavior patternsLet us read: Evolution and Mate Selection, pg. 660
29Social InfluenceSocial Influence - Changes in a person’s behavior induced by the actions of another personSomeone else influences your decision: husband, wife, mother, peer, etc.Peer pressure: Rudy is swayed by Fanny to go see “The Hunger Games” when he really wanted to see “The Avengers”
30ConformityConformity - Bringing one’s behavior into agreement with norms or the behavior of othersSolomon Asch’s ExperimentIn 33% of the trials, the real subject conformed to group pressure even when the group’s answers were obviously incorrect!
31Fig. 20.5 Stimuli used in Solomon Asch’s conformity experiments.
32Group Factors in Conformity Groupthink: Compulsion by decision makers to maintain each other’s approval, even at the cost of critical thinking, not wanting to “rock the boat” causes members to disregard suggestions of discontent or disagreementGroup Sanctions: Rewards and punishments administered by groups to enforce conformity ( laughter, staring)Unanimity: Unanimous agreement (having at least one person in your corner can greatly reduce your urge to conform, and secure your opposition/ Jury room)
33Social PowerSocial Power: Capacity to control, alter or influence the behavior of another personReward Power: Rewarding a person for complying with desired behaviorCoercive Power: Based on ability to punish a person for failure to comply
34More Power ConceptsLegitimate Power: Accepting a person as an agent of an established social orderReferent Power: Respect for, or identification with, a person or a groupExpert Power: Based on possession of knowledge or expertise
35Obedience (Milgram)Obedience - Conformity to the demands of an authorityWould you shock a man with a known heart condition who is screaming and asking to be released?Milgram studied this; the man with a heart condition was an accomplice and the “teacher” was a real volunteer. The goal was to teach the learner word pairs.
37Milgram’s Results65% obeyed by going all the way to 450 volts on the “shock machine” even though the learner eventually could not answer any more questionsThe learner screamed and provided no further answers once 300 volts (“Severe Shock”) was reachedGroup support can reduce destructive obedience
38Fig. 20. 7 Results of Milgram’s obedience experiment Fig Results of Milgram’s obedience experiment. Only a minority of subjects refused to provide shocks, even at the most extreme intensities. The first substantial drop in obedience occurred at the 300-volt level (Milgram, 1963).
39Fig Physical distance from the “learner” had a significant effect on the percentage of subjects obeying orders.
42ComplianceCompliance - Bending to the requests of one person who has little or no authority or social powerFoot-in-the-Door Effect: A person who has agreed to a small request is more likely later to agree to a larger demand. (little to big)Once you get a foot in the door, then a sale is almost a sure thingDoor-in-the-Face Technique: A person who has refused a major request will be more likely later on to comply with a smaller request ( big to little)After the door has been slammed in your face (major request refused), person may be more likely to agree to a smaller request
43Compliance (cont.)Low-Ball Technique: Commitment is gained first to reasonable or desirable terms, which are then made less reasonable or desirableHenry accepts the price he states for a new car. Then, later, Tillie the saleswoman tells Henry “The business would lose too much money on that price; can’t you take a bit less and add all these options?”Passive Compliance: Passively bending to unreasonable demands or circumstances
45Assertiveness Training Instruction in how to be self-assertiveSelf-Assertion: Standing up for your rights by speaking out on your own behalf; direct, honest expression of feelings and desiresAggression: Hurting another person or achieving ones goals at the expense of another personAttempt to get ones way no matter whatNo regard for other people's feelingsBroken Record: Self-assertion technique that involves repeating a request until it is acknowledgedGood way to be assertive without being aggressiveOverlearning – self- assertion technique, practice that continues after an initial skill/ role-playing assertive behavior
47Social TrapsSocial Traps - Any social situation that rewards individual actions that will have undesired effects in the long runAnya buys things on credit for immediate satisfaction and then gets a HUGE bill later, which she cannot affordTragedy of the Commons: Type of social trap where individuals share a scarce resource. Each person acts in his or her self-interest, which causes the resource to be used up, so eventually everyone suffersNo efforts made, for example, to conserve water, gasoline, electricity, or foodSome social behaviors produce immediate rewards but have significant consequences in the long run