Presentation on theme: "The Civil War 1861-1865 A Ride for Liberty-The Fugitive Slaves by Eastman Johnson."— Presentation transcript:
1The Civil WarA Ride for Liberty-The Fugitive Slaves by Eastman Johnson
2The Election of 1860 Charleston Democratic Convention 2/3rds rule and southern opposition to Stephen A. Douglas keep Democrats from selecting nomineeDemocrats split at Baltimore ConventionSouthern Rights Democratic Party nominates John C. BreckinridgeRegular Democrats go with DouglasConstitutional Union PartyJohn Bell
31858 Debates: “House Divided” Speech A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure, permanently, half slave and half free. I do not expect the Union to be dissolved — I do not expect the house to fall — but I do expect it will cease to be divided. It will become all one thing or all the other. Either the opponents of slavery will arrest the further spread of it, and place it where the public mind shall rest in the belief that it is in the course of ultimate extinction; or its advocates will push it forward, till it shall become alike lawful in all the States, old as well as new — North as well as South.
4The Republicans Nominate Lincoln Republicans needed 2 out of Pennsylvania, Illinois, and IndianaWilliam H. Seward“Higher law” speech (1850)“Irrepressible Conflict” (1858)Abraham LincolnRepublican platformExclusion of slavery from territoriesHigher tariffsHomestead ActFederal aid for internal improvements
5Southern Fears “Black Republicanism” Implications for the South if Lincoln winsResultsLincoln received less than 40% of popular voteWon electoral college by substantial margin
8The War BeginsLincoln inaugurated in March 1861 as the first Republican presidentAssured southerners that he would not interfere in slavery.Warned that no state had the right to break up the Union.
9Compromise Proposals John J. Crittenden Crittenden CompromiseLincoln opposed“peace convention” – hope for the 8 remaining slave states to reject secessionNone of the secessionist states would consider a compromise
10Fort SumterLocated in the harbor of Charleston, it was cut off from supplies by the South.Lincoln announced he would send supplies.South fired upon the fort on April 12, 1861 and it surrendered to the South after 2 days.
12Use of Executive PowerExtended use of executive powers and powers as commander in chief without approval from Congress.Called for 75,000 volunteers to put down the “insurrection” in the South.Authorized spending for the war.Suspended the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus.
13Secession of the Upper South Before Fort Sumter, only 7 states had seceded.VA, NC, TN, and AR only seceded after it became clear Lincoln would use force.Capital: Richmond
14The Border States Delaware firmly union Northern occupation of MarylandMissouri“bushwhackers” vs. “jayhawkers”Unionists win elections in Kentucky and Maryland
16Keeping the Border States in the Union DE, MD, MO, and KY remained in the Union because of Union sentiment and the use of troops in these areas.Guerrilla forces were active throughout the war.Their loss would have increased the Confederacy’s population by 50 percent and hurt the North’s military position.
17The Creation of West Virginia Fifth Union border stateDelegates from western part of Virginia had voted against secessionWanted to break away from state of VirginiaWest Virginia became a new state and entered the Union, 1863
18The Confederate States of America modeled after the U.S. ConstitutionNon-successive 6 year term for the presidencypresidential item vetoJefferson Davis attempted to increase presidential powers, but failed.“States’ rights” turned into a problem for the South.
19Mobilizing for War “citizen soldiers” Four-fifths of soldiers on both sides were volunteers, despite both sides passing conscription actsNot professionally trained soldiersEgalitarian attitudesLacking in discipline
20The Balance Sheet of War Enlistment of Black soldiersUnion allowed itConfederacy did not, until the end of the warAdvantages:North much greater populationNorthern economic superioritySouthern military prowessNeither side anticipated length or intensity of the Civil War
21Strategy and MoraleUnion faced vast geographic territory of the South to invade and conquerConfederacy required withstanding and outlasting Northern effortsConfederacy had superior morale
22Weapons and Tactics Rifles “minié ball” Rapid load and fire Greater accuracy
24Logistics Civil War considered 1st modern logistical war Railroads, steam-powered ships, telegraphVulnerable communications and supply linesInland: dependence on animal-powered transportHorses, mulesConfederacy improvised well, but had too little to work withAs war progressed, northern economy grew stronger, southern economy grew weaker
25Financing the War Confederacy Union National Banking Act of 1863 Treasury notes and inflationUnionMost funds raised by bondsLegal Tender Act (1862) and “greenbacks”National Banking Act of 1863
26First Battle of Bull Run (July 1861) 30,000 federal troops marched from D.C. to Manassas Junction, VAConfederates under Stonewall Jackson counter attacked and forced the Union to retreatThe battle ended the illusion of a short war and promoted the myth that the Confederates were invincible.George B. McClellan: too cautious
27Union Strategy: General Winfield Scott Use the U.S. navy to blockade all southern ports (Anaconda Plan)Divide the Confederacy in two by controlling the Mississippi River.Raise and train 500,000 soldiers to take Richmond.
28Peninsula CampaignMcClellan, the new commander of the Union in the East, insisted on a long period of training.Invaded VA in March 1862 and was stopped by Lee’s superior tactics.McClellan was forced to retreat after five months and was replaced by General John Pope.
29Second Battle of Bull Run Attention focused on VirginiaLee attacked Pope before McClellan could assist with reinforcementsUnion forces retreatLee continued to invade MarylandSerious consequences:Maryland might fall to the ConfederatesDemocrats could gain control of CongressBritain and France might recognize the Confederacy
30Antietam (September 1862)Lee moved into Maryland in the hope that a win in the North would convince Britain to support the South.Lincoln had given back the Union command to McClellan.Union intercepted the Confederates at Antietam Creek in Sharpsburg, MD.Bloodiest day of war: 22,000 killed or wounded.Lee retreated to VA.Lincoln blamed McClellan for not pursuing Lee and removed him as commander for a final time.Although a draw, it did stop the Confederates from getting support from Britain.Used this partial win as the basis for the Emancipation Proclamation.
32Fredericksburg Ambrose Burnside replaced McClellan. Burnside attacked at Fredericksburg, VA and lost 12,000 to the Confederate’s 5,000.
33Monitor vs. Merrimac (March 1862) The Merrimac was a former Union ship rebuilt as an ironclad, renamed the Virginia, and used to sink Union ships.The Union built its own ironclad, the Monitor, and fought a five hour battle with the Merrimac near Hampton Roads, VA.The battle was a draw, but allowed the Union to keep its Anaconda Plan in place.Revolutionized naval warfare
36Grant in the WestIn early 1862, Grant used a combination of gunboats and army maneuvers to capture Forts Henry and Donelson on the Cumberland River.14,000 Confederates were taken prisoner and opened up the Mississippi to Union attack.The Confederates under Albert Johnston surprised Grant at Shiloh, TN, but Grant forced the Confederate retreat after over 23,000 were killed and wounded.The capture of New Orleans by Union naval commander David Farragut aided Grant’s drive down the Mississippi.
37Foreign Affairs and Diplomacy Trent AffairConfederate diplomats James Mason and John Slidell were on way to Britain aboard the Trent.Union warship stopped the Trent and brought Mason and Slidell back as prisoners of war.Britain threatened war unless they were released.
38Confederate Raiders Confederates purchased British ships for raiding. U.S. minister to Britain, Charles Francis Adams, convinced the British to stop selling ships to the Confederates.
39Failure of Cotton Diplomacy Britain was able to get cotton from Egypt and India.The Emancipation Proclamation appealed to the British.
40The End of Slavery Lincoln was hesitant over the issue of slavery. wanted support of border statesconstitutional protection was needed to end slaveryprejudices of northernersfear that it could be overturned in the next election
41Confiscation Acts Union Army could confiscate Confederate property. Thousands of escaped slaves fled to Union camps.
42Emancipation Proclamation Lincoln portrayed emancipation as a means to saving the UnionDid not go into effect untilOnly freed slaves in areas under rebellionExcluded states that did not secedeExcluded states that were occupied already
43Freedmen in the War¼ of slaves walked away from slavery to seek protection of the Union Army200,000 African –Americans served in the Union Army
45The Rise of the Copperheads Lincoln’s support waned significantly in winter, 1863Clement L. Vallandigham, of OhioPowerful Peace Democratic spokesmanArrested and convicted for treason and aiding and abetting the enemyBanished to the Confederacy for his sentenceRuns for governor of Ohio from exile in Canada, but loses
46Economic Problems in the South South suffered from food shortages and hyperinflationRichmond Bread Riot (1863)
47The Wartime Draft and Class Tensions Confederate draftpaid substitutes and used slaves“rich man’s war, poor man’s fight”Union draftBounty jumpersSubstitutesDemocrats inflame tensions over draftNew York City Draft Riot (1863)Class tensions
48Blueprint for Modern America 37th CongressHomestead ActMorrill Land-Grant College ActPacific Railroad Act
49Women and the War Female casualties Clerical jobs open to women in the northClara BartonWomen’s Central Association for ReliefDr. Elizabeth BlackwellUnited States Sanitary CommissionNational Woman Suffrage AssociationElizabeth Cady StantonSusan B. Anthony
53The Gettysburg Campaign Lee invades north June 1863Lee’s forces meet Union army under George Gordon MeadeJames LongstreetLee orders attacks on union flanks, they fail“Pickett’s Charge”: attack in the center, it failsLee retreats
55The Vicksburg Campaign Grant’s campaign and control of the Mississippi RiverJoseph JohnstonConfederate leaderSurrendered Vicksburg
56Chickamauga and Chattanooga Confederates abandon Knoxville and Chattanooga, losing only East-West rail linkChickamauga: Confederate ambushLookout Mountain and Missionary RidgeGrant appoint general-in-chief of union army
57Black Men in Blue Frederick Douglass Blacks fighting for union would guarantee citizenshipField commanders start forming Black regiments from slaves they freedNon-combat rolesPaid less than whitesOfficers were white54th Massachusetts InfantryRobert Gould Shaw
59The Atlanta Campaign Sherman’s army in Georgia Kennesaw Mountain Accomplished more at less cost than GrantKennesaw MountainJohn Bell HoodReplaced JohnstonThree counterattacks left Confederates defeated
60Peace Overtures Horace Greeley U.S. sentiments yearned for peaceLincoln refused to drop the Emancipation Proclamation as a condition of peaceDemocrats nominated McClellan for PresidentPeace campaign
61The Prisoner-Exchange Controversy Prisoner exchanges for 1st part of war, no large prison camps neededExchange ends after Confederates threat to kill Black soldiers and their white officersFort Pillow MassacreGenerally not enforced, Blacks returned to their mastersPrison campsOvercrowded, poorly constructed12% of Confederate prisoners died, 16% of UnionAndersonvilleLincoln refuses to renew exchanges unless Black and White prisoners treated the same
62The Issue of Black Soldiers in the Confederate Army Winter of : Confederates desperateConfederate government agrees to recruit slaves
63The Capture of Atlanta Month-long stalemate at Atlanta front Sherman’s army attacked and captured railroad into AtlantaAtlanta falls to Sherman September 1864
64From Atlanta to the SeaUnion armies destroy Confederate property, railroads, factories, farms that supported the Southern ArmySherman’s forces burned one-third of Atlanta and marched to Savannah, wrecking most everything along the way
66Fort Fisher and Sherman’s March through the Carolinas Fall of Fort Fisher ends blockade runningSherman’s march of destruction from Savannah into South CarolinaWar could not end until Confederate forces surrendered
67The Road to Appomattox Sheridan’s cavalry and Five Forks Lee Abandons Richmond and PetersburgLee surrenders to Grant
68The Assassination of Lincoln Ford’s Theatre, April 1865John Wilkes BoothConfederate armies continued to surrender April – JuneJefferson Davis: captured in Georgia
69Conclusion Civil War cost 625,000 lives Since 1865, no state has seriously threatened secession1865: Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery and ensured liberty of all AmericansRegional transfer of power from South to North