Presentation on theme: "Ch. 1 - The Nature of Science Defining Science Problem-Solving Scientific Method Experimental Design."— Presentation transcript:
Ch. 1 - The Nature of Science Defining Science Problem-Solving Scientific Method Experimental Design
A. Defining Science 1-1 p6 Pure Science research that adds to the body of scientific knowledge has no practical (little everyday) use Applied Science (Technology) the practical application of scientific knowledge makes pure science practical
A. Defining Science PURE human genetics polymer science atomic theory study of the human ear APPLIED curing disease, forensic science rubber, spandex, plastics, composites nuclear weapons, electrical power, MRI hearing aids, cochlear implants
A. Defining Science Life Science the study of living organisms biology, A&P, botany, microbiology, histology, zoology, entomology Earth Science the study of Earth and space geology, meteorology, astronomy, oceanography Physical Science the study of matter and energy chemistry and physics
B. Problem-Solving 1-2 p10 1. Identify the problem. What do you know? What do you need to know? 2. Plan a strategy. Look for patterns. Break the problem into smaller steps. Develop a model.
B. Problem-Solving 3. Execute your plan. 4. Evaluate your results. Did you solve the problem? Is your answer reasonable? Identify - Plan - Execute - Evaluate
C. Scientific Method p16 Hypothesis - testable prediction Theory - explanation of “why” based on many observations & experimental results highest level of scientific explanation Scientific Law - prediction of “what” describes a pattern in nature
C. Scientific Method Theories and laws are very well- accepted by scientists, but... They are revised when new information is discovered. Rely on specific scrutiny, logic & reason. THEY ARE NOT SET IN STONE!
C. Scientific Method 1. Determine the problem. 2. Form a hypothesis. 3. Test your hypothesis. 4. Analyze the results. 5. Draw conclusions.
C. Scientific Method 3. Test your hypothesis. How could we test our hypothesis? 4. Analyze the results. What happened during our test? 5. Draw conclusions. Was our hypothesis correct? Is further testing necessary?
D. Experimental Design Experiment - organized procedure for testing a hypothesis Key Components: Control - standard for comparison Constants - experimental controls Single variable - keep other factors constant Repeated trials - for reliability
D. Experimental Design Types of Variables Independent Variable adjusted by the experimenter what the experimenter varies, the focus of the experiment Dependent Variable changes in response to the independent variable what you measure for results
D. Experimental Design Hypothesis: Does Miracle Grow ® improve plant growth? Control: Plant grown without Miracle Grow ®.
D. Experimental Design Single variable: Miracle Grow ® (a prescribed amount) Constants: Soil Amount of water Sunlight exposure Location
D. Experimental Design As a table improve or change this design… How could we modify or improve this experiment to be appropriate for EPS? Find the optimum amount of miracle grow for plant growth. Compare different plant fertilizers.
Density Lab Heads Up Inquiry Experiment Design Experiment - Student developed procedure Must be approved Process over Product! Graphing