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The War From the shots fired at Lexington in 1775 to the final singing of the peace treaty in 1783, the American war for independence or Revolutionary.

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Tea Problems 1773 the British East India Co, with a surplus of 17 million lbs of unsold tea was facing bankruptcy If it collapsed, London would lose heavy.

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Presentation on theme: "The War From the shots fired at Lexington in 1775 to the final singing of the peace treaty in 1783, the American war for independence or Revolutionary."— Presentation transcript:

1 The War From the shots fired at Lexington in 1775 to the final singing of the peace treaty in 1783, the American war for independence or Revolutionary War, was a long and bitter struggle. Americans not only fought a war during this period but also forged a new national identity The former colonies became the United States 2.6 mil people lived in the 13 colonies, only 1/3 were actively involved in the struggle They were called the American Patriots 1/3 patriot, 1/3 loyalists (Tories), 1/3 neutral

2 Patriots The largest number of patriots were from the New England states and Virginia Most soldiers were reluctant to travel outside their own region They would serve in the local militia and leave for a short time to return to their crops Even though 700,000 people fought on the Patriots side Washington never had a standing army more than 20,000 The continental army was chronically short of supplies, poorly equipped, and rarely paid

3 African Americans Initially, Washington rejected the idea of African Americans serving in the Continental Army When Britain promised freedom to slaves who joined their side, Washington and congress quickly made the same offer Approximately 5,000 African Americans fought as Patriots, most being freeman from the North Most fought in mixed racial forces, although there were some all-African American units African-Americans took part in most of the military actions of the war but many worked in manual labor jobs, such as road construction, supply lines and fort construction A number of African Americans including Peter Salem, were recognized for their bravery

4 Loyalists (Tories) The revolutionary war was in some respects a civil war in which ant-British Patriots fought pro-British Loyalists Those who maintained their loyalty to the Crown were also called Tories (named after the Political party in Britain 60,000 American Tories fought along side the British 500,000-750,000 Tories in general (20-30%) of the American population In New York< New Jersey, and Georgia loyalists were probably the majority After the war 80,000 Loyalists emigrated to Canada or Britain The majority of Patriots tended to be from the wealthier aristocratic class which tended to be more conservative

5 American Losses and Hardships In the first three years of the war, 1775-1777, went badly for Washingtons poorly trained and equipped Army It barely escaped complete disaster in a Battle for New York City in 1776 By the end of 1777 British Troops occupied both New York and Philadelphia (after the loss of Philadelphia Washingtons demoralized troops suffered through the severed winter of 1777-1778 camped at Valley Forge in Pennsylvania Economic troubles added to the Patriots bleak prospects British occupation of American Ports resulted in a 95% decline in the trade between 1775-1777 Goods were scarce, and inflation rampant The paper money issued by congress known as the Continentals, became almost worthless

6 Alliance with France A few American military achievements early in the war had little impact on other nations The turning point in the war for the American revolutionaries came with a victory at Saratoga in Upstate New York Oct 1777 British forces under Gen. John Burgoyne had marched from Canada in an effort to cut off New England's supplies from the rest of the colonies But Burgoynes troops were attacked at Saratoga by troops commanded by American Gen. Horatio Gates and Benedict Arnold The diplomatic outcome of the battle was even more important that the military result This American victory persuaded France to join the war King Louis XVI, felt he could weaken his foe by helping undermine its colonial empire France secretly started to give aid (money and supplies) to the American Colonists as early as 1775, after Saratoga in 1778 France openly allied itself with the Colonies The French alliance provided a decisive factor in the American struggle because it widen the war and forced the British to divert military resources away from America

7 Victory Faced with a larger war, Britain decided to consolidate its forces in America. British troops were pulled out of Philadelphia, and New York became the chief base of British operations In a campaign through the summer and winter of 1778-1779, George Rogers Clark captured a series of British forts in the Illinois country to gain control of parts of the vast Ohio Territory In 1780, the British adopted a southern strategy, (under Lord Cornwallis) concentrating its military campaigns in Virginia and the Carolinas

8 Yorktown and the Peace of Paris In 1787 the last major battle of the Revolutionary war was fought near Yorktown, Virginia Strongly supported by French Naval forces, Washingtons army forced the surrender of a large British Army commanded by Gen Charles Cornwallis In London news of Cornwallis defeat came as a heavy blow The war had become increasingly unpopular in England and placed a heavy strain on the British Economy Lord North and other Tories ministers resigned and were replaced by leaders of the Whig party who wanted to end the war 1783 the Peace treaty in Paris finally ended the war 1.Britain would recognize the existence of the United States as and Independent nation 2.The Mississippi river would be the western boundary 3.Americans would have fishing rights off the coast of Canada 4.Americans would pay debt owed to British merchants and honor loyalists claims for property confiscated during the war

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