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Review 1500-1800. Early Exploration Spanish & Portuguese were first Spanish & Portuguese were first Why? Why? The 3 Gs – gold, glory & gospel The 3 Gs.

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Presentation on theme: "Review 1500-1800. Early Exploration Spanish & Portuguese were first Spanish & Portuguese were first Why? Why? The 3 Gs – gold, glory & gospel The 3 Gs."— Presentation transcript:

1 Review

2 Early Exploration Spanish & Portuguese were first Spanish & Portuguese were first Why? Why? The 3 Gs – gold, glory & gospel The 3 Gs – gold, glory & gospel North West Passage to Asia. North West Passage to Asia. Trade for Asian spices, silk, porcelain Trade for Asian spices, silk, porcelain Treaty of Tordesillas, Treaty of Tordesillas, Pope negotiated Pope negotiated divides the New World divides the New World Portugal gets Brazil Portugal gets Brazil Spain gets most of the Americas: New Spain Spain gets most of the Americas: New Spain English defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 marks a shift in power English defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 marks a shift in power British, Dutch & French begin to influence the Americas British, Dutch & French begin to influence the Americas

3 French Early explorers Early explorers Champlain (1608, St. Lawrence River) Champlain (1608, St. Lawrence River) Marquette & de la Salle (explored length of Mississippi R) Marquette & de la Salle (explored length of Mississippi R) Discover fishing grounds off Canadian (New France) coast Discover fishing grounds off Canadian (New France) coast Realize the potential of the fur trade Realize the potential of the fur trade Dont establish large settlements Dont establish large settlements Trade with the Indians Trade with the Indians Franco-Indian relations are strong Franco-Indian relations are strong

4 Dutch Early explorers Early explorers Henry Hudson (1609, Hudson River) Henry Hudson (1609, Hudson River) Settled in New Amsterdam (now NYC) Settled in New Amsterdam (now NYC) Patroon plantation system Patroon plantation system

5 British Early explorers Early explorers Raleigh (Roanoke Island, Virginia) Raleigh (Roanoke Island, Virginia) Virginia Company, Virginia Company, Jamestown Jamestown Gentlemen seeking gold & quick wealth Gentlemen seeking gold & quick wealth Saved by tobacco, John Smith, and John Rolfe Saved by tobacco, John Smith, and John Rolfe Indenture system brought labour from England Indenture system brought labour from England Pilgrims on Mayflower to Plymouth, 1620 Pilgrims on Mayflower to Plymouth, 1620 Religious exiles Religious exiles Mayflower Compact Mayflower Compact Small settlement of families Small settlement of families Massachusetts Bay Company Massachusetts Bay Company Puritans & Separatists Puritans & Separatists Religious exiles Religious exiles John Winthrop (City on a Hill) John Winthrop (City on a Hill) Great Migration = Great Migration = Dissidents (Roger Williams, Anne Hutchinson) from Mass. formed Rhode Island (1644), and Connecticut (1639, Fundamental Orders of Connecticut). Dissidents (Roger Williams, Anne Hutchinson) from Mass. formed Rhode Island (1644), and Connecticut (1639, Fundamental Orders of Connecticut). Maryland – haven for Roman Catholics. Maryland – haven for Roman Catholics. South Carolina – settled by English planters from Barbados. South Carolina – settled by English planters from Barbados. North Carolina – overflow from Virginia. North Carolina – overflow from Virginia. NY and NJ – captured from Dutch. NY and NJ – captured from Dutch.

6 British Colonies – Basic Differences New England - harsh climate, infertile soils, small farms, lumber, fishing, shipbuilding. Heavy Puritan influence. New England - harsh climate, infertile soils, small farms, lumber, fishing, shipbuilding. Heavy Puritan influence. Middle Colonies (NY, NJ, Penn, Del) – milder climate, fertile soils, mixed agriculture, ethnically mixed, Dutch, German, British. Many Quakers. Middle Colonies (NY, NJ, Penn, Del) – milder climate, fertile soils, mixed agriculture, ethnically mixed, Dutch, German, British. Many Quakers. Chesapeake colonies (VA, MD) – tobacco plantations, more aristocratic, Church of England, hot, wet, unhealthy. Chesapeake colonies (VA, MD) – tobacco plantations, more aristocratic, Church of England, hot, wet, unhealthy. Southern colonies (NC, SC, Georgia) – NC more like VA, but SC & Georgia big plantations, indigo, rice, cotton, communication by river, horrible roads, indentured labor followed by slaves. Southern colonies (NC, SC, Georgia) – NC more like VA, but SC & Georgia big plantations, indigo, rice, cotton, communication by river, horrible roads, indentured labor followed by slaves.

7 British Colonial Attitudes Colonies exist for benefit of the Mother country. Colonies exist for benefit of the Mother country. Mercantilist policy reflects this belief. Mercantilist policy reflects this belief. Britain interested in status quo – colonies provide Britain with raw materials, Britain exports manufactured goods to colonies. Britain interested in status quo – colonies provide Britain with raw materials, Britain exports manufactured goods to colonies. Britain busy with its own internal power struggles (Civil War, Glorious Revolution), and leave colonists to govern themselves (Salutary Neglect). Britain busy with its own internal power struggles (Civil War, Glorious Revolution), and leave colonists to govern themselves (Salutary Neglect). France presents a danger to British colonies. France presents a danger to British colonies. Hence French & Indian War, Very expensive. Britain incurs debt. After victory, Britain feels need to keep Redcoats on American soil as defensive force. Hence French & Indian War, Very expensive. Britain incurs debt. After victory, Britain feels need to keep Redcoats on American soil as defensive force. Britain wants to avoid unnecessary conflict with Indians ~ Proclamation of 1763, limiting colonists from settling land west of Appalachian Mt ridge. Britain wants to avoid unnecessary conflict with Indians ~ Proclamation of 1763, limiting colonists from settling land west of Appalachian Mt ridge. Britain thinks it is only reasonable for colonists to help pay the debt incurred during recent war ~ taxation of colonists. Britain thinks it is only reasonable for colonists to help pay the debt incurred during recent war ~ taxation of colonists. Britain argues that colonists have virtual representation in Br. Parliament. Britain argues that colonists have virtual representation in Br. Parliament. British govt. is contemptuous of colonial grievances, & respond with scorn. British govt. is contemptuous of colonial grievances, & respond with scorn. Impose Quartering Act (10,000 Redcoats). Impose Quartering Act (10,000 Redcoats). Impose Stamp Act (1765). Later repeal it due to colonial outrage. Impose Stamp Act (1765). Later repeal it due to colonial outrage. Next come Townshend Acts – indirect taxes. Townshend taxes repealed by Br., but tax on tea remains. Next come Townshend Acts – indirect taxes. Townshend taxes repealed by Br., but tax on tea remains.

8 American Colonists Attitude Puritans think it is lovely to be able to practice their faith without persecution. Puritans think it is lovely to be able to practice their faith without persecution. Consider themselves British and loyal to the king. Consider themselves British and loyal to the king. But distance across the Atlantic is great, which over time leads to a sense of difference and to misunderstandings. But distance across the Atlantic is great, which over time leads to a sense of difference and to misunderstandings. Communication to England is slow & infrequent. Communication to England is slow & infrequent. Over time the colonists become more ethnically mixed (Dutch, Germans), and thus different from Old England. Over time the colonists become more ethnically mixed (Dutch, Germans), and thus different from Old England. Appreciate the period of Salutary Neglect, and begin to develop a sense of independence. Appreciate the period of Salutary Neglect, and begin to develop a sense of independence. Some colonists influenced by Enlightenment ideas in Europe – democracy. Some colonists influenced by Enlightenment ideas in Europe – democracy.

9 Causes of Revolutionary War Proclamation of 1763 really upsets the colonists. Proclamation of 1763 really upsets the colonists. Also not pleased with Quartering Act. Also not pleased with Quartering Act. Taxes to pay off Fr & Ind. War peeves colonists. No taxation w/o representation. Taxes to pay off Fr & Ind. War peeves colonists. No taxation w/o representation. Colonists dont believe in virtual representation. Colonists dont believe in virtual representation. Impose boycott of British goods in response to Stamp Act. Impose boycott of British goods in response to Stamp Act. Colonists smuggling goods to avoid British taxes. British try to stop this. Various nasty incidents, the worst of which is Gaspee incident. Colonists smuggling goods to avoid British taxes. British try to stop this. Various nasty incidents, the worst of which is Gaspee incident. Creation of Sons & Daughters of Liberty. Creation of Sons & Daughters of Liberty. John Dickinson writes Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania, complaining of tax w/o rep. John Dickinson writes Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania, complaining of tax w/o rep. Tea tax continues to upset some. Tea tax continues to upset some. Tea Act (1773) gives Br. East India Co. monopoly on tea sales in colonies ~ Boston Tea Party. Tea Act (1773) gives Br. East India Co. monopoly on tea sales in colonies ~ Boston Tea Party. British respond with Intolerable (Coercive) Acts to punish colonists. British respond with Intolerable (Coercive) Acts to punish colonists. Quebec Act misinterpreted by colonists as another anti-British act. Quebec Act misinterpreted by colonists as another anti-British act. First Continental Congress (1774) called to express dismay to king. First Continental Congress (1774) called to express dismay to king. Lexington & Concord, April Lexington & Concord, April Second Continental Congress, May Second Continental Congress, May Olive Branch Petition from Cont. Cong. to King George III. Olive Branch Petition from Cont. Cong. to King George III. King rejects Petition. King rejects Petition. Thomas Paine writes Common Sense (Jan. 1776) urging independence. Thomas Paine writes Common Sense (Jan. 1776) urging independence. Declaration of Independence (Jefferson prime writer), July 4, Declaration of Independence (Jefferson prime writer), July 4, 1776.

10 Articles of Confederation Articles of Confederation : sovereignty of states over the federal govt; unicameral Congress; one vote one state (same as old Continental Congress); amendments only if unanimous agreement amongst the states; empowered to make war ; make treaties ; admit new states ; BUT NOT empowered to levy taxes, raise troops, or regulate commerce : sovereignty of states over the federal govt; unicameral Congress; one vote one state (same as old Continental Congress); amendments only if unanimous agreement amongst the states; empowered to make war ; make treaties ; admit new states ; BUT NOT empowered to levy taxes, raise troops, or regulate commerce. Ratification of A of C delayed by arguments about status of western lands (Virginia held extensive holdings, but Maryland held no western lands. What was fair ? Eventually Va. agreed to surrender all western land claims to the feds.) Ratification of A of C delayed by arguments about status of western lands (Virginia held extensive holdings, but Maryland held no western lands. What was fair ? Eventually Va. agreed to surrender all western land claims to the feds.) Financial disaster. Unable to tax. Printed Continentals instead ~ massive inflation. Govt forced to rely on loans from foreign countries (France, Neth.). Rhode Island blocked an amendment to give Congress power to tax. Army not paid, threatened to mutiny. Financial disaster. Unable to tax. Printed Continentals instead ~ massive inflation. Govt forced to rely on loans from foreign countries (France, Neth.). Rhode Island blocked an amendment to give Congress power to tax. Army not paid, threatened to mutiny.

11 Westward Movement Wilderness Road, 1775, Daniel Boone, through Cumberland Gap, over the Appalachians Wilderness Road, 1775, Daniel Boone, through Cumberland Gap, over the Appalachians By 1790, 100,000 settlers in Ky & Tenn. Indian troubles extensive. British forts (Treaty of Paris ??) made matters worse for the settlers, as Br. Agitated the Indians to oppose the American advance. Spanish in Florida reacted the same way.By 1790, 100,000 settlers in Ky & Tenn. Indian troubles extensive. British forts (Treaty of Paris ??) made matters worse for the settlers, as Br. Agitated the Indians to oppose the American advance. Spanish in Florida reacted the same way. Land Ordinance of 1784 (provided terr. Govt. and orderly system for terr. To progress towards statehood. Land Ordinance of 1784 (provided terr. Govt. and orderly system for terr. To progress towards statehood. Land Ordinance of 1785 (AKA N.W. Ordinance of orderly surveying & distrib. of land in townships 6 miles square, composed of 36 one-square mile sections, one of which to be set aside for education. Land Ordinance of 1785 (AKA N.W. Ordinance of orderly surveying & distrib. of land in townships 6 miles square, composed of 36 one-square mile sections, one of which to be set aside for education. N.W. Ordinance of 1787 ( gave bill of rights for settlers, & forbade slavery N. of Ohio River.) N.W. Ordinance of 1787 ( gave bill of rights for settlers, & forbade slavery N. of Ohio River.) These Ordinances were greatest successes of A of C. These Ordinances were greatest successes of A of C.

12 Economic Problems Still tied to old British trade patterns Still tied to old British trade patterns Nation needed time to change, or expand, its trade partners, and to improve its export capabilities.Nation needed time to change, or expand, its trade partners, and to improve its export capabilities. Farmers were obliged to accept British prices for agric. products, and to buy British manuf. goods.Farmers were obliged to accept British prices for agric. products, and to buy British manuf. goods. Shays Rebellion, 1786 Shays Rebellion, 1786 Western Mass. farmers are in desperate economic straits (high taxes, states war debts). Western Mass. farmers are in desperate economic straits (high taxes, states war debts). War vet. Daniel Shays leads a mob to shut down the courts which are seizing farms due to farmer debts. War vet. Daniel Shays leads a mob to shut down the courts which are seizing farms due to farmer debts. This disturbance causes panic in the EastThis disturbance causes panic in the East Bostonians financed an army to march west & crush the rebellion Bostonians financed an army to march west & crush the rebellion Many are left fearful that a weak federal govt without the power to raise an army will not survive. Many are left fearful that a weak federal govt without the power to raise an army will not survive. New Constitution ?New Constitution ?

13 Constitution Annapolis (Md) Convention, Only 5 states came. Annapolis (Md) Convention, Only 5 states came. Constitutional Convention, PhilaConventions proceedings secret Constitutional Convention, PhilaConventions proceedings secret Wanted a system of checks & balances to avoid dictatorial abuses Wanted a system of checks & balances to avoid dictatorial abuses James Madison, father of the Const. James Madison, father of the Const. Virginia Plan, bicameral, both based on pop. Virginia Plan, bicameral, both based on pop. New Jersey Plan, unicameral, equal state rep, increased fed. powers. New Jersey Plan, unicameral, equal state rep, increased fed. powers. Great Compromise (Connecticut Compromise) – Presidency, Senate with equal rep, & H of Reps with rep based on pop. Great Compromise (Connecticut Compromise) – Presidency, Senate with equal rep, & H of Reps with rep based on pop. SLAVERY ? Neither endorsed nor condemned by Const. Three-Fifths Compromise (for apportioning reps, & taxation). SLAVERY ? Neither endorsed nor condemned by Const. Three-Fifths Compromise (for apportioning reps, & taxation). Strong Presidency with veto power over Congress. Impeachment in case of Pres committing crime. Strong Presidency with veto power over Congress. Impeachment in case of Pres committing crime. Electoral College to elect Pres Electoral College to elect Pres Began division of nation into factions, or parties. Began division of nation into factions, or parties. Federalists in favour of strong fed. PowersFederalists in favour of strong fed. Powers Anti-federalists in favour of stronger state powers.Anti-federalists in favour of stronger state powers. Federalist Papers (Hamilton, Jay, Madison) were newspaper articles designed to convince the public in favour of the Const.Federalist Papers (Hamilton, Jay, Madison) were newspaper articles designed to convince the public in favour of the Const. What about a Bill of Rights to protect individual liberties ?What about a Bill of Rights to protect individual liberties ?

14 Federalist Era Congress dominated by Federalists in first few years Congress dominated by Federalists in first few years Bill of Rights (first 10 Amendments), 1791 Bill of Rights (first 10 Amendments), 1791 Judiciary Act, 1789, set up Supreme Court (this is the Act that Marshall will find unconstit. in Marbury.v. Madison). Judiciary Act, 1789, set up Supreme Court (this is the Act that Marshall will find unconstit. in Marbury.v. Madison). Washington estab. a Cabinet (not mentioned in Const) Washington estab. a Cabinet (not mentioned in Const) Hamilton pushed for paying the national debt at face value (at par), plus fed assumption of state debts, estab of a Bank of the US, and tax & subsidy help to encourage American manufacturing. Get revenue from protective tariff, and from tax on distillers (Whiskey Rebellion) Hamilton pushed for paying the national debt at face value (at par), plus fed assumption of state debts, estab of a Bank of the US, and tax & subsidy help to encourage American manufacturing. Get revenue from protective tariff, and from tax on distillers (Whiskey Rebellion) Jefferson opposed much of Hamiltons financial plan (enrich a small elite at the expense of the yeoman farmer) Jefferson opposed much of Hamiltons financial plan (enrich a small elite at the expense of the yeoman farmer) Federalists & Republican parties beginning to form Federalists & Republican parties beginning to form Hamilton & Feds pushing the idea of implied powers Hamilton & Feds pushing the idea of implied powers Jeff & Reps pushing idea of strict interpretation of Const Jeff & Reps pushing idea of strict interpretation of Const

15 Foreign Policy French Revolution. America Neutral. Citizen Genet a nuisance. Both Br & Fr interfering with Am shipping. Jays Treaty, 1794, tried to settle matter with Br, but unpopular back home. French Revolution. America Neutral. Citizen Genet a nuisance. Both Br & Fr interfering with Am shipping. Jays Treaty, 1794, tried to settle matter with Br, but unpopular back home. Pinckneys Treaty with Spain, 1795, by which Spain opened Mississippi as a trade route. Pinckneys Treaty with Spain, 1795, by which Spain opened Mississippi as a trade route. Indian troubles along the frontiers, with Britain, Spain stirring up trouble. General Waynes victory over Indians at Battle of Fallen Timbers ~ Greenville Treaty ~ Ohio Valley opened up to American settlers. Indian troubles along the frontiers, with Britain, Spain stirring up trouble. General Waynes victory over Indians at Battle of Fallen Timbers ~ Greenville Treaty ~ Ohio Valley opened up to American settlers.

16 Domestic Issues Whiskey Rebellion, 1794 Whiskey Rebellion, 1794 Western Penn. farmers balk at excise tax on whiskeyWestern Penn. farmers balk at excise tax on whiskey terrorize tax collectorsterrorize tax collectors Washington sends federal militia of 15,000 – excessiveWashington sends federal militia of 15,000 – excessive Young fed govt gains prestige.Young fed govt gains prestige. New states (Ky, Tenn, Vermont) formed out West, thus strengthening political clout of the West New states (Ky, Tenn, Vermont) formed out West, thus strengthening political clout of the West

17 John Adams Presidency, Adams defeated Jefferson in 1796 Adams defeated Jefferson in 1796 Jefferson becomes V-P Jefferson becomes V-P XYZ Affair, 1798 (French prove difficult to talk to, unless youre loaded) XYZ Affair, 1798 (French prove difficult to talk to, unless youre loaded) Quasi-War, , with France. Result of XYZ Affair, and French interfering with Am shipping. Embargo on trade with France, & Am ships ordered to shoot at armed French ships. Napoleon eases the tension with treaty in Quasi-War, , with France. Result of XYZ Affair, and French interfering with Am shipping. Embargo on trade with France, & Am ships ordered to shoot at armed French ships. Napoleon eases the tension with treaty in Alien & Sedition Acts, Adams stifling foreign influences, and stifling dissent of the opposition Republicans. Alien & Sedition Acts, Adams stifling foreign influences, and stifling dissent of the opposition Republicans. Kentucky & Virginia Resolutions. Reps think A & S Acts are unconstit, but who decides the constit of fed laws ? Jefferson & Madison say we do, the states. They use John Lockes compact theory to argue that states can freely nullify fed laws which are obnoxious to the state. Ky & Va actually adopted the Resolutions, but no one else did, and when A & S Acts were nixed soon after, the issue died. But John C. Calhoun had been listening, and he would pick up on the idea in the 1830s nullification crisis, and the South would secede in 1861 on the same principle. Kentucky & Virginia Resolutions. Reps think A & S Acts are unconstit, but who decides the constit of fed laws ? Jefferson & Madison say we do, the states. They use John Lockes compact theory to argue that states can freely nullify fed laws which are obnoxious to the state. Ky & Va actually adopted the Resolutions, but no one else did, and when A & S Acts were nixed soon after, the issue died. But John C. Calhoun had been listening, and he would pick up on the idea in the 1830s nullification crisis, and the South would secede in 1861 on the same principle.

18 Beginnings to Constitution Even though the Albany Plan of Union was not successful, why was it an important precedent? Even though the Albany Plan of Union was not successful, why was it an important precedent? For what three reasons did Native Americans side with France during the French and Indian War? For what three reasons did Native Americans side with France during the French and Indian War? In what three ways did the Seven Years War directly affect the colonists growing discontent toward the British? In what three ways did the Seven Years War directly affect the colonists growing discontent toward the British? How did the Sugar Act differ from the preceding Navigation Acts? How did the Sugar Act differ from the preceding Navigation Acts? How did colonial protest evolve? What steps were initially ineffective and what later steps proved successful? How did colonial protest evolve? What steps were initially ineffective and what later steps proved successful? What poor choices made by the British eventually heightened the pre-Revolutionary era conflict? What poor choices made by the British eventually heightened the pre-Revolutionary era conflict? In what ways did the colonies attempt to unite and/or share information? In what ways did the colonies attempt to unite and/or share information? Why could many colonists rightly claim that the conflict was primarily a Boston issue? Why could many colonists rightly claim that the conflict was primarily a Boston issue? What were the three main results of the First Continental Congress? What were the three main results of the First Continental Congress? What was the significance of the shot heard round the world? What was the significance of the shot heard round the world? John Adams once claimed that 1/3 of the colonists were for revolution, 1/3 were against, and 1/3 didnt really care. What types of people fell into each category? John Adams once claimed that 1/3 of the colonists were for revolution, 1/3 were against, and 1/3 didnt really care. What types of people fell into each category? What documents were most influential during the Revolutionary Era? What was the purpose of each? What documents were most influential during the Revolutionary Era? What was the purpose of each? What factors contributed to America being able to win the Revolutionary War? What factors contributed to America being able to win the Revolutionary War? What were the faults and the strengths of the Articles of Confederation? What were the faults and the strengths of the Articles of Confederation? What were the main events of the Critical Era? What were the main events of the Critical Era? What compromises needed to be made for the Constitution to be successful? What compromises needed to be made for the Constitution to be successful? What were the positions of the Federalists and Anti-Federalists? What were the positions of the Federalists and Anti-Federalists?

19 Washington to Jefferson What were the precedents established by Washington during his presidency? What were the precedents established by Washington during his presidency? How did Hamiltons economic policies differ from those of Jefferson? How did Hamiltons economic policies differ from those of Jefferson? To what extent was did the French Revolution cause dissension in America? To what extent was did the French Revolution cause dissension in America? What elements of Adams and Jeffersons presidencies foreshadowed future conflicts between political parties and geographic regions? What elements of Adams and Jeffersons presidencies foreshadowed future conflicts between political parties and geographic regions? How were the branches of the Federal Government strengthened during Jeffersons Presidency? How were the branches of the Federal Government strengthened during Jeffersons Presidency? What was the relation between expansion and slavery? What attempts were made to postpone conflict? What was the relation between expansion and slavery? What attempts were made to postpone conflict? Prior to the 1804 election what problem kept plaguing the presidential election? Prior to the 1804 election what problem kept plaguing the presidential election? How did Jeffersons interpretation of the role of Vice- President differ significantly from that of Adamss and that used today? How did Jeffersons interpretation of the role of Vice- President differ significantly from that of Adamss and that used today?


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