Presentation on theme: "Write out the following and fill in the blanks"— Presentation transcript:
1 Write out the following and fill in the blanks March 6th WARM-UPSWrite out the following and fill in the blanksClassification of organisms is important because______________________________________________________________________._____________ ______________ are used to group organisms together.As the number of ______________ ______________ used to group different organisms increases the number of different types of organisms in the group __________.
2 Diversity of LifeChapter we are going to look at the history, purpose, and methods of classification of species on Earth. The classification is called taxonomy and a Biologist that specializes in taxonomy is called a taxonomist.
3 When you want to go buy some music you go to a music store that has all of the music grouped together in catagories. By knowing in which grouping the CD is in, you can know that the music on the CD has certain characteristics. It works the same way for understanding life on Earth…How would knowing in which section of the music store an unfamiliar CD is located be helpful in gathering information about the CD?
4 We classify organisms Classification means sorting things into groups. to make recognition and description easier.And just like the CDs in the music store are classified as particular types of music based on the characteristics of the music, Organisms are divided into groups according to their characteristics and given scientific names.Expanding on Linnaeus’s work today’s taxonomists try to identify the underlying natural relationships of organisms and use that information as a base for classification…
5 Mare, trout, parrot, quarter horse, woodpecker, cocker spaniel, gold fish, Great Dane, eagle, bass, beagle, hawk, stallion, Dalmatian, sharkAirLandNon waterAnimalsWaterDogsHorsesIf I were to ask you to put these animals into 2 groups how would you do it?List the two groups in your BINList three groups in your BINList four groups in your BIN
6 In order to better understand the organisms of Earth, Biologists organize them into groups.
7 The Linnean hierarchical classification was set up with the species as the smallest unit, and that each species was nested within a higher category.In the late 18th century Swedish botanist, Carolus Linnaeus developed a method that was based on physical and structural similarities of organisms.Linnaeus’s system was based on physical and structural similarities of organisms. Some characteristic of the organisms were similar to each other so they get grouped together.Carolus Linnaeus
8 Binomial Nomenclature A two word naming system used to identify speciesFor example Man in English is Hombre in Spanish, Herr in German, Ren in Chinese, and Homo in Latin.If a scientist refers today to Homo, all scientistsknow what organism/taxon he or she means.The first thing Linneus had to do was come up with some sort of universal language for his classification system.Linneus developed the concept of binomial nomenclature, whereby scientists speaking and writing different languages could communicate clearly.For instance….Linneus settled on Latin, which was the language of learned men at that time.So…
9 Binomial Nomenclature A two word naming system used to identify speciesHomo sapiensIdentifies the genusof the organismDescribes a characteristicof the organismItalicized in print or underlined when handwrittenLet’s take for example the scientific name for man -- Homo SapienThe first term identifies the genus of the organism. A genus consists of a group of similar species and is the next step up from species in the hierarchy classification system.The second term is a descriptive term it describes the organism.The scientific name for each species is a combination of the genus and descriptive names.Modern humans are in the genus homo and one of their characteristic is intelligence, the Latin word sapiens means wise.Taxonomists continue to use Latin because it is no longer used in conversation so it doesn’t change.There are particular ways the scientific name is written…Although a scientific name gives information about the relationships of an organism and how it is classified many organisms have common names, however common names can be confusing…a sea horse isn’t a horse it is a fish and many organisms have different common names depending on the part of the worldThe first letter of the genus name is capitalizedThe first letter of the descriptive name is lower casecommon name
10 How living things are classified KingdomPhylumClassOrderFamilyGenusSpecies
11 How living things are classified KingdomPhylumClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesOrganisms that look alike and successfullyinterbreed belong to the same speciesA group of similar species that have similarfeatures and are closely related.A group of similar genera, each sharingsimilar characteristicsThe smallest group is the species, one or more species with similar characteristics make-up a genus, one or more genera with common traits compose a family, a group of families that share traits make up an order, orders with common characteristics compose a class, classes make up a phylum, and a Kingdom contains one or more phylaEach of these categories is referred to as a TAXON or TAXA is plural. Each Taxon contains sub groups of the smaller taxa that have something in common.Let’s take a look at cats – cats, lions, leopards, etc.A lynx and a mountain lion do not belong to the same genus as domestic cats, lions and leopards this is because their jaws contain 30 teeth and the lynx and bobcat’s jaws contain 28 teeth.They do however belong to the same family. All Cats within the family of Felidae share certain characteristics – short faces, small ears, forelimbs with five toes and hind limbs with four toes.Is a taxon of similar familiesIs a taxon of similar ordersIs a group of similar classesA group of similar phyla or divisions
12 How living things are classified KingdomAnimaliaPhylumChordataClassMammaliaOrderCarnivoraFamilyFelidaeGenusFelisGenusLynxSpeciesSpeciesTake a mountain lion, a domestic cat, and a puma – they are each different species. The bobcat and the lynx are also species.The mt lion, domestic cat, and the puma have several common traits one of which is that they all have 30 teeth. When a group of species share specific common traits they are all put into the same genus, the mt lion, domestic cat and the puma are in the genus Felis. The bobcat and the lynx don’t share as many traits with those species found in the genus felis, one difference is they only have 28 teeth, they are put into a different genus where they have more share more traits with other species, they are in the genus lynx.Both genra have enough common traits, in fact all of the genra that contain cat species are grouped together into the family felidaeThe family felidae is grouped together with other familys that contain meat eaters and placed in the order carnivoraThe order carnivora along with all other orders that contain mammals are grouped together in the class mammaliaThe class mammalia along with all the other classes that contain organisms with backbones are grouped together in the phylum chordataThe phylum chordata along with all the other phyla of animals are grouped together into the kingdom animaliaAs we go up thru the groups the number of organisms increases.Species are smaller more select or specialized – Kingdom is broader contains a lot of different types of organism
13 On Freeways Get Squashed. Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, SpeciesKings Play CardsOn Fat Green Stools.Kings Play CardsOn Fat Green Stools.Kids Playing with CarsOn Freeways Get Squashed.
14 KingdomPhylumClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesExample: ManAnimalChordataMammaliaPrimateHominidaeHomoH.sapienUsing or previous example of the species Homo sapien, common name MAN. Man belongs to the kingdom Animal, the phylum chordata; chordata is not the only phylum contained in the kingdom animal. Man is in the class Mammalia, there are several other classes within the phylum chordata. The order primate, the family hominidae the genus Homo and the species sapien.Kingdom: Animalia (all animals, which are heterotrophs)Phylum: Chordata (all animals with a notochord)Subphylum: Vertebrata (all vertebrates, i.e., with a spinal column)Class: Mammalia (all vertebrates whose females secrete milk to nourish young)Order: Primates (mammals with five opposable digits, binocular vision, and large brains)Family: Hominidae (all hominids, current and ancestral)Genus: Homo (upright primates; 'man')Species: Homo sapiens (humanity; 'wise man')The number of kinds of organisms decreases down the spectrum until there is only one kind of organism left for the group 'species‘.
15 Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species apes Homo monkeys New worldOld worldmonkeysPrimateTarsierslemursProsimianshominoidsMammaliaChordataAnimaliaSapiensPhylumClassOrderFamilyGenusSpecies
16 Diversity of LifeChapter we are going to look at the history, purpose, and methods of classification of species on Earth. The classification is called taxonomy and a Biologist that specializes in taxonomy is called a taxonomist.