Presentation on theme: "BritainAmericans Advantages?? Disadvantages?? On the Eve of the Revolution."— Presentation transcript:
BritainAmericans Advantages?? Disadvantages?? On the Eve of the Revolution
Washingtons Headaches Only 1/3 of the colonists were in favor of a war for independence [the other third were Loyalists, and the final third were neutral]. State/colony loyalties. Congress couldnt tax to raise money for the Continental Army. Poor training (until the arrival of Baron von Steuben).
Exports & Imports:
Military Strategies Time/Attrition: the Brits had a long supply line. Space: Avoid pitched battles v. superior forces Gain official recognition from one of Britains enemies. The AmericansThe British Break the colonies in half by getting between the No. & the So. Blockade the ports to prevent the flow of goods and supplies from an ally. Divide and Conquer: enlist the Loyalists.
Phase I: The Northern Campaign
Bunker Hill (June, 1775) The British suffered over 40% casualties.
Phase II: NY & PA [ ]
New York City in Flames (1776)
Washington Crossing the Delaware Painted by Emanuel Leutze, 1851
Saratoga: Turning Point of the War? Saratoga: Turning Point of the War? A modern-day re-enactment
Phase III: The Southern Strategy [ ]
Britains Southern Strategy Britain thought that there were more Loyalists in the South. Southern resources were more valuable/worth preserving. The British win a number of small victories, but cannot pacify the countryside [similar to U. S. failures in Vietnam!] Good US General: Nathanial Greene
The Battle of Yorktown (1781) Count de Rochambeau Admiral De Grasse
Cornwallis Surrender at Yorktown: Painted by John Trumbull, 1797 The World Turned Upside Down!
The Decisive Factors The Alliance with FranceThe Alliance with France Washingtons Ability to LearnWashingtons Ability to Learn SpaceSpace The Mediocrity of the British CommandersThe Mediocrity of the British Commanders
North America After the Treaty of Paris, 1783
Why was Great Britain so Generous? They feared the growing American relations with FranceThey feared the growing American relations with France They wanted to be sure that America was big enough to maintain independenceThey wanted to be sure that America was big enough to maintain independence They still wanted to keep America as a viable market for tradeThey still wanted to keep America as a viable market for trade
Essential Question: To what extent were the Articles of Confederation effective in solving the problems that confronted the new nation?
Social Results of the Revolution Anti-Slavery MovementsAnti-Slavery Movements Criminal Code ReformsCriminal Code Reforms Separation of Church and StateSeparation of Church and State EducationEducation Land ReformLand Reform
Political Results of the Revolution Creation of State governments/written constitutionsCreation of State governments/written constitutions New constitutions placed more power in the legislative branch and less in the executive branchNew constitutions placed more power in the legislative branch and less in the executive branch Political base broadened (more voters)Political base broadened (more voters) Bicameral legislaturesBicameral legislatures No Political PartiesNo Political Parties
Occupational Composition of Several State Assemblies in the 1780s
Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation A unicameral Congress 9 of 13 votes to pass a law Unanimous vote to amend. Representatives were frequently absent Could not tax No executive or judicial branches
Indian Land Cessions:
Disputed Territorial Claims Between Spain & the U. S.:
State Claims to Western Lands
Land Ordinance of 1785
Northwest Ordinance of 1787 One of the major accomplishments of the Confederation Congress! Statehood achieved in three stages: 1.Congress appointed 3 judges & a governor to govern the territory. 2.When population reached 5,000 adult male landowners elect territorial legislature. 3.When population reached 60,000 elect delegates to a state constitutional convention.
The United States in 1787
Wholesale Price Index:
American Exports, To & From Britain:
Annapolis Convention (1786) 12 representatives from 5 states [NY, NJ, PA, DE, VA] GOAL address barriers that limited trade and commerce between the states. Not enough states were represented to make any real progress. Sent a report to the Congress to call a meeting of all the states to meet in Philadelphia to examine areas broader than just trade and commerce.
Shays Rebellion: Daniel Shays Western MA Small farmers angered by crushing debts and taxes.
There could be no stronger evidence of the want of energy in our governments than these disorders. -- George Washington
Importance of the Articles Landmark in GovernmentLandmark in Government Steppingstone toward the ConstitutionSteppingstone toward the Constitution Fought and won a war and concluded a favorable peaceFought and won a war and concluded a favorable peace Weathered a depression and a rebellionWeathered a depression and a rebellion Established long-standing policy on western landsEstablished long-standing policy on western lands
The Constitutional Convention OriginsOrigins –Concern over Shays Rebellion –Economic difficulties –Lack of respect diplomatically –Inability to amend the Articles
The Constitutional Convention Areas of AgreementAreas of Agreement –Sense of Urgency –National government must be strengthened TaxTax Regulate trade: foreign and interstateRegulate trade: foreign and interstate Act w/o consent of statesAct w/o consent of states Act through own agencies and departmentsAct through own agencies and departments –Safeguards against abuse of power
The Constitutional Convention Major CompromisesMajor Compromises –Great Compromise –Three-fifths Compromise –Commerce Compromise
Federalist vs. Anti-Federalist Strongholds at the End of the War