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The American Revolution: 1775-1783.

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Presentation on theme: "The American Revolution: 1775-1783."— Presentation transcript:

1 The American Revolution:

2 On the Eve of the Revolution
Britain Americans Advantages ? Disadvantages

3 Loyalist Strongholds

4 Washington’s Headaches
Only 1/3 of the colonists were in favor of a war for independence [the other third were Loyalists, and the final third were neutral]. State/colony loyalties. Congress couldn’t tax to raise money for the Continental Army. Poor training (until the arrival of Baron von Steuben).

5 Exports & Imports:

6 Military Strategies The Americans The British
Time/Attrition: the Brits had a long supply line. Space: Avoid “pitched” battles v. superior forces Gain official recognition from one of Britain’s enemies. Break the colonies in half by getting between the No. & the So. Blockade the ports to prevent the flow of goods and supplies from an ally. “Divide and Conquer”: enlist the Loyalists.

7 Phase I: The Northern Campaign 1775-1776

8 The British suffered over 40% casualties.
Bunker Hill (June, 1775) The British suffered over 40% casualties.

9 Phase II: NY & PA [ ]

10 New York City in Flames (1776)

11 Washington Crossing the Delaware Painted by Emanuel Leutze, 1851

12 A modern-day re-enactment
Saratoga: “Turning Point” of the War? A modern-day re-enactment

13 Phase III: The Southern Strategy [1780-1781]

14 Britain’s “Southern Strategy”
Britain thought that there were more Loyalists in the South. Southern resources were more valuable/worth preserving. The British win a number of small victories, but cannot pacify the countryside [similar to U. S. failures in Vietnam!] Good US General: Nathanial Greene

15 The Battle of Yorktown (1781)
Count de Rochambeau Admiral De Grasse

16 Cornwallis’ Surrender at Yorktown:
“The World Turned Upside Down!” Painted by John Trumbull, 1797

17 Why did the British Lose???

18 The Decisive Factors The Alliance with France
Washington’s Ability to Learn Space The Mediocrity of the British Commanders

19 North America After the Treaty of Paris, 1783

20 Why was Great Britain so Generous?
They feared the growing American relations with France They wanted to be sure that America was big enough to maintain independence They still wanted to keep America as a viable market for trade

21 Articles of Confederation Government:

22 Essential Question: To what extent were the Articles of Confederation effective in solving the problems that confronted the new nation?

23 Social Results of the Revolution
Anti-Slavery Movements Criminal Code Reforms Separation of Church and State Education Land Reform

24 Political Results of the Revolution
Creation of State governments/written constitutions New constitutions placed more power in the legislative branch and less in the executive branch Political base broadened (more voters) Bicameral legislatures No Political Parties

25 Occupational Composition of Several State Assemblies in the 1780s

26 Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation
A unicameral Congress 9 of 13 votes to pass a law Unanimous vote to amend. Representatives were frequently absent Could not tax No executive or judicial branches

27 Indian Land Cessions: 1768-1799

28 Disputed Territorial Claims Between Spain & the U. S.: 1783-1796

29 State Claims to Western Lands

30 Land Ordinance of 1785

31 Northwest Ordinance of 1787
One of the major accomplishments of the Confederation Congress! Statehood achieved in three stages: Congress appointed 3 judges & a governor to govern the territory. When population reached 5,000 adult male landowners  elect territorial legislature. When population reached 60,000  elect delegates to a state constitutional convention.

32 The United States in 1787

33 Wholesale Price Index: 1770-1789

34 American Exports, To & From Britain: 1783-1789

35 Annapolis Convention (1786)
12 representatives from 5 states [NY, NJ, PA, DE, VA] GOAL  address barriers that limited trade and commerce between the states. Not enough states were represented to make any real progress. Sent a report to the Congress to call a meeting of all the states to meet in Philadelphia to examine areas broader than just trade and commerce.

36 Shays’ Rebellion: 1786-7 Daniel Shays Western MA
Small farmers angered by crushing debts and taxes.

37 Shays’ Rebellion:

38 Shays’ Rebellion: There could be no stronger evidence of the want of energy in our governments than these disorders. -- George Washington

39 Importance of the Articles
Landmark in Government Steppingstone toward the Constitution Fought and won a war and concluded a favorable peace Weathered a depression and a rebellion Established long-standing policy on western lands

40 The Constitutional Convention
Origins Concern over Shays’ Rebellion Economic difficulties Lack of respect diplomatically Inability to amend the Articles

41 The Constitutional Convention
Areas of Agreement Sense of Urgency National government must be strengthened Tax Regulate trade: foreign and interstate Act w/o consent of states Act through own agencies and departments Safeguards against abuse of power

42 The Constitutional Convention
Major Compromises Great Compromise Three-fifths Compromise Commerce Compromise

43 Federalist vs. Anti-Federalist Strongholds at the End of the War

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