Presentation on theme: "The Cold War 1945-1975. The Cold War Defined Period of hostile relations between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. (and respective allies) after the Second World."— Presentation transcript:
The Cold War
The Cold War Defined Period of hostile relations between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. (and respective allies) after the Second World War using any means short of direct military conflict.
Why No Direct Military Conflict?
Origins of the Cold War 1890s: Russian desire to close off parts of east Asia v. the Open Door 1917 Bolshevik Revolution: rivalry becomes ideological
Origins of the Cold War WWII Alliance: a temporary aberration Pure necessity: Common Foe Always tense Media portrayed as friendly, but… Mutual suspicion As victory became eminent, cooperation breaks down
Wartime Conferences Reveal Rivalry Tehran (1943) Most congenial: war still in doubt Confirmed May, 1944 date for Operation Overlord Agreed that Poland would be moved west.
Wartime Conferences Reveal Rivalry Yalta: February, 1945 Last Meeting with FDR (dies in April) Declaration of Liberated Europe pledged to the earliest possible establishment through free elections of Governments responsive to the will of the people; to facilitate where necessary the holding of such elections. Separate declaration on Poland
Yalta: The Big Three
Yalta Four Power Occupation of Germany Reparations U.S.S.R. to enter war v. Japan War Crimes Trials
Yalta Controversies Most Cold War Issues date back to Yalta Liberated Europe, esp. Poland Division of Germany FDR dies in April; tried to be balance between Stalin and Churchill Documents v. Understandings
Wartime Conferences Reveal Rivalry Potsdam: July 1945 FDR Dead Trumans plain speaking Churchill voted out mid-conference Mutual suspicion evident Stalin, Truman and Churchill
Potsdam: Major Decisions Demilitarization and de-nazification War Crimes Trials to be held Unconditional Surrender of Japan Allied Control Council for Germany
The Division of Germany
Origins of the Cold War Salience: the quality of being important or striking; the U.S. and U.S.S.R. were the only two great powers left Hegemony: the dominance of one group over other groups, with or without the threat of force Ideological differences: capitalism v. communism; democracy v. totalitarianism Truman v. Stalin: personality conflicts
Origins of the Cold War Historic Missions U.S. Championing democracy and capitalism: 20 th Century Manifest Destiny (my view) U.S.S.R. Legitimizing and extending the Russian Revolution Expansion along traditional lines: central Europe, Black Sea straits
Formalizing the Cold War: Two Policy Initiatives The Truman Doctrine: The Philosophical Underpinning of U.S. Cold War Policy The Marshall Plan: European Economic Recovery Plan
Formalizing the Cold War Background to the Truman Doctrine Feb. 1947: Britain can no longer support Greece against communist rebels Turkey under pressure to allow Soviet control of Bosporus and Dardanelles
Formalizing the Cold War The Truman Doctrine March, 1947 Special Session of Congress Trumans Speech I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.
Formalizing the Cold War The Truman Doctrine Requests $400,000,000 in aid to Greece and Turkey Based on a new policy: containment George Kennans The Sources of Soviet Conduct Soviet expansion is traditional Russian policy Must be opposed
National Defense Budget
Truman Doctrine Pie Chart Showing Aid to Greece
Containment The Sources of Soviet Conduct The main element of any United States policy toward the Soviet Union, must be that of a long- term, patient but firm and vigilant containment of Russian expansive tendencies.
The Sources of Soviet Conduct The U.S. must counter Soviet pressure against the free institutions of the Western world through the adroit and vigilant application of counter-force at a series of constantly shifting geographical and political points, corresponding to the shifts and maneuvers of Soviet policy.
The Sources of Soviet Conduct Containment would promote tendencies which must eventually find their outlet in either the break-up or the gradual mellowing of Soviet power.
Formalizing the Cold War The Marshall Plan Western Europe also in chaos, years of war destroyed basic infrastructure for economy Weak economies are subject to communist sympathies 1947 Secretary of State George Marshall proposes that the US provide aid to all European nations that need it $13 Billion to Europe by 1952
The Marshall Plan
Formalizing the Cold War The Division of Germany Western occupied Germany (Allies): Federal Republic of Germany Eastern occupied Germany (Soviets): German Democratic Republic
Berlin Blockade and Airlift Because of the 4-way German division, the failure to reach an agreement regarding a unified Germany, and Soviet concerns over the Marshall Plan March 20, 1948: USSR walks out of Control Council March 30, 1948: USSR slows traffic into Berlin June 7, 1948: Western allies plan West German State June 24, 1948: USSR blocks access to Berlin for 321 days: road repairs
The Airlift Chosen over military option 272,000 flights into West Berlin May 12, 1949: Soviets reopen West Berlin
Formalizing the Cold War: NATO v. Warsaw Pact
Formalizing the Cold War The National Security Act of 1947 The Department of Defense Army and Navy placed under Air Force created The Joint Chiefs of Staff: Unified military command Created the National Security Council (NSC): integration of domestic, foreign, and military policies affecting national security. Created the CIA
Major Crises of the Cold War The Berlin Blockade and Airlift (1948) Soviet A-Bomb (1949) Alger Hiss Trial (1949) Red China (1949) McCarthys First Speech (Feb. 1950) Korean War Begins (June 1950)
The Alger Hiss Trial Hiss (circled) listens as Whittaker Chambers testifies Nixon Accuses Hiss The Pumpkins Venona Papers
Later Cold War Crises Suez Crisis (1956) U-2 Incident (1960) Bay of Pigs Invasion (1961) Berlin Wall (1961) Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)