Introduction 3U.S. Isolationism 3Tradition since G. Washington 3From WWI: Why?
Foreign Policy in the 1920s International Finance –U.S. leading creditor nation –Dawes and Young Plans for Germany Washington Naval Conference, 1921-22 –5:5:3:1.67 –Japan unhappy but… Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928) –Ratified 85-1 by the Senate…
1930s Stimson Doctrine (1931) –Japan invades Manchuria –Non-recognition –Based on Open Door FDRs Foreign Policy
The Neutrality Acts 1935, 1936, 1937 The Origin: –The Nye Committee –Walter Millis The Road to War
Neutrality Act of 1935 (August) Response to Italys attack on Ethiopia President empowered to –Declare when a war exists and identify the belligerents –Declare an embargo on arms sales to all belligerents –Tell U.S. citizens they travel at their own risk on ships of belligerent nations
Neutrality Act of 1936 (Feb) Expands 1935 law to include –Loans –Credits
Neutrality Act of 1937 Continued ban on arms, loans and credit Included civil wars (Spain) President authorized to embargo strategic materials –Oil –Aviation gas –Steel and scrap iron
Neutrality Act of 1937 U.S. Citizens Forbidden to travel on the ships of belligerent nations
The Neutrality Acts in Review Origin in concern over involvement in WWI Fueled by Isolationists desire to avoid another WWI Forbid U.S. trade, especially in arms and strategic materials to belligerent nations Made no distinction between aggressor and victim.
The Road to War 1937-1941 Outbreak of war complicated the U.S. neutrality and the Neutrality Acts July, 1937: Japan Invades China No doubt whose side we were on Open Door Policy Japanese expansion threatens U.S. interests in the Pacific: Philippines, Hawaii, etc
The Road to War 1937-1941 Neutrality Acts prohibited aid to both sides –No distinction between aggressor and victim
The Road to War 1937-1941 FDR Refuses to recognize a state of war –Japan never declared war officially –U.S. can send aid to China –Unintended consequence: Japan can buy whatever it wants from the U.S.
The Road to War 1937-1941 September 1, 1939: Germany Invades Poland – Blitzkrieg! –Beginning of WWII in Europe –Britain and France declare war on Germany –No doubt whose side U.S. is on Knew much – but not all – about Hitler and Nazi Germany Knew it was a genuine case of making the world safe for democracy
The Road to War 1937-1941 Congress Amends Neutrality Acts $ Cash and Carry $ First for non-military goods $ Nov. 1939: military goods too $ No loans or credits $ Buyer must pick it up $ Helps Britain and France w/o endangering neutrality (easier for them to carry) $ No financial interest in the outcome $ No U.S. ships become targets of U-Boats
The Road to War 1937-1941 Begins huge debate in the U.S. between Internationalists and Isolationists –Isolationists in Congress propose Constitutional amendment National referendum required before Congress could declare war Defeated by a vote of 209-188 –America First Committee U.S. should focus on preparedness for war, not wasting aid on Allies Led by Charles Lindbergh: admirer of German power
The Road to War 1937-1941 Internationalists Led more and more by FDR Advocate helping Allies so U.S. doesnt have to fight Also advocates preparedness
The Road to War 1939-1941 War complicates U.S. position (again) May 1940: Germany attacks Belgium Netherlands Denmark Norway France June, 1940: France Falls!
The Road to War 1939-1941 82% of Americans still favor staying out Britain alone against The Blitz 1940 election: war AND third term issue
The Road to War 1939-1941 U.S Begin to Prepare FDR asks Congress to increase preparedness Multi-billion military appropriations bill Congress passes $5 billion naval bill First ever peacetime draft: Sept 16, 1940 Politics also complicates 1940 is Presidential Election Year Two Term Tradition is a Big Issue
The Road to War 1940-1941 FDR WINS THIRD TERM –449-82 In Electoral College –Plans to expand aid to Britain: U.S. As the Arsenal of Democracy (Dec. 29, 1940) –Begins to form bipartisan support Names Republicans to cabinet The Election of 1940
The Road to War 1940-1941 Roosevelts State of the Union Address January 6, 1941 The Four Freedoms
The Arsenal Of Democracy The Lend Lease Act: "An Act to Promote the Defense of the United States" March 1941 President authorized to Sell, Transfer, Exchange, Lease, Lend or otherwise dispose of any defense article for the government of any country whose defense the President deems vital to the defense of the United States.
The Lend Lease Act $50 billion between 1941 and 1945 ($720,596,368,644.55 at 2009 prices) 60% to Great Britain: $31.4 BILLION 20% to Soviet Union (June 1941) 20% to others (France $3.2 billion; China $1.6 billion)
The Road to War FDR Moves Nation Toward War claims right of hemispheric defense and declares neutral zone halfway across the Atlantic Orders Navy to report U-Boats to GBR Executive Agreement with Danish government in exile for bases in Greenland September 1941: Shoot on sight order against German U-boats after U.S.S. Greer attacked
The Road to War Part II: The Pacific 1937 Invasion of China FDR doesnt recognize as war to avoid Neutrality acts We still provide 50% of Japans oil, steel and iron
The Road to War Part II: The Pacific June, 1940: Japan occupies French Indochina Sept 27, 1940 - Tripartite Pact signed by Germany, Italy and Japan July 26, 1941 - Roosevelt freezes Japanese assets in United States and suspends relations
The Road to War Part II: The Pacific Japans Dilemma –Needs raw materials from U.S.: oil, scrap iron, steel, aviation gas –U.S. imposes embargo: Get out of China! –Either get embargo lifted OR find other sources (East/South East Asia) –Japan begins to plan for war v. U.S.