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The Roaring 1920s Four Major Themes. Four Images From the 1920s A flapper dress A flapper dress A hatbox A hatbox The Barbeque The Barbeque Magazine Cover.

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Presentation on theme: "The Roaring 1920s Four Major Themes. Four Images From the 1920s A flapper dress A flapper dress A hatbox A hatbox The Barbeque The Barbeque Magazine Cover."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Roaring 1920s Four Major Themes

2 Four Images From the 1920s A flapper dress A flapper dress A hatbox A hatbox The Barbeque The Barbeque Magazine Cover Magazine Cover

3 Four Themes of the 1920s Materialism Materialism Modernism Modernism Disillusionment Disillusionment Fundamentalism Fundamentalism

4 Materialism devotion to material wealth and possessions at the expense of spiritual or intellectual values devotion to material wealth and possessions at the expense of spiritual or intellectual values

5 Modernism the latest styles, tastes, attitudes, or practices the latest styles, tastes, attitudes, or practices The revolutionary ideas and styles in art, architecture, and literature that developed in the early 20th century as a reaction to traditional forms The revolutionary ideas and styles in art, architecture, and literature that developed in the early 20th century as a reaction to traditional forms

6 Disillusionment disappointment caused by a frustrated ideal or belief disappointment caused by a frustrated ideal or belief

7 Fundamentalism a religious or political movement based on a literal interpretation of and strict adherence to doctrine, especially as a return to former principles a religious or political movement based on a literal interpretation of and strict adherence to doctrine, especially as a return to former principles

8 1920s Modernism Rise of Advertising Rise of Advertising

9 The New Frigidaire

10 The Modern Bathroom

11 Radio and Movies Between 1923 and 1930, 60 percent of American families purchased radios. Between 1923 and 1930, 60 percent of American families purchased radios.

12 Jazz and Dancing a worse evil than the saloon used to be. a worse evil than the saloon used to be. Those moaning saxophones and the rest of the instruments with their broken, jerky rhythm make a purely sensual appeal. Those moaning saxophones and the rest of the instruments with their broken, jerky rhythm make a purely sensual appeal. All of us dancing teachers know this to be a fact.... All of us dancing teachers know this to be a fact.... The music written for jazz is the very foundation and essence of salacious dancing. The words also are often very suggestive, thinly veiling immoral ideas. The music written for jazz is the very foundation and essence of salacious dancing. The words also are often very suggestive, thinly veiling immoral ideas.

13 Clara Bow: The It Girl Clara Bow: The It Girl

14 The Jazz Age The Jazz Age Magazines glorified the new lifestyle Magazines glorified the new lifestyle

15 Louis Armstrong 1901-1971 1901-1971 St. Louis Blues (1925) St. Louis Blues (1925) Heebie Jeebies (1927) Heebie Jeebies (1927) Heebie Jeebies Heebie Jeebies

16 Origins of Jazz West African pedigree is evident in its use of blue notes, improvisation, polyrhythms, syncopation, and the swung note West African pedigree is evident in its use of blue notes, improvisation, polyrhythms, syncopation, and the swung note Ragtime and New Orleans Ragtime and New Orleans

17 Tin Pan Alley New York City-centered music publishers and songwriters New York City-centered music publishers and songwriters Dominated the popular music late 19 th and early 20 th century. Dominated the popular music late 19 th and early 20 th century. Originally a specific place in New York City, West 28th Street between Fifth and Sixth Avenue Originally a specific place in New York City, West 28th Street between Fifth and Sixth Avenue

18 Irving Berlin Alexanders Ragtime Band (1911) Alexanders Ragtime Band (1911) Alexanders Ragtime Band (1911) Alexanders Ragtime Band (1911)

19 1920s Movies Nickelodeons Nickelodeons Silent Films Silent Films Charlie Chaplin Charlie Chaplin Charlie Chaplin Charlie Chaplin

20 The Harlem Renaissance Literary and cultural movement Literary and cultural movement Centered in Harlem, NY Centered in Harlem, NY Alain Locke: Father of the Renaissance Alain Locke: Father of the Renaissance Ph.D from Harvard, 1918 Ph.D from Harvard, 1918 Taught at Howard University (D.C.) Taught at Howard University (D.C.) 1925 essay: The New Negro 1925 essay: The New Negro

21 The New Negro For the younger generation is vibrant with a new psychology; the new spirit is awake in the masses, and under the very eyes of the professional observers is transforming what has been a perennial problem into the progressive phases of contemporary Negro life. Alain Locke

22 The New Negro Anthology of fiction, poetry, and essays Anthology of fiction, poetry, and essays Divided into two sections Divided into two sections Essays, poems and fictions by Jean Toomer, Zora Neale Hurston, Countee Cullen, Langston Hughes, and Claude McKay Essays, poems and fictions by Jean Toomer, Zora Neale Hurston, Countee Cullen, Langston Hughes, and Claude McKay "The New Negro in a New World", which contained social and political analysis by writers including James Weldon Johnson, E. Franklin Frazier, Kelly Miller, Robert R. Moton, Walter White, and W. E. B. DuBois. "The New Negro in a New World", which contained social and political analysis by writers including James Weldon Johnson, E. Franklin Frazier, Kelly Miller, Robert R. Moton, Walter White, and W. E. B. DuBois.

23 Langston Hughes I, too, sing America. I am the darker brother. They send me to eat in the kitchen When company comes, But I laugh, And eat well, And grow strong. Tomorrow, I'll be at the table When company comes. Nobody'll dare Say to me, "Eat in the kitchen," Then.Besides, They'll see how beautiful I am And be ashamed-- I, too, am America.

24 Disillusionment End of the reforming impulse from Progressivism and WWI End of the reforming impulse from Progressivism and WWI Evident in Evident in Red Scare of 1919-1920 Red Scare of 1919-1920 Revival of the KKK Revival of the KKK Politics Politics Appeal of Materialism Appeal of Materialism

25 The Red Scare Causes Causes Post-war labor unrest Coal Miners Strike of 1919. Coal Miners Strike of 1919. Steel Strike of 1919. Steel Strike of 1919. Boston Police Strike of 1919. Boston Police Strike of 1919.

26 Strikes and Radicalism Strikes had preceded Bolshevik Revolution in Russia Strikes had preceded Bolshevik Revolution in Russia Public equates labor unrest with radicalism Public equates labor unrest with radicalism

27 Public Perceptions

28 Boston Police Strike Fears Fears of Anarchy There There is no right to strike against the public safety by anybody, anywhere, any time. – Calvin Coolidge

29 The Red Scare Causes Causes Series of Terrorists Incidents Series of Terrorists Incidents Mail bombs discovered Mail bombs discovered Mayor of Seattle Mayor of Seattle Ga. Senator Thomas Hardwick Ga. Senator Thomas Hardwick John D. Rockefeller and J.P. Morgan John D. Rockefeller and J.P. Morgan Supreme Court Justice Oliver W. Holmes Supreme Court Justice Oliver W. Holmes Attorney General Mitchell Palmer Attorney General Mitchell Palmer Other federal and state officials Other federal and state officials

30 Terrorist Bombings

31 The Palmer Raids Attorney General Mitchell Palmer Attorney General Mitchell Palmer The Fighting Quaker The Fighting Quaker Organizes an anti-radical division in the Justice Department Organizes an anti-radical division in the Justice Department Names J. Edgar Hoover to lead it Names J. Edgar Hoover to lead it Beginnings of the FBI Beginnings of the FBI

32 The Palmer Raids 7th November, 1919 7th November, 1919 10,000 suspected communists and anarchists were arrested 10,000 suspected communists and anarchists were arrested January, 1920: 6,000 more January, 1920: 6,000 more No evidence except membership in radical organizations No evidence except membership in radical organizations 500 aliens deported on the Soviet Ark 500 aliens deported on the Soviet Ark

33 The Case Against the Reds Like Like a prairie-fire, the blaze of revolution was sweeping over every American institution of law and order a year ago. It was eating its way into the homes of the American workmen, its sharp tongues of revolutionary heat were licking the altars of the churches, leaping into the belfry of the school bell, crawling into the sacred corners of American homes, seeking to replace marriage vows with libertine laws, burning up the foundations of society.

34 The Soviet Ark U.S.S. Buford U.S.S. Buford Carried deportees to Finland Carried deportees to Finland

35 Consequences Immigration Restriction Immigration Restriction 1920 Immigration Act: bars possession of seditious literature 1920 Immigration Act: bars possession of seditious literature 1921 Emergency Quota Act: 3% of 1910 total by nationality 1921 Emergency Quota Act: 3% of 1910 total by nationality 1924: Changes quota to 2% and base year to 1890 1924: Changes quota to 2% and base year to 1890 1927 National Origins Act: 150,000 per year limit w/ % from specific countries (60% GBR, 4% Italy) 1927 National Origins Act: 150,000 per year limit w/ % from specific countries (60% GBR, 4% Italy)

36 1921 Emergency Quota Act

37 The Politics of Disillusionment The Politics of Disillusionment: Return of the GOP The Politics of Disillusionment: Return of the GOP Democrats discredited by WWI, Treaty of Versailles, and liberalism Democrats discredited by WWI, Treaty of Versailles, and liberalism

38 The Politics of Disillusionment Hardings Campaign: A Return to Normalcy Hardings Campaign: A Return to Normalcy Harding as President Harding as President No qualifications (Wilson said he could not tell a liar) No qualifications (Wilson said he could not tell a liar) Spent most of his time playing cards Spent most of his time playing cards Hated to hurt peoples feelings by saying no Hated to hurt peoples feelings by saying no

39 Harding Scandals Cabinet most corrupt in history Cabinet most corrupt in history Veterans Adm. Veterans Adm. Teapot Dome Teapot Dome Attorney General Harry Daugherty Attorney General Harry Daugherty

40 Republican Policies Non-enforcement of anti-trust laws: Non-enforcement of anti-trust laws: 6000 mergers, 1925-1931 6000 mergers, 1925-1931 Effective monopolies in aluminum, salt, sugar, tropical fruit Effective monopolies in aluminum, salt, sugar, tropical fruit Oligopolies in oil, steel, glass, cement, copper, tobacco, meatpacking – even bread and milk! Oligopolies in oil, steel, glass, cement, copper, tobacco, meatpacking – even bread and milk! Ford, GM and Chrysler: 83% of cars Ford, GM and Chrysler: 83% of cars Repeal of excess profits tax Repeal of excess profits tax


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