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1 Invertebrates. 2 Animal Characteristics All organisms in this kingdom have these common characteristics: All organisms in this kingdom have these common.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Invertebrates. 2 Animal Characteristics All organisms in this kingdom have these common characteristics: All organisms in this kingdom have these common."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Invertebrates

2 2 Animal Characteristics All organisms in this kingdom have these common characteristics: All organisms in this kingdom have these common characteristics: Multicellular Eukaryotes Multicellular Eukaryotes No cell wall- unlike fungi, plants, bacteria No cell wall- unlike fungi, plants, bacteria Heterotrophs– consumer not decomposer Heterotrophs– consumer not decomposer Have Specialized Cells- unlike protists Have Specialized Cells- unlike protists

3 Needs of Animals Need: Sense and chase down food source Need: Sense and chase down food source Adaptation: nervous / motor systems Need: Break up food and absorb nutrients Need: Break up food and absorb nutrients Adaptation: digestive system Need: Deliver oxygen to all cells Need: Deliver oxygen to all cells Adaptation: circulatory / respiratory systems 3

4 4 SYMMETRY SYMMETRY Asymmetry – no symmetry Asymmetry – no symmetry Radial symmetry - can cut in equal halves-more than one way Radial symmetry - can cut in equal halves-more than one way Bilateral symmetry – allows for development of brain region in a central location (head) Bilateral symmetry – allows for development of brain region in a central location (head)

5 5 Types of Symmetry Asymmetry

6 6 Asymmetry-Sponges Only

7 7 Radial Symmetry

8 8 * Usually more complicated organisms *Usually simpler organisms Background: different types of body symmetry

9 9 Bilateral Symmetry They all have a head area with sense organs

10 10 Development of Organisms Develop from a single cell, the zygote Develop from a single cell, the zygote Mitosis forms new cell in a process called cleavage Mitosis forms new cell in a process called cleavage A hollow ball of cells are formed called a blastula A hollow ball of cells are formed called a blastula Gastrulation is the folding in of the blastula to form two layers Gastrulation is the folding in of the blastula to form two layers These two layers are the ectoderm and the endoderm These two layers are the ectoderm and the endoderm

11 11Development

12 12 Development Ectoderm develops into skin and nervous tissue Ectoderm develops into skin and nervous tissue Endoderm develops into the lining of the digestive tract and organs associated with digestion Endoderm develops into the lining of the digestive tract and organs associated with digestion In some animals the gastrula forms a mesoderm In some animals the gastrula forms a mesoderm Mesoderm is the third layer and develops into muscles, circulatory, excretory, and respiratory systems Mesoderm is the third layer and develops into muscles, circulatory, excretory, and respiratory systems

13 13 Development Protostome is an animal with a mouth that develops from the opening in the gastrula called the blastopore Protostome is an animal with a mouth that develops from the opening in the gastrula called the blastopore Deuterostome The anus develops from the opening in the gastrula Deuterostome The anus develops from the opening in the gastrula

14 14 Body Plans Acoelom- do not have a body cavity, organs are imbedded in tissues Acoelom- do not have a body cavity, organs are imbedded in tissues Pseudocoelom -(partial) a body cavity partly lined with mesoderm Pseudocoelom -(partial) a body cavity partly lined with mesoderm Coelom- a body cavity that provides space for the development of internal organs (something for muscles to push against to move) Coelom- a body cavity that provides space for the development of internal organs (something for muscles to push against to move)

15 15 *Background: types of coelomes (body cavities)

16 Vertebrate vs Invertebrate Vertebrate- has a backbone Vertebrate- has a backbone Invertebrate- has NO backbone Invertebrate- has NO backbone 16

17 Exoskeleton Functions: Functions: 1. Protection 2. Prevents water loss on land (waxy layer) Problems: Problems: 1. Heavy 2. Growth requires molting 17

18 18 Exoskeletons

19 Endoskeleton An internal skeleton that provides support inside the body An internal skeleton that provides support inside the body Advantage: Organisms can grow larger with skeleton inside Advantage: Organisms can grow larger with skeleton inside 19

20 20 Endoskeletons

21 Sponges Simplest Animals Simplest Animals Asymmetry Asymmetry 21

22 22 Sponges Sessile - do not move Sessile - do not move Asymmetrical Asymmetrical No tissue (Only organized cells) No tissue (Only organized cells)

23 Sponges Oxygen and food come in through Diffusion Oxygen and food come in through Diffusion Filter Feeds as an adult Filter Feeds as an adult 23

24 Sponge Reproduction Sexual – release sperm into water (external fertilization very common in aquatic animals) Sexual – release sperm into water (external fertilization very common in aquatic animals) Hermaphroditism – sponges have sperm AND eggs to increase the odds of reproduction Hermaphroditism – sponges have sperm AND eggs to increase the odds of reproduction Offspring can swim to a new location Offspring can swim to a new location Asexual fragmentation also possible Asexual fragmentation also possible 24

25 Cnidarians 25 Sea Anemone (Polyp) Jellyfish (Medusa)

26 26Cnidarians Evolution of Radial Symmetry Evolution of Radial Symmetry Extends tentacles equally in all directions Extends tentacles equally in all directions (increase food uptake)

27 Cnidarian Characteristics Basic digestive system Basic digestive system Also basic nervous system (nerve net) Also basic nervous system (nerve net) O 2 still enters by diffusion O 2 still enters by diffusion 27

28 28 Cnidarian Characteristics Reproduces sexually and asexually Reproduces sexually and asexually Skeleton-none present, but dead coral remains are calcium carbonate Skeleton-none present, but dead coral remains are calcium carbonate

29 29 Body Plans of Cnidarians

30 Flatworms-Platyhelminthes 30 Planarian – not parasitic Tapeworm – parasitic

31 31 Flatworm Characteristics No coelom – Why? Many are parasitic No coelom – Why? Many are parasitic O 2 and sugar are absorbed in hosts intestine O 2 and sugar are absorbed in hosts intestine Bilateral symmetry Bilateral symmetry Reproduction-most are hermaphrodites Reproduction-most are hermaphrodites

32 32 Tapeworms

33 Tapeworm Life Cycle 33

34 34 Flatworm or Planaria See full-size image.See full-size image. Fresh Water Planaria Uses Pharynx to obtain food Salt Water Flatworms

35 35 Sheep Liver Fluke

36 Roundworms 36 hookworm - parasitic

37 37 Roundworms Smooth, non-segmented body Smooth, non-segmented body Pseudocoelom (moves more) Pseudocoelom (moves more) Can burrow through skin (walking around barefoot) Can burrow through skin (walking around barefoot) Also enters through contaminated food Also enters through contaminated food

38 38 Roundworm Characteristics More Advanced Bilateral symmetry Bilateral symmetry Complete digestive system with mouth and anus Complete digestive system with mouth and anus Sexual reproduction Sexual reproduction Oxygen enters by diffusion Oxygen enters by diffusion

39 39 Hookworms, Pinworms, Tapeworms that were removed from a Brazilian boy treated on a Rockefeller foundation mission (early 1900s) These parasites still affect people all over the globe.

40 Not a problem in U.S. 40

41 Why not? Food safety inspections Food safety inspections Good sanitation Good sanitation Medication widely available Medication widely available 41

42 42 Roundworms Dirofilaria is a roundworm that causes heartworm disease in dogs.

43 43 Ascaris: a parasitic roundworm Other Roundworms

44 44 Other Roundworms Elephantiasis results when a roundworm blocks the lymphatic system, causing severe swelling The roundworm is carried by mosquitoes in tropical Africa

45 45 Roundworms: Hookworms Hookworms attached to the intestines

46 Segmented Worms 46 leech Earthworm

47 47 Segmented Worm Characteristics Bilateral symmetry Bilateral symmetry Full Coelom (full range of motion, complex organs inside) Full Coelom (full range of motion, complex organs inside) Complete digestion system Complete digestion system Most are hermaphrodites with sexual reproduction Most are hermaphrodites with sexual reproduction

48 Segmented Worm Characteristics Gets O 2 directly from moist skin, Gets O 2 directly from moist skin, closed circulatory system with hearts to deliver closed circulatory system with hearts to deliver Food – blood (leeches), or dirt (earthworms) Food – blood (leeches), or dirt (earthworms) 48

49 49 Earthworms Giant Earthworm Regular Earthworm

50 Earthworms Swallow dirt, filter out food Swallow dirt, filter out food Loosen soil, helps to aerate soil for plants Loosen soil, helps to aerate soil for plants Also fertilizes plants with castings (poop) Also fertilizes plants with castings (poop) 50

51 Leeches Two chemicals in saliva to help it take blood from hosts Two chemicals in saliva to help it take blood from hosts 1. Anesthetic (blocks pain) 2. Anti-coagulant (prevents blood clotting) 51

52 52 Mollusks Clam – 2 shells Snail – 1 shell Squid – no shell

53 These are all in the same group!?! 53 inside of a clam

54 54 Mollusk Characteristics Bilateral symmetry Bilateral symmetry Getting food – filter feeders (clams), grazers (snails), predators (slugs) Getting food – filter feeders (clams), grazers (snails), predators (slugs) Getting O 2 – gills in aquatic mollusks, primitive lung in snails Getting O 2 – gills in aquatic mollusks, primitive lung in snails Open or closed circulatory system Open or closed circulatory system

55 Open vs. Closed Circulatory System 55 Open No blood vessels Blood surrounds bodys organs, delivers O 2 Smaller animals Closed Blood in vessels Larger animals

56 Mollusk Reproduction Hermaphrodites (both mollusks and segmented worms) Hermaphrodites (both mollusks and segmented worms) Aquatic – release sperm and eggs into water Aquatic – release sperm and eggs into water Land – meet and swap sperm, fertilize eggs inside Land – meet and swap sperm, fertilize eggs inside 56

57 57 Chambered Nautilus

58 Arthropods Four main classes within this HUGE phylum: Four main classes within this HUGE phylum: 1. Arachnids 2. Crustaceans 3. Centipedes / millipedes 4. Insects 58

59 Arachnids 59 Black widowBrown recluse Chigger (flea) Tick Scorpion

60 Crustaceans 60 Crab Barnacles Lobster

61 Many-footed ones 61 Centipede Millipede

62 Insects 62 Fire ants Wasp Grasshopper

63 63 Arthropod Characteristics Most successful of all animal phyla Most successful of all animal phyla Coelom Coelom Bilateral symmetry Bilateral symmetry Segmented body Segmented body Exoskeleton- NOT the same as mollusk shell Exoskeleton- NOT the same as mollusk shell

64 64 Arthropod Characteristics Oxygen enters by spiracles and then into tracheal tubes in some arthropods. Book lungs in spiders. Reproduction- Internal fertilization (mating) in land arthropods and External fertilization in sea arthropods

65 Arthropod Characteristics Open circulatory system Open circulatory system Uses special jaws called mandibles Uses special jaws called mandibles Use Pheromones (chemical signals) for communication and mating Use Pheromones (chemical signals) for communication and mating 65

66 Arthropods: Complex Nervous System Sophisticated sensory / motor control Sophisticated sensory / motor control 66 Compound eye of a fruit fly Compound eye of a fruit fly

67 67 Metamorphosis

68 Echinoderms 68 sea star sea urchin sea cucumber

69 69 Echinoderm Characteristics Bilateral symmetry in larvae Bilateral symmetry in larvae Radial symmetry in adults (live on ocean floor) Radial symmetry in adults (live on ocean floor) Coelom Coelom Endoskeleton Endoskeleton Deuterostomes Deuterostomes

70 Echinoderm Characteristics Echinoderm Characteristics Food – variety of diet (some eat clams, some eat algae, some filter feed) Food – variety of diet (some eat clams, some eat algae, some filter feed) Water vascular system (water instead of blood to carry O 2 ) Water vascular system (water instead of blood to carry O 2 ) Reproduction typical in water Reproduction typical in water Regeneration possible in some Regeneration possible in some 70

71 Chordates 71

72 All Chordates Have notochord – precursor to vertebral spinal column (semirigid, filled with fluid) Have notochord – precursor to vertebral spinal column (semirigid, filled with fluid) Vertebrates replace this with a full spinal cord Vertebrates replace this with a full spinal cord Some chordates are invertebrates still Some chordates are invertebrates still 72

73 Chordates Chordates have 3 subphylums Chordates have 3 subphylums Tunicates Tunicates Lanceletes Lanceletes Vertebrates Vertebrates 73

74 Invertebrate Chordates 74 lancelet tunicate

75 75 Each of these is a Class in the Phylum Chordata


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