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Solid and Hazardous Waste

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Presentation on theme: "Solid and Hazardous Waste"— Presentation transcript:

1 Solid and Hazardous Waste
Chapter 17

2 What is solid waste, and how much do we produce? (p.389-390)
Question #1 What is solid waste, and how much do we produce? (p )

3 What did you throw away yesterday?
Solid Waste Any unwanted or discarded solid material There is no solid waste in nature Garbage = solid waste we produce directly What did you throw away yesterday? Why should we care? - unnecessary waste of resources - production of solid products leads to all other forms of pollution

4 Solid Waste in the US Sewage sludge 1% Mining and oil and gas
production 75% Municipal 1.5% Industry 9.5% U.S. produces 1/3 of the world’s solid waste - 98.5% comes from mining, oil / natural gas production, agriculture, sewage sludge, industry (indirect waste) - 1.5% is municipal solid waste (MSW), or garbage or trash (produced by homes and offices; paper makes up the most of this) - 55% of MSW is put in landfills, 30% is recycled or composted, 15% is burned (incinerated) - e-waste (electronic waste) is the fastest growing waste problem Agriculture 13% Fig. 17-2, p. 390

5 Question #2 How do waste management & waste reduction differ, and what are 6 ways to reduce solid waste? (p )

6 Waste Management & Reduction
Bury it or Burn it High-waste approach Waste Reduction There is no “away” Low-waste approach Preferred solution (prevention)

7 Six Ways to Reduce Waste
Consume less Redesign manufacturing processes and products to use less material and energy Use less toxic material in manufacturing Make easily repairable & recyclable products Design products to last longer Eliminate or reduce packaging ***The only major obstacles to economic & ecological revolution are laws, policies, taxes, & subsidies that continue to reward inefficient resource use and fail to reward efficient resource use. 60-80% of solid waste can be eliminated by adopting these principles!

8 What Can You Do? What Can You Do? Solid Waste Fig. 17-4, p. 391
© 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson What Can You Do? Solid Waste Follow the four R's of resource use: Refuse, Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle. Ask yourself whether you really need a particular item. Rent, borrow, or barter goods and services when you can. Buy things that are reusable, recyclable, or compostable, and be sure to reuse, recycle, and compost them. Do not use throwaway paper and plastic plates, cups, and eating utensils, and other disposable items when reusable or refillable versions are available. Use in place of conventional paper mail. Read newspapers and magazines online. Buy products in concentrated form whenever possible. Fig. 17-4, p. 391

9 Question #3 What is the ecoindustrial revolution, and how can we shift from selling things to selling services ? (p )

10 Ecoindustrial Revolution
A change in industrial manufacturing to be cleaner and more sustainable (mimics how nature handles waste) Recycle materials Resource exchange web – waste of one manufacturer becomes raw materials for another Savings in lowered pollution, waste disposal and material can be enormous Healthier work environment Growing signs point to this taking place over the next 50 years.

11 Selling Services Instead of Things
Eco-leasing – instead of buying a product, a customer would lease/rent the services from the company Example – RHS has a service contract for our copiers. They are maintained regularly. They will be picked up by the company at the end of the contract and reusable parts will be removed. Companies make more $$$ if their products use few materials, last long, are easy to maintain, repair & recycle

12 Question #4 What can be reused / recycled, and what are the advantages and disadvantages of reusing and recycling materials? (p )

13 Reuse Cleaning & using materials over & over
Examples of Reusable Items: eating utensils car parts house and building materials cloth towels & diapers rechargeable batteries TVs, computers, cell phones glass and plastic bottles grocery bags clothing

14 Pros & Cons: Reuse Advantages Saves Money Cuts pollution & waste
Reduces use of matter & energy resources Disadvantages Exposure to toxins in e-waste (developing countries) People scavenging for reuseable materials in dumps exposed to toxins & disease

15 Recycling Reprocessing discarded solid materials into new, useful products Examples of Recyclable Items: paper products glass aluminum steel plastic plants (composting) U.S. Recycling: 1960 (6%)  2006 (30%)  future (60-80%?)

16 2 Recycling Methods Closed-Loop Recycling Downcycling  
Original  Same Downcycling Original  Different 2 Types of Recycled Waste: Preconsumer Waste – manufacturing waste, 25x more Postconsumer Waste – waste from consumers

17 Pros & Cons: Recycling Advantages Less pollution Saves energy
Saves raw materials Less landfill space Saves money on products Creates jobs Disadvantages Some materials are costly to recycle Some areas have ample landfill space Landfills lose money Inconvenient for some How to Encourage Recycling Provide tax breaks for companies who Reuse & Recycle PAUT (Pay-As-You-Throw) Systems – consumers charged for amt of trash, but not recycling Laws requiring companies to take back & recycle packaging Ban e-waste in MSW

18 Question #5 What are the advantages and disadvantages of burning & burying solid waste? (p )

19 In the U.S. Bury (landfill) – 54% Burn (incinerate) – 16% Recycle- 30%
Burning solid waste is primarily for energy production (heat and electricity) and waste reduction

20 Pros & Cons: Burning Advantages Reduce waste Fast
Produces energy (electricity) Disadvantages Expensive to build Air pollution Toxic ash remains Highly opposed in US

21 Burying Most MSW is buried in landfills that will eventually leak toxic liquids into soil & groundwater Open Dumps Common in developing nations Sanitary Landfills Used in developed countries Wastes spread in thin layers & covered w/ clay or plastic foam, lined to prevent leaks According to EPA, all landfills will eventually leak.

22 Sanitary Landfill Fig. 17-11, p. 400 Leachate treatment system
Topsoil When landfill is full, layers of soil and clay seal in trash Sand Electricity generator building Clay Methane storage and compressor building Garbage Leachate treatment system Probes to detect methane leaks Pipe collect explosive methane gas used as fuel to generate electricity Methane gas recovery Leachate storage tank Compacted solid waste Groundwater monitoring well Garbage Leachate pipes Leachate pumped up to storage tanks for safe disposal Sand Synthetic liner Leachate monitoring well Groundwater Sand Clay and plastic lining to prevent leaks; pipes collect leachate from bottom of landfill Clay Subsoil Fig , p. 400

23 Pros & Cons: Burying Advantages Low odor Low groundwater pollution
Low cost to build & operate Holds large amount Ample sites in some areas Can be reused when full Disadvantages Noisy & dusty Air pollution (CH4, CO2) Eventually leaks Slow decomposition Cheap cost discourages reuse & recycle

24 What is hazardous waste & how can we deal with it? (p.401-406)
Question #6 What is hazardous waste & how can we deal with it? (p )

25 Hazardous Waste Any waste that is toxic, ignitable, corrosive or reactive enough to explode or release toxic fumes Developed countries produce 80-90%

26 Harmful Chemicals in Your Home
© 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson What Harmful Chemicals Are In Your Home? Cleaning • Disinfectants • Drain, toilet, and window cleaners • Spot removers • Septic tank cleaners Paint • Latex and oil-based paints • Paint thinners, solvents, and strippers • Stains, varnishes, and lacquers • Wood preservatives • Artist paints and inks General • Dry-cell batteries (mercury and cadmium) • Glues and cements Gardening • Pesticides • Weed killers • Ant and rodent killers • Flea powders Automotive • Gasoline • Used motor oil • Antifreeze • Battery acid • Solvents • Brake and transmission fluid • Rust inhibitor and rust remover Disposal of some of these items is exempt from government regulation Fig , p. 402

27 Managing Hazardous Waste
Resource Conservation & Recovery Act (RCRA) Regulates ~5% of hazardous waste EPA Sets standards & issues permits Superfund (CERCLA) Identifies & cleans hazardous waste sites on a priority basis Love Canal, NY was 1st Superfund Site Originally polluters paid, now taxpayers pay (avg $20 million per site – 1250 sites on list!)

28 Detoxifying Hazardous Waste
Bioremediation Uses bacteria & enzymes to breakdown hazardous compounds Phytoremediation Uses plants to absorb toxins from soil & water Deep Underground Wells Pumped deep below ground Surface Impoundments Stored in containment ponds

29 Question #7 Why are lead and mercury dangerous, and what can we do to reduce exposure ? (p )

30 Lead and Mercury Since they are both elements, they cannot be broken down Both cause various types of nervous system damage (brain damage)

31 Lead Exposure Solutions
Eliminate leaded gasoline & paint worldwide (banned in late ’70’s in U.S.) Eliminate lead solder in plumbing & food cans Remove lead paint from old buildings Replace plumbing pipes containing lead

32 Mercury Exposure Mercury comes from natural (volcanos) & human sources (burning coal / waste) We can breath, absorb & consume it Solutions: Eliminate Hg in coal, batteries, fluorescent bulbs Avoid eating certain seafood (shark, mackerel, tuna) esp children & women Reduce Hg emissions from coal burning plants

33 Question #8 How can we make the transition to a more sustainable, low-waste society ? (p )

34 Achieving a Low Waste Society
Produce less wastes of all kinds Reduce our ecological footprint International treaties to ban or phase out use of certain highly toxic, fat soluble (stores up in organisms) chemicals such as DDT, PCB, dioxins

35 Achieving a Low Waste Society
Everything is connected There is no “away” for the wastes we produce Dillution is not the solution for pollution The BEST & CHEAPEST way to deal w/ waste & pollution is to produce less and recycle more Changes can start slow, but can accelerate rapidly as economic, ecological, & health advantages become apparent. Grassroots action helps!!! (Individuals Matter)

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