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Chapter 17 Solid and Hazardous Waste. Question #1 What is solid waste, and how much do we produce? (p.389-390)

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 17 Solid and Hazardous Waste. Question #1 What is solid waste, and how much do we produce? (p.389-390)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 17 Solid and Hazardous Waste

2 Question #1 What is solid waste, and how much do we produce? (p.389-390)

3 Solid Waste Any unwanted or discarded solid material Any unwanted or discarded solid material There is no solid waste in natureThere is no solid waste in nature Garbage = solid waste we produce directlyGarbage = solid waste we produce directly What did you throw away yesterday?

4 Fig. 17-2, p. 390 Municipal 1.5% Sewage sludge 1% Mining and oil and gas production 75% Industry 9.5% Agriculture 13% Solid Waste in the US

5 Question #2 How do waste management & waste reduction differ, and what are 6 ways to reduce solid waste? (p.390-392)

6 Waste Management & Reduction Waste Management Waste Management Bury it or Burn itBury it or Burn it High-waste approachHigh-waste approach Waste Reduction Waste Reduction There is no awayThere is no away Low-waste approachLow-waste approach Preferred solution (prevention)Preferred solution (prevention)

7 Six Ways to Reduce Waste 1. Consume less 2. Redesign manufacturing processes and products to use less material and energy 3. Use less toxic material in manufacturing 4. Make easily repairable & recyclable products 5. Design products to last longer 6. Eliminate or reduce packaging

8 © 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson Fig. 17-4, p. 391 What Can You Do? Solid Waste Follow the four R's of resource use: Refuse, Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle. Ask yourself whether you really need a particular item. Rent, borrow, or barter goods and services when you can. Buy things that are reusable, recyclable, or compostable, and be sure to reuse, recycle, and compost them. Do not use throwaway paper and plastic plates, cups, and eating utensils, and other disposable items when reusable or refillable versions are available. Use e-mail in place of conventional paper mail. Read newspapers and magazines online. Buy products in concentrated form whenever possible. What Can You Do?

9 Question #3 What is the ecoindustrial revolution, and how can we shift from selling things to selling services ? (p.392-393)

10 Ecoindustrial Revolution A change in industrial manufacturing to be cleaner and more sustainable (mimics how nature handles waste) A change in industrial manufacturing to be cleaner and more sustainable (mimics how nature handles waste) Recycle materialsRecycle materials Resource exchange web – waste of one manufacturer becomes raw materials for anotherResource exchange web – waste of one manufacturer becomes raw materials for another Savings in lowered pollution, waste disposal and material can be enormousSavings in lowered pollution, waste disposal and material can be enormous Healthier work environmentHealthier work environment

11 Selling Services Instead of Things Eco-leasing – instead of buying a product, a customer would lease/rent the services from the company Eco-leasing – instead of buying a product, a customer would lease/rent the services from the company Example – RHS has a service contract for our copiers. They are maintained regularly. They will be picked up by the company at the end of the contract and reusable parts will be removed.

12 Question #4 What can be reused / recycled, and what are the advantages and disadvantages of reusing and recycling materials ? (p.394-398)

13 Reuse Cleaning & using materials over & over Cleaning & using materials over & over Examples of Reusable Items: Examples of Reusable Items: eating utensilseating utensils car partscar parts house and building materialshouse and building materials cloth towels & diaperscloth towels & diapers rechargeable batteriesrechargeable batteries TVs, computers, cell phonesTVs, computers, cell phones glass and plastic bottlesglass and plastic bottles grocery bagsgrocery bags clothingclothing

14 Pros & Cons: Reuse Advantages Saves Money Saves Money Cuts pollution & waste Cuts pollution & waste Reduces use of matter & energy resources Reduces use of matter & energy resourcesDisadvantages Exposure to toxins in e-waste (developing countries) Exposure to toxins in e-waste (developing countries) People scavenging for reuseable materials in dumps exposed to toxins & disease People scavenging for reuseable materials in dumps exposed to toxins & disease

15 Recycling Reprocessing discarded solid materials into new, useful products Reprocessing discarded solid materials into new, useful products Examples of Recyclable Items: Examples of Recyclable Items: paper productspaper products glassglass aluminumaluminum steelsteel plasticplastic plants (composting)plants (composting)

16 2 Recycling Methods Closed-Loop Recycling Closed-Loop Recycling Original SameOriginal Same Downcycling Downcycling Original DifferentOriginal Different

17 Pros & Cons: Recycling Advantages Less pollution Less pollution Saves energy Saves energy Saves raw materials Saves raw materials Less landfill space Less landfill space Saves money on products Saves money on products Creates jobs Creates jobsDisadvantages Some materials are costly to recycle Some materials are costly to recycle Some areas have ample landfill space Some areas have ample landfill space Landfills lose money Landfills lose money Inconvenient for some Inconvenient for some

18 Question #5 What are the advantages and disadvantages of burning & burying solid waste ? (p.398-400)

19 In the U.S. Bury (landfill) – 54%Bury (landfill) – 54% Burn (incinerate) – 16%Burn (incinerate) – 16% Recycle- 30%Recycle- 30% Burning solid waste is primarily for energy production (heat and electricity) and waste reductionBurning solid waste is primarily for energy production (heat and electricity) and waste reduction

20 Pros & Cons: Burning Advantages Reduce waste Reduce waste Fast Fast Produces energy (electricity) Produces energy (electricity)Disadvantages Expensive to build Expensive to build Air pollution Air pollution Toxic ash remains Toxic ash remains Highly opposed in US Highly opposed in US

21 Burying Most MSW is buried in landfills that will eventually leak toxic liquids into soil & groundwater Most MSW is buried in landfills that will eventually leak toxic liquids into soil & groundwater Open Dumps Open Dumps Common in developing nationsCommon in developing nations Sanitary Landfills Sanitary Landfills Used in developed countriesUsed in developed countries Wastes spread in thin layers & covered w/ clay or plastic foam, lined to prevent leaksWastes spread in thin layers & covered w/ clay or plastic foam, lined to prevent leaks

22 Topsoil Sand Clay Garbage Sand Synthetic liner Sand Clay Subsoil When landfill is full, layers of soil and clay seal in trash Methane storage and compressor building Electricity generator building Leachate treatment system Methane gas recovery Pipe collect explosive methane gas used as fuel to generate electricity Compacted solid waste Leachate storage tank Leachate monitoring well Groundwater monitoring well Leachate pipes Leachate pumped up to storage tanks for safe disposal Clay and plastic lining to prevent leaks; pipes collect leachate from bottom of landfill Probes to detect methane leaks Groundwater Sanitary Landfill Fig. 17-11, p. 400

23 Pros & Cons: Burying Advantages Low odor Low odor Low groundwater pollution Low groundwater pollution Low cost to build & operate Low cost to build & operate Holds large amount Holds large amount Ample sites in some areas Ample sites in some areas Can be reused when full Can be reused when fullDisadvantages Noisy & dusty Noisy & dusty Air pollution (CH4, CO2) Air pollution (CH4, CO2) Eventually leaks Eventually leaks Slow decomposition Slow decomposition Cheap cost discourages reuse & recycle Cheap cost discourages reuse & recycle

24 Question #6 What is hazardous waste & how can we deal with it ? (p.401-406)

25 Hazardous Waste Any waste that is toxic, ignitable, corrosive or reactive enough to explode or release toxic fumes Any waste that is toxic, ignitable, corrosive or reactive enough to explode or release toxic fumes Developed countries produce 80-90% Developed countries produce 80-90%

26 © 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson Fig. 17-13, p. 402 What Harmful Chemicals Are In Your Home? Cleaning Disinfectants Drain, toilet, and window cleaners Spot removers Septic tank cleaners Paint Latex and oil-based paints Paint thinners, solvents, and strippers Stains, varnishes, and lacquers Wood preservatives Artist paints and inks General Dry-cell batteries (mercury and cadmium) Glues and cements Gardening Pesticides Weed killers Ant and rodent killers Flea powders Automotive Gasoline Used motor oil Antifreeze Battery acid Solvents Brake and transmission fluid Rust inhibitor and rust remover Harmful Chemicals in Your Home Disposal of some of these items is exempt from government regulation

27 Managing Hazardous Waste Resource Conservation & Recovery Act (RCRA) Resource Conservation & Recovery Act (RCRA) Regulates ~5% of hazardous wasteRegulates ~5% of hazardous waste EPA EPA Sets standards & issues permitsSets standards & issues permits Superfund (CERCLA) Superfund (CERCLA) Identifies & cleans hazardous waste sites on a priority basisIdentifies & cleans hazardous waste sites on a priority basis Love Canal, NY was 1 st Superfund SiteLove Canal, NY was 1 st Superfund Site Originally polluters paid, now taxpayers payOriginally polluters paid, now taxpayers pay (avg $20 million per site – 1250 sites on list!) (avg $20 million per site – 1250 sites on list!)

28 Detoxifying Hazardous Waste Bioremediation Bioremediation Uses bacteria & enzymes to breakdown hazardous compoundsUses bacteria & enzymes to breakdown hazardous compounds Phytoremediation Phytoremediation Uses plants to absorb toxins from soil & waterUses plants to absorb toxins from soil & water Deep Underground Wells Deep Underground Wells Pumped deep below groundPumped deep below ground Surface Impoundments Surface Impoundments Stored in containment pondsStored in containment ponds

29 Question #7 Why are lead and mercury dangerous, and what can we do to reduce exposure ? (p.406-409)

30 Lead and Mercury Since they are both elements, they cannot be broken down Both cause various types of nervous system damage (brain damage)

31 Lead Exposure Solutions Eliminate leaded gasoline & paint worldwide (banned in late 70s in U.S.) Eliminate leaded gasoline & paint worldwide (banned in late 70s in U.S.) Eliminate lead solder in plumbing & food cans Eliminate lead solder in plumbing & food cans Remove lead paint from old buildings Remove lead paint from old buildings Replace plumbing pipes containing lead Replace plumbing pipes containing lead

32 Mercury Exposure Mercury comes from natural (volcanos) & human sources (burning coal / waste) Mercury comes from natural (volcanos) & human sources (burning coal / waste) We can breath, absorb & consume itWe can breath, absorb & consume it Solutions: Solutions: Eliminate Hg in coal, batteries, fluorescent bulbsEliminate Hg in coal, batteries, fluorescent bulbs Avoid eating certain seafood (shark, mackerel, tuna) esp children & womenAvoid eating certain seafood (shark, mackerel, tuna) esp children & women Reduce Hg emissions from coal burning plantsReduce Hg emissions from coal burning plants

33 Question #8 How can we make the transition to a more sustainable, low-waste society ? (p.409-410)

34 Achieving a Low Waste Society Produce less wastes of all kinds Produce less wastes of all kinds Reduce our ecological footprint Reduce our ecological footprint International treaties to ban or phase out use of certain highly toxic, fat soluble (stores up in organisms) chemicals such as DDT, PCB, dioxins International treaties to ban or phase out use of certain highly toxic, fat soluble (stores up in organisms) chemicals such as DDT, PCB, dioxins

35 Achieving a Low Waste Society Everything is connected Everything is connected There is no away for the wastes we produce There is no away for the wastes we produce Dillution is not the solution for pollution Dillution is not the solution for pollution The BEST & CHEAPEST way to deal w/ waste & pollution is to produce less and recycle more The BEST & CHEAPEST way to deal w/ waste & pollution is to produce less and recycle more


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