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The Middle Ages Corresponds to Chapters 13 and 14.

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Presentation on theme: "The Middle Ages Corresponds to Chapters 13 and 14."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Middle Ages Corresponds to Chapters 13 and 14

2 Invaders attack Western Europe The Vikings invade the North Warlike Vikings raid Europe from Scandanavia Viking long ships sail in shallow water, allowing raids inland Eventually, many Vikings adopt Christianity & become farmers Magyars & Muslims Attack from the East & South Magyars (Hungarian nomads) invade W. Europe in late 800s Muslims strike north from Africa, attacking through Italy & Spain Viking, Magyar, Muslim invasions cause widespread disorder, suffering

3 A new social order: Feudalism Feudalism Structures Society 850 – 950, feudalism emerges – political system based on land control A lord (landowner) gives fiefs (land grants) in exchange for services Vassals – people who receive fiefs – become powerful landholders The Feudal Pyramid Power in feudal system much like a pyramid, w/ king at the top Kings served by nobles who are served by knights; peasants at bottom Knights defend their lords land in exchange for fiefs

4 Feudalism Cont The Feudal Pyramid Power in feudal system much like a pyramid, w/ king at the top Kings served by nobles who are served by knights; peasants at bottom Knights defend their lords land in exchange for fiefs

5 Feudalism and Social Classes Social Classes are well defined Medieval feudal system classifies people into 3 social groups –Those who fight: nobles & knights –Those who pray: monks, nuns, leaders of Church –Those who work: peasants Social class is usually inherited; majority of people are peasants Most peasants are serfs – people lawfully bound to place of birth Serfs arent slaves, but what they produce belongs to their lord

6 Manors: The economic side of feudalism The Lords Estate The Lords estate, a manor, has an economic system (manor system) Serfs & free peasants maintain the lords estate, give grain The lord provides housing, farmland, protection from bandits

7 A self - contained World Medieval manors include lords house, church, workshops, village Manors cover a few square miles of land, are largely self- sufficient

8 The harshness of Manor life Peasants pay tax to use mill & bakery; pay a tithe to priest Tithe – church tax – is equal to 1/10th of a peasants income Serfs live in crowded cottages with dirt floors, straw beds Daily life consists of raising crops, livestock; feeding & clothing family Poor diet, illness, malnutrition make life expectancy 35 years Serfs generally accept their lives as part of Gods Plan

9 Knights: Warriors on Horseback The Warriors role in feudal society By 1000s, W. Europe is a battleground of warring nobles Feudal lords raise private armies of knights Knights rewarded w/land; provides income needed for weapons Knights other activities help train them for combat

10 The Code of Chivalry By 1100s knights obey code of chivalry – a set of ideals on how to act They are to protect weak & poor; serve feudal lord, God, chosen lady A knights training Boys begin to train at 7; usually knighted at 21 Knights gain experience in local wars & tournaments – mock battles

11 The reality of warfare Castles are huge fortresses where lords live Attacking armies use wide range of strategies & weapons See page 366 in textbook


13 Poems & Songs Epic poems recount a heros deeds & adventures Troubadours – traveling poet-musicians – write & sing short verses Most celebrated woman of the age is Eleanor of Acquitaine Eleanors son, Richard the Lion-Hearted

14 Womens role in feudal society Status of women According to the Church & feudal society, women are inferior to men Noblewomen Can inherit land, defend castle, send knights to war on lords request Usually confined to activities of the home or convent Peasant Women Most labor in home & field, bear children, provide for family Poor, powerless, do household tasks at young age

15 The Power of the Medieval Church The Pope Head of the Church was called pope The Pope gets name from Latin word for father; considered the father of the church In beginning of the Church, nobles could pick the Pope

16 The Sacraments sacraments = church rituals done to get Gods grace. Without Gods grace, you couldnt get into Heaven Examples of sacraments are baptism, penance, & the Eucharist (Communion) If you did something wrong, the church could excommunicate you (kick you out); cant receive sacraments, wont go to Heaven

17 The Power of Mass Mass = name for church services Mass conducted in Latin, most peasants did not understand it; gave priests a lot of power over the people Peasants got info from statues, paintings, & windows

18 Noble Influence The Church supposed to be a religious institution; nobles used church for their own gain Donations of land & money to church could result in a position as a bishop or other church official People that the king or a noble didnt like could be threatened w/ excommunication unless agree w/ nobles

19 Monastic Life Monks/ nuns tried to avoid problems w/ taking money from nobles & lived simple lives took vows of silence & lived separate from rest of world spent lives making schools & hospitals, providing for poor/needy, producing beautiful copies of books by hand

20 The Church as a Judge The regular church was still very powerful & had courts in which it could try people for crimes against the church One of the biggest crimes was called heresy (denial of church teachings) Heretics (people who committed heresy) were excommunicated from the church Heresy considered as bad as treason

21 The Inquisition a court set up to prosecute heretics People could be accused of heresy by their enemies, investigated by the church Sometimes heretics tortured to try & get them to confess to their crimes

22 The Crusades Goals of the Crusades Pope wants to reclaim Jerusalem & reunite Christianity Kings use Crusades to send away knights who cause trouble Younger sons hope to earn land or win glory by fighting Later, merchants join Crusades to try to gain wealth through trade

23 The 1 st & 2 nd Crusades Pope promises Crusaders who die a place in Heaven 1st Crusade: 3 armies gather at Constantinople in 1097 Crusaders capture Jerusalem in 1099 Captured lands along coast divided into 4 Crusader states Muslims take back one in 1144; 2nd Crusade fails to retake it 1187: Saladin – Muslim leader – retakes Jerusalem

24 The 3 rd Crusade 3rd Crusade led by 3 powerful rulers Richard the Lion-Hearted: king of England Phillip II of France abandons Crusade after arguing w/ Richard Frederick I of Germany drowns during journey 1192: Richard & Saladin make peace Saladin keeps Jerusalem but allows Christian pilgrims to enter city

25 Later Crusades 4th Crusade: Crusaders loot Constantinople in 1204 2 other Crusades strike Egypt, but fail to weaken Muslims

26 Outcome of the Crusades Most of Spain controlled by the Moors (a Muslim people) Christians fight Reconquista – drive Muslims from Spain, 1100- 1492 Spain has inquisition – court to suppress heresy; expels non- Christians The Crusades change life Crusades show power of Church in convincing thousands to fight Women who stay home manage estates & business affairs Merchants expand trade, bring back many goods from SW Asia Failure of later Crusades weakens pope & nobles, strengthens kings Crusades create lasting bitterness bt Muslims & Christians

27 Changes in Medieval Society Changes in agriculture Harnessed horses replace oxen in pulling plows & wagons Horses plow 3 times as much a day, increasing food supply The 3-field System Around 800, 3-field system used: plant 2 fields, let one rest This produces more food & leads to population increase

28 Development of Guilds Guilds develop – organization of people in the same occupation Merchant guilds begin 1st; they keep prices up, provide security Skilled artisans form craft guilds Guilds set standards for quality, wages, prices, working conditions Guilds supervise training of new members of their craft The wealth of guilds influences govt. & economy

29 The Commercial Revolution Fairs & Trade Europe sees Commercial Revolution – changes in business & trade Trade fairs held several times a year in towns Trade routes open to Asia, N.Africa, & Byzantine ports Business & Banking Merchants develop credit to avoid carrying large sums of money Merchants take out loans to purchase goods, & banking grows Society Changes Economic changes lead to the growth of cities & of paying jobs

30 Urban life flourishes Growing urban population 1000-1150, Europes pop. rises from 30-42 million Most towns are small, but they help drive change Trade & towns grow together Towns are uncomfortable: crowded, dirty, fire hazards Serfs can become free by living in a town for a year & a day Merchant class shifts the social order Feudal lords tax & govern towns, causing resentment Towns are taken over by town merchants (burghers)

31 England Develops The Norman Conquest In 1066, England is invaded by William the Conqueror He defeats his rival & becomes king William hands out land to his supporters Juries & Common Law Henry II – king of England – sends judges to all parts of England & institutes juries The judges decisions form English common law – unified body of laws Common law forms the basis of law in many English-speaking countries

32 The Magna Carta 1215: English nobles force King John to sign Magna Carta Magna Carta – limits kings power & guarantees basic political rights English people argue the rights are for all people, not just nobles The Model Parliament 1295: Edward I summons wealthy townsmen & knights to raise taxes Together w/ bishops & lords, they form a parliament – legislative body Parliament has 2 houses: House of Lords, House of Commons

33 The Model Parliament 1295: Edward I summons wealthy townsmen & knights to raise taxes Together w/ bishops & lords, they form a parliament – legislative body Parliament has 2 houses: House of Lords, House of Commons

34 Whats with all the Numbers XVI V IV…

35 France Hugh Capet and family rule small territory around Paris, power spreads and their rule last over 300 years. Est. heriditary rule, eldest son… Phillip II –15 yo, reigned for 45 years –Doubled lands through marrage –Created royal army

36 France Cont Louis IX Phillip IIs grandson. –Puts a ban on private warfare Why? –Creates common currency Kings own. Why?

37 France Cont Phillip IV, Phillip the Fair. Louis IX grandson Called forth the Estates General to pay for wars. EG assembly of clergy nobles and towns people. Never as powerful as parlaiment.

38 Henry IV Has a major fight with Pope Gregory VII, the Pope condemned lay investure (the giving of symbols of office such as a ring or staff). King Henry refused to stop the practice. Pope proclaimed Henry deposed and urged the Germans to select another ruler. Henry went to the pope and begged for forgiveness. For 3 days he stood outside the gate begging for mercy. He was forgiven. In 1122 church officials and representation known as the Concordat of Worms allowed the King to name bishops and grant them land. Also gave the Pope the right to reject unworthy candidates.

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