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Animal kingdom groups (phyla). What is an animal? Heterotroph (consumer, not decomposer) Heterotroph (consumer, not decomposer) Multicellular Multicellular.

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Presentation on theme: "Animal kingdom groups (phyla). What is an animal? Heterotroph (consumer, not decomposer) Heterotroph (consumer, not decomposer) Multicellular Multicellular."— Presentation transcript:

1 Animal kingdom groups (phyla)

2 What is an animal? Heterotroph (consumer, not decomposer) Heterotroph (consumer, not decomposer) Multicellular Multicellular Eukaryote Eukaryote No cell wall (unlike fungi, plants, and bacteria) No cell wall (unlike fungi, plants, and bacteria) Specialized cells (unlike protists) Specialized cells (unlike protists)

3 Evolution of complexity Need: sense and chase down food source Need: sense and chase down food source Adaptation: nervous / motor systems Need: break up food and absorb nutrients Need: break up food and absorb nutrients Adaptation: digestive system Need: deliver oxygen to all cells Need: deliver oxygen to all cells Adaptation: circulatory / respiratory systems

4 Sponges

5 Sponges O 2 and food come in through diffusion Filter feeds as an adult

6 Sponges Unique among animal groups – Unique among animal groups – 1) No symmetry in overall body plan 2) No tissues (complex organization of cells)

7 Sponge reproduction Sexual – release sperm into water (external fertilization very common in aquatic animals) Sexual – release sperm into water (external fertilization very common in aquatic animals) Hermaphroditism – sponges have sperm AND eggs to increase the odds of reproduction Hermaphroditism – sponges have sperm AND eggs to increase the odds of reproduction Offspring can swim to a new location Offspring can swim to a new location Asexual fragmentation also possible Asexual fragmentation also possible

8 Sponges Simplest animals Simplest animals Possible colonial protozoan ancestor Possible colonial protozoan ancestor

9 Cnidarians Sea anemone Jellyfish

10 Evolution of radial symmetry Definiton – can cut in equal halves more than one way Definiton – can cut in equal halves more than one way Ex: letters O, X Ex: letters O, X Purpose – extending tentacles equally in all directions (increase food uptake) Purpose – extending tentacles equally in all directions (increase food uptake)

11 Cnidarian Basic digestive system Basic digestive system Also basic nervous system (nerve net) Also basic nervous system (nerve net) O 2 still enters by diffusion O 2 still enters by diffusion

12 Revolution #1 – active movement Filter feeding will not be sufficient for larger animals Filter feeding will not be sufficient for larger animals Filter feeding will not work on land or in air Filter feeding will not work on land or in air 2 major adaptations to help organisms sense and move in their environment 2 major adaptations to help organisms sense and move in their environment

13 Adaptation #1) Body symmetry Bilateral symmetry allows for development of brain region in a central location (head) Bilateral symmetry allows for development of brain region in a central location (head) Bilateral symmetry cephalization Bilateral symmetry cephalization

14 Adaptation #2: Body cavity Coelom is a space inside body (empty / fluid) Coelom is a space inside body (empty / fluid) Two purposes in evolutionary history: Two purposes in evolutionary history: a) Short-term: something for muscles to push against to move b) Long-term: space for larger organs Not present in all animals (some have lost over evolutionary time) Not present in all animals (some have lost over evolutionary time)

15 Revolution #1 – active movement Cephalization = command center to coordinate senses and movement Cephalization = command center to coordinate senses and movement+ Coelom = support for muscle movement Coelom = support for muscle movement

16 Flatworms Planarian – not parasiticTapeworm – parasitic

17 Trends in flatworms No coelom No coelom Why? Many are parasitic Why? Many are parasitic O 2 and sugar absorbed in hosts intestine O 2 and sugar absorbed in hosts intestine

18 Tapeworm life cycle

19 Roundworms hookworm -- parasitic

20 Trends in roundworms Semi-developed coelom (moves a bit more) Semi-developed coelom (moves a bit more) Can burrow through skin (walking around barefoot), also enters through contaminated food Can burrow through skin (walking around barefoot), also enters through contaminated food

21 Not a problem in U.S.

22 Why not? Food safety inspections Food safety inspections Good sanitation Good sanitation Medication widely available Medication widely available

23 Mollusks Clam – 2 shellsSnail – 1 shellSquid – no shell

24 These are all in the same group!?! inside of a clam

25 Mollusk traits Getting food – filter feeders (clams), grazers (snails), predators (slugs) Getting food – filter feeders (clams), grazers (snails), predators (slugs) Getting O 2 – gills in aquatic mollusks, primitive lung in snails Getting O 2 – gills in aquatic mollusks, primitive lung in snails Open or closed circulatory system

26 Open vs. closed Open No blood vessels Blood surrounds bodys organs, delivers O 2 Smaller animals Closed Blood vessels Larger animals

27 Reproduction Hermaphrodites (both mollusks and segmented worms) Hermaphrodites (both mollusks and segmented worms) Aquatic – release sperm and eggs into water Aquatic – release sperm and eggs into water Land – meet and swap sperm, fertilize eggs inside Land – meet and swap sperm, fertilize eggs inside

28 Segmented worms leechearthworm

29 Segmented worms Full coelom (full range of motion, complex organs inside) Full coelom (full range of motion, complex organs inside) O 2 – Gets O 2 directly from moist skin, O 2 – Gets O 2 directly from moist skin, closed circulatory system with hearts to deliver closed circulatory system with hearts to deliver Food – blood (leeches), or dirt (earthworms) Food – blood (leeches), or dirt (earthworms)

30 Earthworms rule Swallow dirt, filter out food Swallow dirt, filter out food Loosen soil, helps to aerate soil for plants Loosen soil, helps to aerate soil for plants Also fertilizes plants with castings (poop) Also fertilizes plants with castings (poop)

31 Leeches rule Two chemicals in saliva to help it take blood from hosts Two chemicals in saliva to help it take blood from hosts a) Anesthetic b) Anti-coagulant

32 Revolution #2 - skeletons Structural support for larger bodies (remember, no cell walls in animal cells) Structural support for larger bodies (remember, no cell walls in animal cells) Two varieties: Two varieties: 1) Exoskeleton – outside body (arthropods) 2) Endoskeleton – inside body (echinoderms, chordates) chordates)

33 Arthropods Four main classes within this HUGE phylum: 1)Arachnids 2)Crustaceans 3)Centipedes / millipedes 4)Insects

34 Arachnids Black widowBrown recluse

35 Arachnids Chigger (flea)Tick Scorpion

36 Crustaceans CrabLobster Barnacles

37 Many-footed ones Centipede Millipede

38 Insects Fire ants Wasp Grasshopper

39 Arthropod traits Coelomate (I will also stop writing this now) Coelomate (I will also stop writing this now) Segments still (possible connection to segmented worms) Segments still (possible connection to segmented worms) Exoskeleton Exoskeleton

40 Exoskeleton NOT the same as mollusk shell NOT the same as mollusk shell Functions: 1) protection, 2) prevent water loss on land (waxy layer) Functions: 1) protection, 2) prevent water loss on land (waxy layer) Problems: Heavy, growth requires molting Problems: Heavy, growth requires molting Therefore: arthropods tend to be smaller Therefore: arthropods tend to be smaller

41 For respiration… System for collecting O 2 (tracheal tubes / spiracles) System for collecting O 2 (tracheal tubes / spiracles) Open circulatory system Open circulatory system

42 Complex nervous system Sophisticated sensory / motor control Compound eye of a fruit fly

43 Arthropod reproduction Internal fertilization (mating) in land arthropods Internal fertilization (mating) in land arthropods External fertilization in sea arthropods External fertilization in sea arthropods

44 Echinoderms sea star sea urchin sea cucumber

45 Echinoderm traits adults = radial symmetry (live on ocean floor) adults = radial symmetry (live on ocean floor) larvae are bilaterally symmetric larvae are bilaterally symmetric endoskeleton endoskeleton

46 Echinoderm traits Food – variety of diet (some eat clams, some eat algae, some filter feed) Food – variety of diet (some eat clams, some eat algae, some filter feed) Water vascular system (water instead of blood to carry O 2 ) Water vascular system (water instead of blood to carry O 2 ) Reproduction typical in water Reproduction typical in water

47 Chordates

48 All chordates Have notochord – precursor to vertebral spinal column (semirigid, filled with fluid) Have notochord – precursor to vertebral spinal column (semirigid, filled with fluid) Vertebrates replace this with a full spinal cord Vertebrates replace this with a full spinal cord Some chordates are invertebrates still Some chordates are invertebrates still

49 Invertebrate chordates tunicatelancelet

50 Endoskeleton advantage Organisms can grow larger with skeleton inside Organisms can grow larger with skeleton inside


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