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Chapter 3 The Nature and Nurture Of Behavior Evolutionary Psychology.

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1 Chapter 3 The Nature and Nurture Of Behavior Evolutionary Psychology

2 Video Clip gbh/evolution/library/ 01/6/l_016_08.html gbh/evolution/library/ 01/6/l_016_08.html

3 Sweaty T-Shirts and Human Mate Choice: Subtle chemical signals, or pheromones, have long been known to draw pairs together within the same species, and for a specific reason.pheromones In mice, for example, experiments showed that pheromones acted as attractants between males and females who were genetically similar except that they differed in a certain type of immune system gene. gene That difference is actually a survival benefit: The combination of two individuals' different MHC (major histocompatibility locus) genes gives their offspring an advantage in beating back disease organisms.

4 William James, Principles of Psychology (1890) It takes...a mind debauched by learning to carry [out] the process of making the natural seem strange…Why do we smile, when pleased, and not scowl? Why are we unable to talk to a crowd as we talk to a single friend? Why does a particular maiden turn our wits so upside-down? The common man can only say, of course we smile, of course our heart palpitates at the sight of the crowd, of course we love the maiden, that beautiful soul clad in that perfect form, so palpably and flagrantly made for all eternity to be loved!

5 Basic Tenets of Evolutionary Psychology Our neural circuits were designed by natural selection to solve problems. Different neural circuits are specialized for solving different adaptive problems. Consciousness is just the tip of the iceberg; most of what goes on in your mind is hidden. Our modern skulls house a stone age mind, adapted to the environment of evolutionary ancestry (EEA).

6 Genes: Our Biological Blueprint Chromosomes threadlike structures made of DNA that contain the genes DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes has two strands-forming a double helix- held together by bonds between pairs of nucleotides

7 Genes: Our Biological Blueprint Genes biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein (protein is the building block of life) Genome the complete instructions for making an organism consisting of all the genetic material in its chromosomes

8 DNA & RNA DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid. One of two types of molecules that encode genetic information. The other is RNA. genetic RNA In humans DNA is the genetic material; RNA is transcribed from it. In some other organisms, RNA is the genetic material and, in reverse fashion, the DNA is transcribed from it.

9 DNA & RNA DNA is a double-stranded molecule held together by weak hydrogen bonds between base pairs of nucleotides. The molecule forms a double helix in which two strands of DNA spiral about one other.moleculehydrogendouble helix The double helix looks something like an immensely long ladder twisted into a helix, or coil. The sides of the "ladder" are formed by a backbone of sugar and phosphate molecules, and the "rungs" consist of nucleotide bases joined weakly in the middle by the hydrogen bonds. phosphatenucleotide

10 Nucleotide Nucleotide: A subunit of DNA or RNA. To form a DNA or RNA molecule, thousands of nucleotides are joined in a long chain There are four nucleotides in DNA. Each nucleotide contains a base: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), or thymine (T). adenineguaninecytosinethymine Base pairs form naturally only between A and T and between G and C.

11 Genetics and Behavior NucleusChromosomeGene CellDNA

12 Evolutionary Psychology Natural Selection the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations Mutations random errors in gene replication that lead to a change in the sequence of nucleotides the source of all genetic diversity

13 Evolutionary Psychology the study of the evolution of behavior using the principles of natural selection Gender in psychology, the characteristics, where biologically or socially influenced, by which people define male and female

14 Evolutionary Psychology Men everywhere preferred attractive physical features suggesting youth and health

15 For males, a question: Which woman is more attractive?

16 For females, a question: Which man is more attractive?


18 Monopolizing & Mutilating Women Techniques across cultures: veiling, chaperoning, purdah, foot binding Less familiar to Westerners but more frequent are genital mutilations designed to destroy the sexual interest of young women and even their penetrability until surgically reopened…Such genital mutilations are still prevalent in 23 countries. (Hicks 1986)

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