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Standards-Based Instruction Secondary Mathematics Teachers Curriculum Day Chattahoochee HS/Taylor Road MS August 4, 2011 Presented by Pamela A. Seda, Ph.D. Director of Secondary Mathematics

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Give One, Take One Scenario: Lets say you have been invited to visit every math classroom in a school that has just received the award Best Mathematics Instruction in the Country. List 4 things that you would expect to see in every math classroom.

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Fulton County Schools Effective Standards-Based Classroom Instruction

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Definition of Standards-Based Instruction Using a variety of resources to assess, plan and instruct in a way that encourages students to know what they are learning, why it is relevant, the ways to get there, when they have learned it, and how they can go even further.

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Learning Think of something not job related that you have learned to do very well? Skating, horseback riding, painting, etc. Now think about what it took to get you to that level of expertise. What are some things that these experiences have in common?

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Three Guiding Principles of Standards-Based Instruction All students learn more when … they have a clear vision of the learning target. they meaningfully interact with the content in a supportive environment. given multiple opportunities to learn in a variety of ways.

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Clear Vision of the Learning Target

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Students can hit any target that they can see and that holds still for them. Stiggins, et. al, 2004 p. 57 Clear Vision of the Learning Target

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The Standards are our learning targets, but how clear are they? 8 th Grade Math Standard: M8N1. Students will understand different representations of numbers including square roots, exponents, and scientific notation. i. Simplify expressions containing integer exponents.

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Clear Vision of the Learning Target 8 th Grade Math Standard: M8N1. Students will understand different representations of numbers including square roots, exponents, and scientific notation. i. Simplify expressions containing integer exponents. Essential Question: How do I simplify and evaluate algebraic expressions involving integer exponents and square roots?

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Clear Vision of the Learning Target 8 th Grade Math Standard: M8N1. Students will understand different representations of numbers including square roots, exponents, and scientific notation. i. Simplify expressions containing integer exponents. Sample CRCT Problem: Substitute the* with the integer that makes the following statement true. p*p 2 = p 8 A.4 B. -10 C.6 D.8

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Clear Vision of the Learning Target 8 th Grade Math Standard: M8N1. Students will understand different representations of numbers including square roots, exponents, and scientific notation. i. Simplify expressions containing integer exponents. Open-ended Assessment Problem: For the expression below, find values for a, b, c, d, e, and f so that the expression simplifies to 3x 2 y -3. Show all work, including an explanation of why you chose the selected values.

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Clear Vision of the Learning Target For the expression below, find values for a, b, c, d, e, and f so that the expression simplifies to 3x 2 y -3. Show all work including an explanation of why you chose the selected values.

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Clear Vision of the Learning Target Sample Student Work with Commentary Student work demonstrates understanding of the quotient rule for exponents. Work is neatly shown All calculations are not accurate ( ) Answer not written in a complete sentence. Checking of solution is shown. Explanation should have provided more details about thought processes.

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Clear Vision of the Learning Target If teachers dont have a clear vision of the learning target themselves, … How can they determine how close their students are to learning the target? How can they provide their students the guidance they need for reaching that target? Medals and Missions video clipvideo clip

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Clear Vision of the Learning Target The best way to get a clear vision of the learning target is to work high quality assessment items yourself, and try to think like your students. Ask yourself, What are some difficulties, misconceptions, mistakes, and/or errors might my students encounter while working these types of problems?

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Meaningful Interaction with the Content Mathematically Meaningful for Students – Maintains the proper balance between concepts, skills, and problem solving … the curriculum must simultaneously develop conceptual understanding, computational fluency, and problem solving skills. Debates regarding the relative importance of these aspects of mathematical knowledge are misguided. National Mathematics Advisory Panel Final Report, 2008, page xix. Personally Meaningful for Students – Answers the question, Why should my students care about learning this?

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Meaningful Interaction with the Content ConcretePictorialAbstract (c.p.a) 1.Introduce content conceptually or contextually first 2.Then approach the content using drawings and/or pictures 3.Then introduce algebraic and/or symbolic notation

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Meaningful Interaction with the Content Teaching Problem Solving with Heuristics Heuristic methods are used to speed up the process of finding a satisfactory solution to a problem, where an exhaustive search is impractical (Wikipedia) Flexibility Reversibility Generalizability

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Meaningful Interaction with the Content Flexibility – diversity in approach to problem solving Does anyone have the same answer but a different way to explain it? Can you solve it a different way? Can you draw a different picture? What is alike/different about your method of solutions? Can you use a different model?

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Meaningful Interaction with the Content Reversibility – switching from a direct to a reverse train of thought Can you think of a counter-example? Can you give me another problem with the same answer? Another? You just gave me the right answer to a different question! What is a question for that answer? How would you change the problem so your answer was larger? Smaller?

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Meaningful Interaction with the Content Generalizibility – applying a rule already known to produce another rule Is that true for all cases? Do you see a pattern? Can you predict the next one? How does this relate to...? What did you already know that helped you solve this problem? Have you ever solved a problem like this before?

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Meaningful Interaction with the Content Traditional problem: More rigorous problem: If you add me to three-fourths, you end up with seven-eighths. What fraction am I? Explain your solution with words, a drawing, and/or a number sentence. Which heuristic method(s) apply here? Flexibility, reversibility, or generalizability

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Meaningful Interaction with the Content How many squares do you see? BINGO PROBLEM

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Meaningful Interaction with the Content How many squares do you see now? BINGO PROBLEM How many squares would you see on a 3 x 3 Bingo card? How many squares would you see on an 9 x 9 Bingo card? Which heuristic method(s) apply here? Flexibility, reversibility, or generalizability

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Meaningful Interaction with the Content Try developing an sample problem for each: Flexibility – more than one approach Reversibility – reversing train of thought Generalizability – developing a general rule from a pattern

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Meaningful Interaction with the Content Why should my students care about learning this? Relevant – How does it connect to your students interests and/or goals? Examples: Activities that include family, friends, sports, entertainment, technology, etc. Use peer pressure to your advantage. Non-examples: Its on the CRCT Youll get a failing grade if you dont learn this Youll need this someday in the future

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Meaningful Interaction with the Content Authentic tasks create a bridge between what is learned in the classroom and why this knowledge is important to the world outside of the classroom. Creative Educator website Example: Area and Perimeter - Cut out five photographs of various sizes from a newspaper at home, measure the length and width of each photograph to the nearest tenth of a centimeter. Find the area and perimeter of each photograph. With your other team members, arrange your pictures in order from smallest to largest area. Do it again for perimeter. Was the arrangement different? Why or why not? Non-example: Traditional textbook problems and worksheets

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Meaningful Interaction with the Content Who is in charge of the learning? Rick Stiggins Video ClipVideo

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Supportive Environment A supportive environment is a positive environment where all students are respected and held to high expectations within a community that takes collective responsibility for both behavior and learning.

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Supportive Environment Effective teaching conveys a belief that each student can and is expected to understand mathematics and that each will be supported in his or her efforts to accomplish this goal. The teacher is responsible for creating an intellectual environment where serious mathematical thinking is the norm. More than just a physical setting with desks, bulletin boards, and posters, the classroom environment communicates subtle messages about what is valued in learning and doing mathematics. Effective teachers know how to support students without taking over the process of thinking for them. (Principles and Standards for School Mathematics, 2000)

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Supportive Environment The comments below were made by students on an anonymous end of year evaluation survey. What indicators lead you to think that this student was or was not in a supportive environment? Discuss your answer with your face partner. Student A I sometimes felt a little intimidated, and was not comfortable asking questions based on seeing the reaction of this teacher in responding to others questions. Not often, but certainly more than once in this course, I felt as though the teacher was a little short and impatient with students questions.

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Supportive Environment What indicators lead you to think that this student was or was not in a supportive environment? Discuss your answer with your shoulder partner. Student B I've learned so much about mathematics and myself in this course. This course has helped me regain my confidence in math. As for myself, I've learned how to improve my patience while practicing problems and I've gained wisdom by appreciating my mathematical errors. Ms. XXXX has impacted my life mathematically by her passion for math and by her generosity.

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Multiple Opportunities No matter how well you taught your lesson, students will still need practice, and lots of it! What types of practice do your students need? Quality not quantity!

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Variety of Ways Differentiation is… GAPSS Instruction Standard 2.2 – … teachers making appropriate use of differentiation, including adjusting content, process, product, and learning environment based upon diagnosis of students readiness levels, learning styles, interests and personal goals. Example: Flexible grouping strategies; activities appealing to auditory, visual, and tactile-kinesthetic learners Non-example: Whole-group instruction all the time; teacher does most of the talking

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Three Guiding Principles of Standards-Based Instruction All students learn more when … they have a clear vision of the learning target. they meaningfully interact with the content in a supportive environment. given multiple opportunities to learn in a variety of ways.

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Fulton County Standards-Based Instruction Definition Using a variety of resources to assess, plan and instruct in a way that encourages students to know what they are learning, why it is relevant, the ways to get there, when they have learned it, and how they can go even further.

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1 Process and 5 Components of Standards-Based Instruction Using a variety of resources to assess, plan and instruct in a way that encourages students to know what they are learning, why it is relevant, the ways to get there, when they have learned it, and how they can go even further.

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Steps 2 Achieve Component of Standards- Based Instruction Artifact or Evidence WhatStandards, Essential Questions, Open-ended items; posted student work with commentary WhyRelevant and authentic tasks ProcessAgendas, cooperative learning WhenFormative assessment items and techniques; posted student work with commentary FurtherAnchor and enrichment activities that connect topics to past and future learning

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Steps 2 Achieve Process of Standards- Based Instruction Artifact or Evidence Assess - collect evidence indicating what your students know, understand, and can do Warm-ups Quizzes, tests Questioning Peer activities Ticket out of the door Worksheets Homework Projects Verbal assessment Labs Journal writing

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Steps 2 Achieve Process of Standards- Based Instruction Artifact or Evidence Plan - Line up what students will learn, how they will learn, and how they will know when they reach the learning goal Lesson plans using the 7 steps of direct instruction: 1.Communication of Learning Intentions 2.Communication of Success Criteria 3.Build Commitment and Engagement 4.Teacher Presentation 5.Guided Practice 6.Summary 7.Independent Practice

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Steps 2 Achieve Process of Standards- Based Instruction Artifact or Evidence Instruct - Use different ways to involve students in work that will help them reach the learning goal Sample student work from differentiated activities

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FCS Lesson Plan Template 7 Steps of Direct InstructionDirect Instruction

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Standards-based Instruction Identify features of standards-based instruction in Video Clip Video Clip Answer the following questions on your viewing guide: Which of the three guiding principles or five components of SBI did you see in the video? Which ones did you not see?viewing guide

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Summary How do the items on your Give One, Take One handout relate to the 3 guiding principles or 5 components of standards-based instruction?Give One, Take One Post-test: Anticipation GuideAnticipation Guide

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Ticket Out the Door Write a sentence that begins with one of the following prompts: 1. I now know that I learned that I was reminded of I was surprised to learn that I discovered I've revisited an old idea about I can explain that It's amazing to know that I will ponder on I can connect this idea of....to.... Adapted from MentoringMinds.com

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