Presentation on theme: "CRADLES OF CIVILIZATION"— Presentation transcript:
1CRADLES OF CIVILIZATION Nile river valley in EgyptTigris/Euphrates river valley in IraqIndus river valley in South AsiaHuang He river valley in East Asia
25 Characteristics of Civilization 1. People have advanced technical skills2. A specialization of labor exists3. Cities and governments exist4. A form of written language exists5. A calendar exists
3People Have Advanced Technical Skills Where there is a dependable food supply, some time can be used to refine skills and become creativeExamples:Metalworking (copper + tin = bronze), Raft/boat building, Weaving (invented loom), Advanced Toolmaking, etc.
4A Specialization of Labor Exists With extra food, fewer men & women had to farm & could earn a living in a specialized fieldExamples: Artisans (workers skilled in a craft), Merchants, Traders, Weavers, Smiths, Sailors, Fishers
5Cities and Government Exist The first cities needed a way of supervising and protecting agriculture and tradeExamples: Officials needed to oversee collection, storage, distribution of farming surpluses & to organize labor force for irrigation systems; Professional soldiers needed to guard territory and trade routes
6A Form of Written Language Exists With the development of agriculture, there are large complex communities, and a need to pass on or preserve informationExamples: Record amounts of grain, Water for irrigation, Livestock, etc.
7How Did Written Language Develop? PICTOGRAMS: - a picture represents a thing ex: “tree”IDEOGRAMS: a picture stands for an ideaex: “wealth”PHONOGRAMS: a picture stands for a sound, usually a syllableex: “tree” sound in “treason”ALPHABET: a sign represents a single consonant or vowelex: “t” represents first sound in “tree”
8A Calendar ExistsFarmers needed to know when seasons would change, so they observed the sun and moonExamples: Farmers would know when to plant and when to harvest
9Ancient EgyptOne of the world’s first civilizations developed along the banks of the Nile River in northeast Africa.The Nile is the world’s longest river at 4160 miles and passes over 6 cataracts or waterfalls.As early at 5000 BCE nomadic hunter gathers settled by the Nile and took up farming.The Nile provided for fish, geese and ducks as well.Reeds growing on the banks of the Nile were used to weave rope, make sandals, baskets and later used as a form of writing material.(Papyrus)
10Uniting EgyptProtected from invasion by deserts and cataracts the early farming villages on the Nile prospered. This led to strong leaders coming to power uniting small villages into small kingdoms or monarchies, each under control of a king.By 4000 BCE ancient Egypt consisted of two large kingdomsLower Egypt in the north in the Nile DeltaUpper Egypt in the south in the Nile Valley3000 BCE Narmer or Menes a king of Upper Egypt led forced from the south to the north to conquer Lower Egypt, he then ruled lower and Upper Egypt from his capital at Memphis (No not that Memphis)This began the rule of the Dynasties, rule by one family, in Egypt, from 3000 BCE to 3323 BCEThe Dynasties of Ancient Egypt are divided into three periods, Old, Middle and New Kingdoms.
11The Old Kingdom 2700 BCE to 2200BCE At first the lower and upper kingdoms kept their own identities, but over time a strong national government was build and formed the basic features of a civilization. Capital was at Memphis.
12The Middle Kingdom 2200 BCE to 1700 BCE The stable period of the old kingdom ended with nobles fighting each other for control of Egypt. Around 2050 BCE a new dynasty reunited Egypt and created a capital at Thebes.This new dynasty became as powerful as the old. Creating canals, conquering lands and expanding trade.In the 1700’s BCE local leaders again started to challenge the king’s power, at the same time Hyksos from western Asia invaded and using copper weapons and horse drawn chariots defeated the Egyptians and created their own dynasty that lasted 110 years.
13The New KingdomThe Egyptians under Ahmose defeated the Hyksos and became the first leader of the New Kingdom, he and others that followed him took the title of Pharaoh or “great house of the king”Ahmose rebuilt temples and reorganized trade. Following Ahmose came pharaohs who brought more lands under Egyptian rule:The scope of the empire allowed for more commerce with conquered territories as well as cultural diffusion within the empire.What is Cultural Diffusion?
14Technological Advances of the Egyptians Written language, Hieroglyphics collections of proverbs, “The Book of the Dead”, on how to reach a happy afterlife.Architecture, Pyramids, templesMathematics, allowed for calculate area and volume as well as principals of geometry. (Think Pyramids)They created a 365 day calendar based on the moon and Sirius, the bright Dog Star. (Not XM but you get the idea where they got the name)Egyptian doctors learned much of anatomy from embalming practices as well as using splints, compression and bandages.Many other cultures learned their medical practices from the Egyptians.
16Thutmose III Reclaimed throne when Hatshepsut died mighty warrior! Conquered Syria
17Akhenaton Amenhotep IV changed his name to honor his god Aton tried to change Egyptian religion to monotheism
18Tutenkamen Son of Akhenaton; boy king religion was changed back tomb found in 1922 by Howard Carter; was almost untouched!!!!!Evidence of the great wealth of the Egyptians
19Ramses II Successfully fought against the Hittites had 100 children! Last great pharaohmaybe the pharaoh during Moses…built Abu Simbel
20Fertile Crescent/Mesopotamia 5000 BCE Herders migrated north from the Arabian Peninsula escaping low rainfall and droughtHighlanders of the area that is now Turkey went south away from poor weather and war.Both groups ended up in a crescent shaped area from the Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf, known as the Fertile Crescent.Many settled in Mesopotamia “land between two rivers”, a plain between the Tigres and Euphrates rivers.The two rivers did not have the regular seasonal flooding of the NileThe people had to deal with this and created dams, canals and ditches to aid in their need for water for irrigation.By 4000 BCE they were able to produce food in abundance.
21Sumerians3500 BCE Sumerians form Asia Minor arrived in Mesopotamia and settled in the lower part of the Tigris Euphrates valley at Sumer.There they created 12 city-states with populations of 20, ,000Build Ziggurats in each city-state.Each governed them selves independently.With a need to keep the city-state secure form invasion and to aid in disputes over land and water rights, city-states chose their own military leaders, which ruled like kings -> led to hierarchical rule.
22Sumerians Con’t Family life was regulated extensively Men had great authority in the homeThey could sell their wife and children to pay depts.Men could divorce their wives for the slightest things.Women did have some control and could divorce, but with stricter rules and could own property like Egyptian women.
23CuneiformSumerian form of writing using pictograms, usually written on clay tablets.Sumerians learned to write in schools called eddubasGilgamesh 1850 BCE epic of a godlike man the preformed heroic deeds.Historians believe this to be the oldest story in the world.
24Sumerians Gods and Belief system Sumerians were PolytheisticEach deity presided over a natural force, moon, air, etc.An- responsible for seasons, chief deity.Enlil god of wind and agriculture.Each city-state worshiped all, but each had one they claimed as their own.Sumerians felt the gods were selfish and didn’t care about human kind.If angered the gods would punish humans.Did not believe in a happy after life, only a dark underworld after death.
25Sumerian Inventions Wagon wheel, to east transportation Arch, to make sturdier buildingsNumber system based on 6012-month calendar based on the moons cyclesMetal plow
26First Mesopotamian Empires AkkadiansKingdom of Akkad in northern MesopotamiaSargon I leader came to power in 2300 BCEStarted military conquest for expansionUnited all of the city statesHis grandson ruled successfully, but after him, the empire disintegrated.
27First Mesopotamian Empires EblaNorthern SyriaTaken over by Sargon’s grandson.Highly developed society.Traded with the Egyptians.King was elected for 7-year terms.Welfare for the poor.Form of impeachment of the kingDeclined after 2000 BCE.
28First Mesopotamian Empires Babylonian EmpireAmarites from Western Syria over ran the Sumerian centers in Mesopotamia.Hammurabi came to power and put down all other rulers and took control of entire region.Started a new tax system, rebuilt canals, and created a strong government.Hammurabi created a strict code of 282 laws that governed all daily life.Strict punishment, “an eye for an eye…”Laws for different classes with varied punishment, more severe for crimes against nobles as opposed to slaves.King, priest, nobles ->merchants, artisans -> slavesUpon Hammurabi’s death, the empire declined, Mesopotamia divided once again and finally fell to the Hittites from Asian Minor, who invaded in 1800BC.
30Successive empiresThe region of Mesopotamia was ruled by a variety of peoples including the Hittites, Assyrians, Chaldeans, Persians, Greeks, and eventually was conquered by the Arabs.Today it lies mostly in the country of Iraq, which is a Muslim country