Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Protestant Reformation and the Catholic Counter -Reformation.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Protestant Reformation and the Catholic Counter -Reformation."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Protestant Reformation and the Catholic Counter -Reformation

3 Rooted in Jewish tradition/Torah and the person of Jesus of Nazareth Jesus – rabbi? who encouraged ethical self sacrifice – Love God Love others Care for the vulnerable/outcastes

4 Many stories written about the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth Canon of 4 gospels established 4 th century CE Place Jesus as Messiah of Judaism; also: son of God and resurrected

5 Proclaims special revelation: Jesus message meant to be universal – not just for the Jews Travels & begins inclusion of Gentiles in synagogues…eventually separate churches Some conflict with Jerusalem church

6 Most from Paul Advice to early church communities How to live in the world Imminent 2 nd coming of the Christ (Messiah/Savior) By 2 nd century – church leaders begin collecting manuscripts

7 315 CE – Edict of Milan – Constantine Christianity becomes legal 325 CE Council of Nicaea – uniform Christian doctrine Later 4 th century (Emperor Theodosius) Christianity becomes state religion of Roman Empire 382 CE – Latin Vulgate: Old and New Testament

8 What is the Nature of Christ? Heresies – unofficial ideas/ ideas that go against official church; Eg: Nestorians, Arians Nicene creed meant to settle Eventually doctrine of the Trinity

9 Roman Catholic/Latin Church becomes unifying factor among Germanic tribes & others Charlemagne sees himself as the military protector of the Church High Middle Ages- High Middle Ages- church power at height

10 1054 – Latin West v. Byzantine Empire Latin Church (Roman Catholic) Latin Church (Roman Catholic) Eastern Orthodox Eastern Orthodox Excommunicated each other; After 1453 – Moscow/Muscovy declared self center of Orthodoxy

11 Reconciling classical reasoning (Aristotle) and Christian faith Thomas Aquinas - Summa Theologica Forms the theological basis of the Roman Catholic Church

12 Wealth & power of upper clergy (nobles) Investiture: simony & nepotism Lack of discipline among clergy Lack of education/knowledge among clergy Avignon Papacy & Great Schism

13 Wycliffe John Wycliffe – theology Oxford English translation of NT John Huss – theology Prague Burned at the stake This heresy: objected to worldliness of clergy; advocated personal salvation; challenge to church authority

14 Renaissance Humanism outside of Italy Different emphasis – concern over problems in society Search for more personal religious practices Erasmus, T. More, Rabelais

15

16

17 The Protestant Reformation The Protestant Reformation ended the unity of the Christian church in the West – Christianity was eventually fragmented into dozens of denominations… Why did Christian unity come to an end and how did that impact society?

18 Began in German states because it lacked a strong central government Holy Roman Empire included over 300 semi-independent states Some wanted independence from the Holy Roman Empire Weak emperor could not control independent ideas about religion within the German states

19 started Reformation German monk, became professor of theology at University of Wittenberg How did his movement start?

20 October 31, 1517: nailed on door of Wittenberg Church the 95 Theses – arguments to debate - Criticized sale of indulgences Printed copies of Theses spread

21 justification by faith only Gods grace through Christ saves; no amount of good works could do it... priesthood of all believers all Christians are equal before God these ideas challenged basic church doctrine, tradition and authority…that is, they were heresy

22 1521: Pope Excommunicated Luther Diet of Worms (Germany) - tried to get Luther to recant criticisms Luther refused; condemned as a heretic Went into hiding; translated Bible into German The Empire Strikes Back!

23 Emphasized salvation by faith alone Bible only source of religious truth Church = community of individual believers Stressed faith and good works in salvation Church authority & teachings important as spiritual guide Church = clerical hierarchy

24 All occupations were vocations in which people could serve God Ministers – guides only baptism & communion Priesthood only calling in which people could serve God Priests – special powers administer 7 sacraments

25 Luthers conflict with the church led to violence Peasants revolted - the Lutheran princes crushed the rebellion Civil War between the HRE supported by Catholic princes & the Lutheran princes 1555 Peace of Augsburg

26

27 John Calvin & Predestination John Calvin & Predestination or Doctrine of the Elect Protestant work ethic & success Anabaptism Many, many others… Significance…

28 Protestantism spreads --- While Lutheranism spread in Northern Germany and Scandinavia Calvinism spread into Scotland (Presbyterians), England (puritans), Netherlands (Dutch Reformed) especially Huguenots were Calvinists in France

29 Council of Trent Society of Jesus/ Jesuits Inquisition Index Goal: to halt spread of heresy

30 Options: Try to eliminate Protestantism Change to Protestantism ….what are other options?

31 HRE HRE Charles V & the German Wars of Religion Charles Habsburg domains The Turks Lutheranism war Peace of Augsburg 1555 Retirement!!!

32 Phillip II of Spain – (Charles Vs son) Inherits Spain, Netherlands & later Portugal Netherlands revolt when P cracks down on independence and Protestantism Protestant part becomes independent: United Provinces/ Dutch Netherlands

33 Amsterdam -financial power house Shipped almost all trade in North, Baltic Atlantic and Arctic seas Joint stock companies & stock exchanges freedom of religion, speech & press (more or less) Science, philosophy, art Tech innovation

34 France endures religious wars through 4 kings – eventually protestants (Huguenots) are given some religious freedom – for a while… and the right to fortify their towns (Edict of Nantes)

35 Why did England officially separate from the Catholic Church? How did this impact the English Reformation?

36 Englands King Henry wanted to divorce his wife, Catherine of Aragon for not producing a male heir to the throne (daughter: Mary) Catholic Church forbade divorce - refused to dissolve Henrys marriage

37 Henry withdrew England from Catholic Church married Anne Boleyn and created a new church Act of Supremacy Act of Supremacy - Parliament created Church of England (Anglican Church) with king as its head King took church lands and abolished monasteries important Englishmen were required to swear oath accepting king as head of the church instead of the Pope...

38 Sir Thomas More Sir Thomas More - King Henrys former chancellor who refused to take the oath…. As humanist believed in religious tolerance - but was loyal to the Catholic Church (author of Utopia!) Beheaded for treason

39 Catherine of Aragon - Mary Anne Boleyn - Elizabeth Jane Seymour- Edward Anne of Cleves Catherine Howard Catherine Parr Son Edward inherited throne 1st Div Beh Died Div Beh Surv

40

41 Henry was NOT a protestant Very few changes were allowed in the church by Henry However, changes were made during the period of Henrys son and the English church adopted more protestant ideas

42 The boy king, Edward, was under a regent because of his minority The 1 st regent – his uncle – introduced Protestant reforms into the church: English liturgy – Anglican Prayer Book Salvation by faith Images, ornamentation & much ritual removed When sickly Edward died at 16 some protestant nobles attempted to keep his sister Mary from inheriting the throne because she was Catholic

43 Edwards 15 year old cousin Lady Jane Grey was claimed Queen by some dominant nobles Duke of Northumberland had arranged a marriage between her and his son, Guilford Dudley But quickly people rallied to the support of the rightful heir, Mary Tudor Troops abandoned Jane for Mary Guilford & Jane were executed for treason She had been queen 9 days

44 Catholic daughter of Catherine of Aragon Married Catholic Philip II of Spain Sought to revive Catholicism Protestants revolted Persecution of Protestants led to her being known (by Protestants) as: Bloody Mary Bloody Mary (but she wasnt)

45 25 years old; ruled 45 years! Protestant; re-established the Anglican Church as the National Church The Virgin Queen never married because it helped her keep peace w/ other countries Emphasized loyalty for England over religion

46

47 assassination plots against Elizabeth 1587 – forced to order the execution of her Catholic cousin, Mary Queen of Scots Catholic Mary (Stuart) had been living in England after haven been driven from Scotland by scandal & Protestant uprising Catholic Spain wanted Elizabeth dead so Mary could take the throne

48 assassination plots against Elizabeth 1587 –execution of her Catholic cousin, Mary Queen of Scots Spain attempted an invasion with their feared invincible Armada (navy) English pirates had been attacking Spanish ships and New World ports The Armada was defeated by the weather and the smaller, faster English ships

49

50 Science to Enlightenment How a mixture of Protestantism & Scientific discovery led to new ideas about government…

51 Scientific Revolution Before the revolution… Before the revolution… Scholars relied on established authorities for truth Scholars relied on established authorities for truth Established authorities included: Established authorities included: The Bible & early church writings The Bible & early church writings The Catholic Church The Catholic Church Aristotle, Galen (medicine) Aristotle, Galen (medicine)

52 Astronomy before Revolution: Geocentric Theory Earth is the center of the universe. Earth is the center of the universe. Planets and sun rotate around it. (Ptolemy – Greek) Planets and sun rotate around it. (Ptolemy – Greek)

53 New Theory: Heliocentric The sun is the center of the universe and planets rotate around it The sun is the center of the universe and planets rotate around it Copernican theory …. Kepler verifies with math… Galileo with telescope Copernican theory …. Kepler verifies with math… Galileo with telescope

54 Copernicus Copernicus Kepler Kepler= Galileo Galileo Newton Newton Natural Laws govern the universe

55 Inductive Method collect specifics generalization DeductiveMethod generalization/ formula specific application

56 Scientific Method Using carefully conducted experiments and mathematical calculations to evaluate or verify results of experiments Using carefully conducted experiments and mathematical calculations to evaluate or verify results of experiments

57 Other leaders Descartes Descartes Bacon Bacon Vesalius Vesalius Harvey Harvey Hooke Hooke Hookes drawing of cells

58 The Scientific Revolution - Created an atmosphere of skepticism (doubt – desire for proof) Created an atmosphere of skepticism (doubt – desire for proof) Emphasized the importance of evidence Emphasized the importance of evidence Impacted law, study of history, chronology and eventually philosophy and government Impacted law, study of history, chronology and eventually philosophy and government

59 Law: rules of evidence! Law: rules of evidence! End to witch trials End to witch trials History: critical study of documents, coins & other historical evidence History: critical study of documents, coins & other historical evidence Chronology: organizing events of the past Chronology: organizing events of the past Philosophy: skepticism; natural law; deism Philosophy: skepticism; natural law; deism Politics: social contract Politics: social contract

60 Early Modern European society Legal class divisions Clergy, Nobility, commoners Hierarchy based on birth Privileged nobility but…growing wealth of bourgeoisie

61 Nobility Privileges / not under common law Titled lands; arranged marriages Exempt from many taxes; but charged the peasants fees on everything increasingly extravagant lifestyles Increasingly in debt Looked down on new nobles & gentry

62 Bourgeoisie Upper middle: professions, wealthy merchants Gentry: very wealthy that purchased estates (and sometimes titles of nobility) often aspired to the lifestyle of the nobility; servants often arranged marriages

63 Lower bourgeoisie Shop owners They hired apprentices & servants (urban workers) Lesser merchants

64 Urban Laborers artisans: shop workers; apprentices & journeymen (skilled labor) unskilled labor - wages low later marriages; new household; nuclear family; unwed mothers; foundling hospitals, orphanages

65 Peasants prosperity varied – usually very poor Benefited by domestic system

66 Political Developments in Europe

67 Developments in Europe 1500: New Monarchies 1500: New Monarchies 1500s: Wars of Religion 1500s: Wars of Religion 1600s: rise of Absolutism AND development of English Constitutionalism 1600s: rise of Absolutism AND development of English Constitutionalism 1700s commercial ventures, territorial wars AND the Enlightenment 1700s commercial ventures, territorial wars AND the Enlightenment

68 Primary Sources Absolutism / Divine Right Absolutism / Divine Right Bishop Bossuet Bishop Bossuet Politics Drawn from the Very Words of Holy Scripture, ca Politics Drawn from the Very Words of Holy Scripture, ca Social Contract/ Constitutionalism: Social Contract/ Constitutionalism: John Locke John Locke Two Treatises on Government, 1691 Two Treatises on Government, 1691

69 Holy Roman Empire Thirty Years War ( ) Thirty Years War ( ) 1648 Peace of Westphalia 1648 Peace of Westphalia War weakened HRE War weakened HRE Treaty weakened the HRE further Treaty weakened the HRE further Austria begins to rise Austria begins to rise Post Louis wars: Austria gets Southern Netherlands & Milan from Spain as Louis gr-son gets Spain Post Louis wars: Austria gets Southern Netherlands & Milan from Spain as Louis gr-son gets Spain

70 France: France: aided protestants in Thirty Years War aided protestants in Thirty Years War Creates an absolute monarchy Creates an absolute monarchy Louis XIV – the Sun King Louis XIV – the Sun King Versailles / church Versailles / church Wars with the rest of Europe: Wars with the rest of Europe: – Wars over the Spanish Succession

71 England: Stuarts (Scottish monarchs) replace the Tudors England: Stuarts (Scottish monarchs) replace the Tudors Parliament twice removes Stuart kings from power because they fear: Parliament twice removes Stuart kings from power because they fear: Absolutism + Absolutism + Catholic Monarchy Catholic Monarchy Charles I (1649)/James II (1688) Charles I (1649)/James II (1688)1600s-1700s English protestants saw them as connected

72 English Civil War-Puritan Revol. King Charles I tries to rule as absolute monarch/ persecutes Puritans King Charles I tries to rule as absolute monarch/ persecutes Puritans Parliament creates an army to go to war against the king Parliament creates an army to go to war against the king Oliver Cromwell – one of the generals Oliver Cromwell – one of the generals King defeated, tried, executed for treason 1649 King defeated, tried, executed for treason yr. Puritan Rule follows/ Cromwell 10 yr. Puritan Rule follows/ Cromwell

73 The Glorious Revolution The Glorious Revolution Unlike the English Civil War/Puritan Revolution: Unlike the English Civil War/Puritan Revolution: Parliament removed king James II without bloodshed Parliament removed king James II without bloodshed Mary (Js prot daughter) and William (leader of Dutch Netherlands) replace James; wars with France Mary (Js prot daughter) and William (leader of Dutch Netherlands) replace James; wars with France Catholic monarchy outlawed by Parliament Catholic monarchy outlawed by Parliament

74 English Bill of Rights of 1689 Parliament above the monarchy Parliament above the monarchy Identifies limitations of monarchy Identifies limitations of monarchy Protects rights of individuals: Protects rights of individuals: eg: Fair trial, no cruel & unusual punishment eg: Fair trial, no cruel & unusual punishment Mirrors ideals of Locke Mirrors ideals of Locke Creates a constitutional monarchy/ prevents absolutism Creates a constitutional monarchy/ prevents absolutism

75 Spain Phillip II – counter-reformation! Phillip II – counter-reformation! Armada defeated Armada defeated Spain loses the Northern Netherlands Spain loses the Northern Netherlands After Phillip II – other weaker rulers After Phillip II – other weaker rulers By 1715 – end of Louis wars - Spanish monarchy goes to French Bourbon line, By 1715 – end of Louis wars - Spanish monarchy goes to French Bourbon line, SOUTHERN Netherlands to Austria/HRE SOUTHERN Netherlands to Austria/HRE

76 Northern (Dutch) Netherlands Gains independence from Spain Gains independence from Spain Confirmed internationally 1648 (Westphalia) Confirmed internationally 1648 (Westphalia) A Republic – governed by assembly of mostly merchant notables/ religious tolerance enhances trade and A Republic – governed by assembly of mostly merchant notables/ religious tolerance enhances trade and Only chose military head of state in times of war Only chose military head of state in times of war William III marries Mary Stuart who become K & Q of Engl 1689; no heirs… William III marries Mary Stuart who become K & Q of Engl 1689; no heirs…

77 Baroque movement Catholic: Catholic: Monarchy & Catholic Church main patrons Monarchy & Catholic Church main patrons

78 Bernini

79

80 Baroque movement Protestant: Protestant: Noble &middle class patrons, Noble &middle class patrons,

81 Rembrandt

82


Download ppt "Protestant Reformation and the Catholic Counter -Reformation."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google