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Rebellion in the Latin Church

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Presentation on theme: "Rebellion in the Latin Church"— Presentation transcript:

1 Rebellion in the Latin Church
Protestant Reformation and the Catholic Counter -Reformation

2 Background on Christianity
Rooted in Jewish tradition/Torah and the person of Jesus of Nazareth Jesus – rabbi? who encouraged ethical self sacrifice – Love God Love others Care for the vulnerable/outcastes

3 Gospels Many stories written about the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth
Canon of 4 gospels established 4th century CE Place Jesus as Messiah of Judaism; also: son of God and resurrected

4 Some conflict with Jerusalem church
Paul (Saul of Tarsus) Proclaims special revelation: Jesus’ message meant to be universal – not just for the Jews Travels & begins inclusion of Gentiles in synagogues…eventually separate churches Some conflict with Jerusalem church

5 Advice to early church communities How to live in the world
Letters / Epistles Most from Paul Advice to early church communities How to live in the world Imminent 2nd coming of the Christ (Messiah/Savior) By 2nd century – church leaders begin collecting manuscripts

6 315 CE – Edict of Milan – Constantine Christianity becomes legal
Christianity in power 315 CE – Edict of Milan – Constantine Christianity becomes legal 325 CE Council of Nicaea – uniform Christian doctrine Later 4th century (Emperor Theodosius) Christianity becomes state religion of Roman Empire 382 CE – Latin Vulgate: Old and New Testament

7 Christological disputes
What is the Nature of Christ? “Heresies” – unofficial ideas/ ideas that go against official church; Eg: Nestorians, Arians Nicene creed meant to settle Eventually  doctrine of the Trinity

8 Charlemagne sees himself as the military protector of the Church
Early Middle Ages Roman Catholic/Latin Church becomes unifying factor among Germanic tribes & others Charlemagne sees himself as the military protector of the Church High Middle Ages- church power at height

9 Great east-west Schism
1054 – Latin West v. Byzantine Empire Latin Church (Roman Catholic) Eastern Orthodox Excommunicated each other; After 1453 – Moscow/Muscovy declared self center of Orthodoxy

10 Scholasticism Reconciling classical reasoning (Aristotle) and Christian faith Thomas Aquinas - Summa Theologica Forms the theological basis of the Roman Catholic Church

11 Wealth & power of upper clergy (nobles) Investiture: simony & nepotism
Corruption Wealth & power of upper clergy (nobles) Investiture: simony & nepotism Lack of discipline among clergy Lack of education/knowledge among clergy Avignon Papacy & Great Schism

12 “Heretics” John Wycliffe – theology prof @ Oxford
English translation of NT John Huss – theology Prague Burned at the stake This heresy: objected to worldliness of clergy; advocated personal salvation; challenge to church authority

13 Renaissance Humanism outside of Italy
Northern Renaissance Renaissance Humanism outside of Italy Different emphasis – concern over problems in society Search for more personal religious practices Erasmus, T. More, Rabelais

14 New Monarchies

15 The Protestant and Catholic Reformations

16 The Protestant Reformation ended the unity of the Christian church in the West –
Christianity was eventually fragmented into dozens of denominations… Why did Christian unity come to an end and how did that impact society?

17 Origins of the Reformation
Began in German states because it lacked a strong central government Holy Roman Empire included over 300 semi-independent states Some wanted independence from the Holy Roman Empire Weak emperor could not control independent ideas about religion within the German states

18 Martin Luther started Reformation
German monk, became professor of theology at University of Wittenberg How did his movement start?

19 Luther’s Protest October 31, 1517: nailed on door of Wittenberg Church the 95 Theses – arguments to debate - Criticized sale of indulgences Printed copies of Theses spread

20 Two Main Teachings of Luther
justification by faith only God’s grace through Christ saves; no amount of good works could do it... priesthood of all believers all Christians are equal before God these ideas challenged basic church doctrine, tradition and authority…that is, they were heresy

21 The Empire Strikes Back!
1521: Pope Excommunicated Luther Diet of Worms (Germany) - tried to get Luther to recant criticisms Luther refused; condemned as a heretic Went into hiding; translated Bible into German

22 Catholicism vs. Lutheranism
Emphasized salvation by faith alone Bible only source of religious truth Church = community of individual believers Stressed faith and good works in salvation Church authority & teachings important as spiritual guide Church = clerical hierarchy

23 Catholicism vs. Lutheranism
Priesthood only calling in which people could serve God Priests – special powers administer 7 sacraments All occupations were vocations in which people could serve God Ministers – guides only baptism & communion

24 Religious War Luther’s conflict with the church led to violence
Peasants revolted - the Lutheran princes crushed the rebellion Civil War between the HRE supported by Catholic princes & the Lutheran princes 1555 Peace of Augsburg

25 The Spread of Protestantism and Catholic Counter-Reformation

26 More heresies John Calvin & Predestination or Doctrine of the Elect Protestant work ethic & success Anabaptism Many, many others… Significance…

27 Protestantism spreads ---
While Lutheranism spread in Northern Germany and Scandinavia Calvinism spread into Scotland (Presbyterians), England (puritans), Netherlands (Dutch Reformed) especially Huguenots were Calvinists in France

28 Counter-Reformation Council of Trent Society of Jesus/ Jesuits Inquisition Index Goal: to halt spread of heresy

29 Political Leaders deal with the Reformation
Options: Try to eliminate Protestantism Change to Protestantism ….what are other options?

30 Political Leaders deal with the Reformation
HRE Charles V & the German Wars of Religion Charles’ Habsburg domains The Turks Lutheranism  war Peace of Augsburg 1555 Retirement!!! Forced to split his Empire into Lutheran and Catholic Regions

31 Political Leaders deal with the Reformation
Phillip II of Spain– (Charles V’s son) Inherits Spain, Netherlands & later Portugal Netherlands revolt when P cracks down on independence and Protestantism Protestant part becomes independent: United Provinces/ Dutch Netherlands

32 1600’s Dutch Golden Age Amsterdam -financial power house
Shipped almost all trade in North, Baltic Atlantic and Arctic seas Joint stock companies & stock exchanges freedom of religion, speech & press (more or less) Science, philosophy, art Tech innovation

33 Other Religious Wars France endures religious wars through 4 kings – eventually protestants (Huguenots) are given some religious freedom – for a while… and the right to fortify their towns (Edict of Nantes)

34 Protestantism in England
Why did England officially separate from the Catholic Church? How did this impact the English Reformation?

35 Henry VIII England’s King Henry wanted to divorce his wife, Catherine of Aragon for not producing a male heir to the throne (daughter: Mary) Catholic Church forbade divorce - refused to dissolve Henry’s marriage

36 Henry withdrew England from Catholic Church married Anne Boleyn and created a new church
Act of Supremacy - Parliament created Church of England (Anglican Church) with king as its head King took church lands and abolished monasteries important Englishmen were required to swear oath accepting king as head of the church instead of the Pope...

37 Sir Thomas More - King Henry’s former chancellor who refused to take the oath…. As humanist believed in religious tolerance - but was loyal to the Catholic Church (author of Utopia!) Beheaded for treason

38 Henry’s 6 wives & 3 Children
Div Beh Died Surv Catherine of Aragon - Mary Anne Boleyn Elizabeth Jane Seymour - Edward Anne of Cleves Catherine Howard Catherine Parr Son Edward inherited throne 1st


40 Changes in the English Church
Henry was NOT a protestant Very few changes were allowed in the church by Henry However, changes were made during the period of Henry’s son and the English church adopted more protestant ideas

41 Edward VI – under a regent
The boy king, Edward, was under a regent because of his minority The 1st regent – his uncle – introduced Protestant reforms into the church: English liturgy – Anglican Prayer Book Salvation by faith Images, ornamentation & much ritual removed When sickly Edward died at 16 some protestant nobles attempted to keep his sister Mary from inheriting the throne because she was Catholic

42 { Lady Jane Grey } Edward’s 15 year old cousin Lady Jane Grey was claimed Queen by some dominant nobles Duke of Northumberland had arranged a marriage between her and his son, Guilford Dudley But quickly people rallied to the support of the rightful heir, Mary Tudor Troops abandoned Jane for Mary Guilford & Jane were executed for treason She had been queen 9 days

43 Mary I (1553-1558) Bloody Mary (but she wasn’t)
Catholic daughter of Catherine of Aragon Married Catholic Philip II of Spain Sought to revive Catholicism Protestants revolted Persecution of Protestants led to her being known (by Protestants) as: Bloody Mary (but she wasn’t)

44 Elizabeth I (1558-1603) 25 years old; ruled 45 years!
Protestant; re-established the Anglican Church as the National Church “The Virgin Queen” never married because it helped her keep peace w/ other countries Emphasized loyalty for England over religion


46 assassination plots against Elizabeth
1587 – forced to order the execution of her Catholic cousin, Mary Queen of Scots Catholic Mary (Stuart) had been living in England after haven been driven from Scotland by scandal & Protestant uprising Catholic Spain wanted Elizabeth dead so Mary could take the throne

47 War with Spain! assassination plots against Elizabeth
1587 –execution of her Catholic cousin, Mary Queen of Scots Spain attempted an invasion with their feared “invincible” Armada (navy) English “pirates” had been attacking Spanish ships and New World ports The Armada was defeated by the weather and the smaller, faster English ships


49 Science to “Enlightenment”
How a mixture of Protestantism & Scientific discovery led to new ideas about government…

50 Scientific Revolution
Before the revolution… Scholars relied on established authorities for truth Established authorities included: The Bible & early church writings The Catholic Church Aristotle, Galen (medicine)

51 Astronomy before Revolution: Geocentric Theory
Earth is the center of the universe. Planets and sun rotate around it. (Ptolemy – Greek)

52 New Theory: Heliocentric
The sun is the center of the universe and planets rotate around it Copernican theory …. Kepler verifies with math… Galileo with telescope

53 Natural Laws govern the universe
Copernicus Kepler = Galileo Newton Natural Laws govern the universe

54 Inductive Method collect specifics generalization
Deductive Method generalization/ formula specific application

55 Scientific Method Using carefully conducted experiments and mathematical calculations to evaluate or verify results of experiments

56 Hooke’s drawing of cells
Other leaders Descartes Bacon Vesalius Harvey Hooke Hooke’s drawing of cells

57 The Scientific Revolution -
Created an atmosphere of skepticism (doubt – desire for proof) Emphasized the importance of evidence Impacted law, study of history, chronology and eventually philosophy and government

58 Chronology: organizing events of the past
Law: rules of evidence! End to witch trials History: critical study of documents, coins & other historical “evidence” Chronology: organizing events of the past Philosophy: skepticism; natural law; deism Politics: social contract

59 Early Modern European society
Legal class divisions Clergy, Nobility, commoners Hierarchy based on birth Privileged nobility but…growing wealth of bourgeoisie

60 Nobility Privileges / not under common law
Titled lands; arranged marriages Exempt from many taxes; but charged the peasants fees on everything increasingly extravagant lifestyles Increasingly in debt Looked down on new nobles & gentry

61 Bourgeoisie Upper middle: professions, wealthy merchants
Gentry: very wealthy that purchased estates (and sometimes titles of nobility) often aspired to the lifestyle of the nobility; servants often arranged marriages

62 Lower bourgeoisie Shop owners
They hired apprentices & servants (“urban workers”) Lesser merchants

63 Urban Laborers artisans: shop workers; apprentices & journeymen (skilled labor) unskilled labor - wages low later marriages; new household; nuclear family; unwed mothers; foundling hospitals, orphanages

64 Peasants prosperity varied – usually very poor
Benefited by domestic system

65 Political Developments in Europe

66 Developments in Europe
1500: “New Monarchies” 1500’s: “Wars of Religion” 1600’s: rise of “Absolutism” AND development of English “Constitutionalism” 1700’s commercial ventures, territorial wars AND the “Enlightenment”

67 Primary Sources Absolutism / Divine Right Bishop Bossuet
Politics Drawn from the Very Words of Holy Scripture, ca. 1675 Social Contract/ Constitutionalism: John Locke Two Treatises on Government, 1691

68 Holy Roman Empire Thirty Years War (1618-1648)
1648 Peace of Westphalia War weakened HRE Treaty weakened the HRE further Austria begins to rise Post Louis’ wars: Austria gets Southern Netherlands & Milan from Spain as Louis’ gr-son gets Spain

69 France: Louis XIV –the Sun King Creates an absolute monarchy
aided protestants in Thirty Years War Creates an absolute monarchy Louis XIV –the Sun King Versailles / church Wars with the rest of Europe: – Wars over the Spanish Succession

70 English protestants saw them as connected
England: Stuarts (Scottish monarchs) replace the Tudors Parliament twice removes Stuart kings from power because they fear: Absolutism + Catholic Monarchy Charles I (1649)/James II (1688) English protestants saw them as connected

71 English Civil War-Puritan Revol.
King Charles I tries to rule as absolute monarch/ persecutes Puritans Parliament creates an army to go to war against the king Oliver Cromwell – one of the generals King defeated, tried, executed for treason 1649 10 yr. Puritan Rule follows/ Cromwell

72 The Glorious Revolution
Unlike the English Civil War/Puritan Revolution: Parliament removed king James II without bloodshed Mary (J’s prot daughter) and William (leader of Dutch Netherlands) replace James; wars with France Catholic monarchy outlawed by Parliament

73 English Bill of Rights of 1689
Parliament above the monarchy Identifies limitations of monarchy Protects rights of individuals: eg: Fair trial, no “cruel & unusual punishment” Mirrors ideals of Locke Creates a constitutional monarchy/ prevents absolutism

74 Spain After Phillip II – other weaker rulers
Phillip II – counter-reformation! Armada defeated Spain loses the Northern Netherlands After Phillip II – other weaker rulers By 1715 – end of Louis’ wars Spanish monarchy goes to French Bourbon line, SOUTHERN Netherlands to Austria/HRE

75 Northern (Dutch) Netherlands
Gains independence from Spain Confirmed internationally 1648 (Westphalia) A Republic – governed by assembly of mostly merchant notables/ religious tolerance enhances trade and Only chose military head of state in times of war William III marries Mary Stuart who become K & Q of Engl 1689; no heirs…

76 Baroque movement Catholic: Monarchy & Catholic Church main patrons

77 Bernini


79 Baroque movement Protestant: Noble &middle class patrons,

80 Rembrandt


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