5Major Accomplishments Built walled cities to keep invaders outMade ivory & jade statuesWove silk into elegant colored clothesPerfected metal casting- produced some of the finest bronze objects ever made
16The Hundred Schools of thought were said to have developed during the Zhou dynasty. Examples include:ConfucianismLegalismDaoismThese philosophies focused very little on supernatural or eternal life, instead focused on life in this world and how it should be lived
17The Downfall of the Zhou Dynasty Toward the end of the dynasty, nobles began to fight among each other for powerFarmers had to fight in armies which produced many crop failures and food shortagesSoon the empire was weak and taken over by a more powerful king
18For the first time, China was completely united as one empire Qin Dynasty 221 B.C.E. to 206 B.C.E.For the first time, China was completely united as one empire
21The Rule of Qin Shihuangdi the good… New ideas about communication helped unify ChinaReorganized the empire into military districts- keep local lords from taking overDeveloped a system of weights and measures and standardized coinsInstituted a uniform writing systemEducated men, not nobles ran the country
22the bad…..Relied heavily on scholar advisers- became a very strict rulerImposed taxes on land owners and took away land from local lords
23the ugly……Censored books and burned books that were not practical subjectsScholars could not even talk of the past
27The Background of the Excavation In 1974, workers digging a well discovered a pottery head of a human figureWhat they found was an ancient burial-site of the first Chinese Emperor Qin Shihuangdi.Qin wanted the afterlife to be the same as his life on earth.To substitute for the actual humans, Qin ordered a massive clay army to be produced for his protection.
28Some 8,000 figures have been uncovered grouped in battle order, facing east, to protect the emperor, who lies in his mausoleumThe army consisted of 7,000 warriors: archers, foot soldiers, cavalrymen, and charioteers of various rank, 500 chariot horses, 130 war chariots, and 110 cavalry horses
32The End of QinAfter Shi Huangdi’s death, peasants revolted and formed a strong army to defeat the emperorLiu Bang, a military officer from a peasant background, led the defeat of the Qin Dynasty and declared himself emperor of the new Han dynasty……….
35Accomplishments Under Wudi Wudi reigned from 141 B.C.E to 87 B.C.E. is considered one of the most dynamic rulers in Chinese HistoryFollowed the teachings of ConfuciusExpanded empire- conquered lands to the north, including Korea and Manchuria, south into Southeast Asia and as far as northern IndiaLearned about the Roman culture Expanded trade routes (known today as the silk road)
37More of Wudi’s Accomplishments Government jobs were given to educated people (in the past given to family members or the aristocracy).Wudi’s system of government called Civil Service (based on merit)Mandarins- well educated civil servants controlled the government until the early 1900s
38More Accomplishments of the Han Ruled during the Pax Sinica- 400 year period of prosperity and stabilityLearning became the main focus of society- expanded the language and wrote the first Chinese dictionaryBuddhism brought to ChinaInvention of paper made printing books easier
39The End of the HanAs the empire grew in size, its borders were often under attack. Eventually, the empire’s great expansion became its downfall.
40Confucianism 522 B.C.E- Confucius begins to teach Taught social harmony and good government would come to China if people lived according to principles of ethics, good conduct and moral judgmentReciprocity“Do not do unto others as you would not want others to do unto you”
41Five Relationships Ruler/Subject Parent/Child Husband/Wife Old/Young Friend/FriendEach relationship has certain responsibilities to follow479 B.C.E- teachings were collected into works called Analects
42Legalism Founder- Hanfeizi (200’s B.C.E.) Like Confucianism stressed importance of an orderly society, but in the opposite way.Belief in highly efficient and powerful government along with harsh law were the key to restoring power.People were by nature selfish and untrustworthy thus peace and prosperity only achieved by threatening severe punishment
43Yin and Yang Chinese theory related to Daoism Two opposing forces believed to be present in all natureYin- cool, dark, female, and submissiveYang- warm, light, male, and aggressiveFor harmony the two must be in balance
44Daoism Daoist ideas traced to teachings of a scholar named Laozi. 500 B.C.E. emerges as a major philosophyEmphasized harmony with nature- rejected formal social structures and idea that people must fill specific roles in society.People should renounce worldly ambitions and turn to nature and the Dao, universal force that guides all things.Where Confucianism provided one’s place in the social order, Daoism emphasized harmony within the individual, one could be both