Presentation on theme: "China O. Xia Dynasty 2000 B.C.E Known to us from legends Not enough evidence to prove it existed Farming begins along Huang He….."— Presentation transcript:
Xia Dynasty 2000 B.C.E Known to us from legends Not enough evidence to prove it existed Farming begins along Huang He…..
The Shang Dynasty 1700 B.C B.C.E. The First dynasty to be dated from written recordsThe First dynasty to be dated from written records
Map of the Shang
Major Accomplishments Built walled cities to keep invaders out Made ivory & jade statues Wove silk into elegant colored clothes Perfected metal casting- produced some of the finest bronze objects ever made
More Bronze Work….
Oracle Bones 1 st known examples of writing in China. Used to predict the future
Zhou Dynasty (1100 B.C.E B.C.E.) Wu, the former leader of Shang territory took over capital and established the Zhou
Map of Zhou
About the Zhou….. Zhou in its heyday- the Imperial Period Mandate of Heaven- authority to rule comes from heaven set up agricultural system- nobles own land and peasants worked land
Technological advances…. Iron came into general use Built roads, and expanded foreign trade crossbow cavalry Iron plow, irrigation system and flood control
The Hundred Schools of Thought….
The Hundred Schools of thought were said to have developed during the Zhou dynasty. Examples include: Confucianism Legalism Daoism These philosophies focused very little on supernatural or eternal life, instead focused on life in this world and how it should be lived
The Downfall of the Zhou Dynasty Toward the end of the dynasty, nobles began to fight among each other for power Farmers had to fight in armies which produced many crop failures and food shortages Soon the empire was weak and taken over by a more powerful king
Qin Dynasty 221 B.C.E. to 206 B.C.E. For the first time, China was completely united as one empire
Map of Qin
ShiHuangdi The First (Shi) Emperor (Huangdi)
The Rule of Qin Shihuangdi the good… New ideas about communication helped unify China Reorganized the empire into military districts- keep local lords from taking over Developed a system of weights and measures and standardized coins Instituted a uniform writing system Educated men, not nobles ran the country
the bad….. Relied heavily on scholar advisers- became a very strict ruler Imposed taxes on land owners and took away land from local lords
the ugly…… Censored books and burned books that were not practical subjects Scholars could not even talk of the past
The Background of the Excavation oIn 1974, workers digging a well discovered a pottery head of a human figure oWhat they found was an ancient burial-site of the first Chinese Emperor Qin Shihuangdi. oQin wanted the afterlife to be the same as his life on earth. o To substitute for the actual humans, Qin ordered a massive clay army to be produced for his protection.
Some 8,000 figures have been uncovered grouped in battle order, facing east, to protect the emperor, who lies in his mausoleum The army consisted of 7,000 warriors: archers, foot soldiers, cavalrymen, and charioteers of various rank, 500 chariot horses, 130 war chariots, and 110 cavalry horses
The End of Qin After Shi Huangdis death, peasants revolted and formed a strong army to defeat the emperor Liu Bang, a military officer from a peasant background, led the defeat of the Qin Dynasty and declared himself emperor of the new Han dynasty……….
The Glorious Han 207 B.C.E to 220 C.E.
Map of the Han
Accomplishments Under Wudi Wudi reigned from 141 B.C.E to 87 B.C.E. is considered one of the most dynamic rulers in Chinese History Followed the teachings of Confucius Expanded empire- conquered lands to the north, including Korea and Manchuria, south into Southeast Asia and as far as northern India Learned about the Roman culture Expanded trade routes (known today as the silk road)
More of Wudis Accomplishments Government jobs were given to educated people (in the past given to family members or the aristocracy).Government jobs were given to educated people (in the past given to family members or the aristocracy). Wudis system of government called Civil Service (based on merit)Wudis system of government called Civil Service (based on merit) Mandarins- well educated civil servants controlled the government until the early 1900sMandarins- well educated civil servants controlled the government until the early 1900s
More Accomplishments of the Han Ruled during the Pax Sinica- 400 year period of prosperity and stability Learning became the main focus of society- expanded the language and wrote the first Chinese dictionary Buddhism brought to China Invention of paper made printing books easier
The End of the Han As the empire grew in size, its borders were often under attack. Eventually, the empires great expansion became its downfall.
Confucianism 522 B.C.E- Confucius begins to teach Taught social harmony and good government would come to China if people lived according to principles of ethics, good conduct and moral judgment Reciprocity Do not do unto others as you would not want others to do unto you
Five Relationships Ruler/Subject Parent/Child Husband/Wife Old/Young Friend/Friend Each relationship has certain responsibilities to follow 479 B.C.E- teachings were collected into works called Analects
Legalism Founder- Hanfeizi (200s B.C.E.) Like Confucianism stressed importance of an orderly society, but in the opposite way. Belief in highly efficient and powerful government along with harsh law were the key to restoring power. People were by nature selfish and untrustworthy thus peace and prosperity only achieved by threatening severe punishment
Yin and Yang Chinese theory related to DaoismChinese theory related to Daoism Two opposing forces believed to be present in all natureTwo opposing forces believed to be present in all nature Yin- cool, dark, female, and submissiveYin- cool, dark, female, and submissive Yang- warm, light, male, and aggressiveYang- warm, light, male, and aggressive For harmony the two must be in balanceFor harmony the two must be in balance
Daoism Daoist ideas traced to teachings of a scholar named Laozi. 500 B.C.E. emerges as a major philosophy Emphasized harmony with nature- rejected formal social structures and idea that people must fill specific roles in society. People should renounce worldly ambitions and turn to nature and the Dao, universal force that guides all things. Where Confucianism provided ones place in the social order, Daoism emphasized harmony within the individual, one could be both