Presentation on theme: "1 AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE AGE OF TRADE LIBERALIZATION – What Did We Really Get? A case Study of Jordan Presented at IDEAs Beijing Workshop: 3-5."— Presentation transcript:
1 AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE AGE OF TRADE LIBERALIZATION – What Did We Really Get? A case Study of Jordan Presented at IDEAs Beijing Workshop: 3-5 th June, 2007 Fayq Al Akayleh Centre for Economic Studies and Planning School of Social Sciences Jawaharlal Nehru University New Delhi
2 Natural Obstacles Lack of arable land (Only 7.8 percent (1 million acres) of the total land is arable. The very limited resources for both the drinking and irrigation water (Estimated deficit of drinking water in 1997 was 25 percent.) Rain-fed agriculture occupies 80 percent of the total arable land
3 Table 1: Average Production Trade Share and Export-Import ratio of Main Crops (Calculated based on quantities) ( ) WheatBarleyLentilsFruitsVegetablesCitrus Fruits Production (%) X/M (%) Trade Share (%)
4 Agricultural Trade Liberalization Policies, Introduced since : Implementation of the Economic Structural Adjustment Program This was interrupted by the 1990/91 Gulf Crisis and U.S. offensive against Iraq 1993: Implementation of Economic Reform Program that has been included in the and economic and social development plans. 1993: Food subsidies reduced by more than 50 % (declined as a share of GDP from 3.4 % in 1990 to 1.2 % in 1993) 1993: Governments gradual withdrawal from importing almost all agricultural products except for very few items in competition with the private sector
5 …Continued: Agricultural Trade Liberalization Policies 1994: Agricultural Sector Adjustment Program-under World Banks Agricultural Structural Adjustment Loan: o In October 1994, the Government lowered all tariffs of more than 50 % to 50 % or less, affecting 21 % of imports (including tobacco and alcohol) o In May 1995, tariffs on all agricultural products were reduced further to 25 % o In May, 1995, the Government eliminated all quantitative restrictions on agricultural imports, except very few essential food items, and converted them into tariffs o In 1996, A progressive tariff for irrigation water
6 …Continued: Agricultural Trade Liberalization Policies oIn August 1996, the bread subsidy was eliminated and the prices of flour and bread were increased. Increasing price of bread was accompanied by cash transfer of the amount of JD per person per month, subject to the JD 500 per household eligibility criterion 1994: The Government replaced the Consumption Tax on imports by the General Sales Tax Law No. 6 of 1994, which is applied equally on domestically produced goods as well as imports.
7 …Continued: Agricultural Trade Liberalization Policies 1997: Export Promotion Facility of the Central Bank of Jordan, which was operating to provide credits for exporters, through commercial banks, at 2 percentage points below the prevailing discount rate, was terminated on January 1st, : In January 1999, the general cash transfer was eliminated and the Government liberalized bread prices. The cost of food subsidy as a share of GDP was 3.1 % in 1989 and declined to 0.3% of GDP in : Total domestic subsidies offered by the government to local agricultural producers reduced by 13.3% over a period of seven years from the date of accession to WTO
8 …Continued: Agricultural Trade Liberalization Policies 2003: As a provision of the Great Arab Free Trade Agreement, by January 1st, 2003, exemption of customs duties among the League countries reached 70 percent, including agricultural products 2005: The State-owned Agricultural Marketing and Processing Company (AMPCO) was privatized in November 2005 for JD 8.9 million
9 Agricultural Real Production, Real Income and Relative Prices
10 Figure 1 Relative price index of agricultural products was slightly lower in period after 1993 compared to Real agricultural production peaked in 1992 and fell thereafter, never reaching that level again. Average production in was 21 % lower than in (JD million in and JD in ). The same scenario happened to real income from agriculture with sharper decline since 1993 onward. Average income in was 53 % lower than in (JD million lower than JD million in ). Domestic agricultural prices were higher than world prices since This made domestic agricultural products less competitive; adversely affecting exports and encouraging imports.
11 Agricultural Real Investment and Trade Share
12 Figure 2 Since 1993, trade share increased sharply till 2000 and agriculture sector experienced disinvestment (JD -7.8 million) in 1996, both moved together till 2002, and in opposite direction in Average trade share increased from during to 315 during , whereas average agricultural investment decreased from JD 42.7 million to JD 21.2 million. Real investment and share of trade in agricultural GDP have, in general, moved in opposite direction The dominance of imports over exports in trade reduced the ability of domestic producers to competing, which discouraged investment, resulting in declining production
13 Trade Deficit in Agriculture Sector
14 Competitive Advantage (CAX) for Agricultural Exports and for agricultural production (CAM) The following formulas were used to find the CAX and the CAM: CAXij = [(Xijt / Xjt) / (Xiwt / Xwt)] and, CAMij = [(Mijt / Mjt) / (Miwt / Mwt)] where, i, j, t, w, X, and M are agricultural ith product, Jordan, time period, the world, exports and imports, respectively, and if: – CAX is greater (smaller) than unity for an agricultural product, the country has competitive advantage (competitive disadvantage) in export of that product and when RCAX (the change in CAX) is greater (smaller) than unity, the country has been gaining (losing) advantage in export of that product. – CAM is greater (smaller) than unity for an agricultural product, then the country has disadvantage (advantage) in the production of that product; RCAM is greater (smaller) than unity implies that the country witnessed further loss (gain) in advantage of the production of that product.
15 Results for Competitive Advantage Over the pre-reform period, Jordan had competitive advantage in EXPORT of 14 out of 37 agricultural products included in the study, yet the number of competitive products declined to 13 during the reform period. The number of agricultural products that have competitive advantage in PRODUCTION had declined from 25 products in the pre-reform period to 23 products in the age of trade liberalization. So no improvement in competitive advantage neither for agricultural exports nor for production
16 Export-Weighted Real Exchange Rate for Agriculture
17 Export-weighted RER for Agriculture The very high values of the RER index refers to the period in which the economy experienced financial crisis as a result of increasing external debt by more than 300 % between 1987 and Export-weighted RER of agriculture was generally depreciating during and also during , YET the index during was, in average, 132 % lower than in The reason behind the higher values of the Export-weighted RER is the increasing price level in Jordan in comparison with that in importing countries of Jordanian agricultural exports. Higher and upper-middle income groups contributed to more than 60 % of Jordanian exports and the change in their CPIs, in average, were lower than that of Jordan in the reform period Therefore, the Government had to give agricultural exporters preferential exchange rate for their export proceeds so that they can compete internationally
18 Trend of Production Patterns of Main Agricultural Products
19 Table 2: Percentage Change in Production, Trade and Domestic Availability in the Era of Trade Liberalization ( ) in comparison with the pre-reform ( ) Variable WheatLentilsBarley Vegetables & Fruits 1- Production Exports Imports Yield Area harvested Trade Share P.C. Domestic Availability
20 … Continued: Table 2 Variable Red and Poultry MeatMilk Table Eggs 1- Production Exports Imports Trade Share P.C. Domestic Availability
21 Production Patterns, Impact of Exposure to International Markets and Domestic availability of Food Production pattern has shifted from food grains to vegetable and fruit farming. Production of livestock products have improved in the reform period. For food grains that are included in the study, exposure to international markets (in terms of export, import, or trade share) had a negative impact on both the production and per capita domestic availability. Production of fruits and vegetables improved and associated with more exposure to international markets, yet real income did not improve adequately, as a result. Such a pattern of agricultural production and the increasing exposure to international markets have been associated with worsened food quality, food needs and the number of undernourished persons.
22 Development of food quality, food needs and the number of undernourished persons (From FAO database) 1) Dietary energy consumption in Jordan, in annual average, had declined from 2790 kcal/person/day in to 2660 kcal/person/day in ) Annual average of dietary protein consumption declined from 75 g/person/day during to 71 g/person/day in ) Minimum dietary energy requirement (food needs), in annual average, had increased from 1758 kcal/person/day in to 1796 kcal/person/day during ) The annual average of the contribution of Carbohydrates in total dietary energy consumption (food quality) had declined from 65 % during to 63 % in the ) Contribution of fats in total dietary energy consumption (food quality) increased from 25 % to 26 %. 6) Contribution of proteins in total dietary energy consumption (food quality) remained 11 % during the two periods 7) The number of undernourished persons has increased from 0.15 million over the to 0.35 million in (or from 4.2 % to 7.3 % of the total number of population).
23 Contribution of Agricultural Employment to Total Employment
24 Concluding Remarks Agricultural real income and real production deteriorated during the reform period. This situation was associated with increasing exposure to international markets. Competitive advantage of agricultural export and production declined in the reform period in comparison with the pre-reform period. Agricultural trade deficit exacerbated more in the reform period than in the pre-reform period. The increase in agricultural relative prices (in Jordan relative to the world prices) was a result of gradual withdrawal of the government from investment, pricing policy, credit schemes, direct subsidies to agricultural producers and exporters and, the reduction of tariff and NTBs.
25 …Continued: Concluding Remarks Per capita domestic Availability declined and the number of undernourished persons increased during In the light of the relatively decreasing world prices of agriculture, increasing RER for agricultural exports has not been met by preferential exchange rates for agricultural exporters to enable them competing in international markets