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Presentation on theme: "Viruses."— Presentation transcript:

1 Viruses

2 Are Viruses Living or Non-living?
Viruses are non living They have some properties of life but not others They can’t maintain a constant internal state (homeostasis) or reproduce without a host cell.

3 What are Viruses? A virus is a non-cellular particle made up of a nucleic acid and protein coat (capsid) that can invade living cells.

4 Smallpox Edward Jenner (1796) developed a smallpox vaccine using milder cowpox viruses Deadly viruses are said to be virulent Smallpox has been eradicated in the world today

5 Viewing Viruses Viruses are smaller than the smallest cell
Viruses couldn’t be seen until the electron microscope was invented in the 20th century

6 What is a Nanometer? A nanometer is a unit of measure. Just like inches, feet and miles. By definition a nanometer is one-billionth of a meter. A meter is about 39 inches long. That is a big number and when you divide a meter into one billion pieces, well that is very small.

7 Size of Viruses

8 Viral Structure

9 Characteristics Non living Noncellular Contain:
1. a protein coat called the capsid 2. nucleic acid core containing DNA or RNA Capable of reproducing only when inside a HOST cell

10 Characteristics Some viruses are enclosed in an protective envelope
CAPSID Some viruses are enclosed in an protective envelope Some viruses may have spikes to help attach to the host cell Most viruses infect only SPECIFIC host cells DNA ENVELOPE SPIKES

11 Characteristics Outside of host cells, viruses are inactive
Lack ribosomes and enzymes needed for metabolism To be able to reproduce they use the raw materials and enzymes of the host. EBOLA VIRUS HIV VIRUS

12 Characteristics Some viruses cause disease
Smallpox, measles, mononucleosis, influenza, colds, warts, AIDS, Ebola Some viruses may cause some cancers like leukemia MEASLES

13 Viral Shapes Viruses come in a variety of shapes
Some may be helical shape like the Ebola virus Some may be polyhedral shapes like the influenza virus Others have more complex shapes like bacteriophages

14 Helical Viruses

15 Polyhedral Viruses

16 Complex Viruses

17 Herpes Virus SIMPLEX I and II

18 Adenovirus COMMON COLD

19 Influenza Virus

20 Chickenpox Virus

21 Papillomavirus – Warts!

22 Bacteriophages

23 Phages Viruses that attack bacteria are called bacteriophage or just phage

24 Bacteriophage They infect E. coli , an intestinal bacteria
Six small spikes at the base of a contractile tail are used to attach to the host cell Viral DNA is injected into the host cell

25 Escherichia coli Bacterium

26 Bacteriophages

27 Retrovirus

28 Characteristics of Retroviruses/Latent
Contain RNA, not DNA Contain enzyme called Reverse Transcriptase When a retrovirus infects a cell, it injects its RNA and reverse transcriptase enzyme into the cytoplasm of that cell and it is able to make DNA

29 Retroviruses HIV, the AIDS virus and human T cell leukemia virus are retroviruses

30 Viral Replication

31 Viral Attack Viruses are very specific as to which species they attack
HOST specific Humans rarely share viral diseases with other animals Eukaryotic viruses usually have protective envelopes made from the host cell membrane

32 Bacteriophage Replication-Lytic Cycle
Bacteriophage inject their nucleic acid They lysis (break open) the bacterial cell when replication is finished

33 Lytic Cycle Review Attachment Phage attaches by tail fibers to host cell Entry Tail sheath contracts to force tail core and DNA into cell Replication Production of phage DNA and proteins Assembly Assembly of phage particles Lysis/Release Phage breaks cell wall and releases new viruses

34 Viral Latency Some viruses have the ability to become dormant inside the cell Called latent viruses They may remain inactive for long periods of time (years) Later, they activate to produce new viruses in response to some external signal HIV and Herpes viruses are examples

35 Lysogenic Cycle Phage DNA or genome injected into host cell
Viral DNA joins host DNA forming a provirus When an activation signal occurs, the phage DNA starts replicating

36 Lysogenic Cycle Viral DNA (part of provirus) may stay inactive in host cell for long periods of time Provirus Replicates during each binary fission in bacteria and Mitosis in Eukaryotic Cells Over time, many cells result which contain the provirus

37 Lytic and Lysogenic Cycle

38 Viral Latency Once a provirus cell is activated, host cell enters the lytic cycle New viruses form and the cell lyses (bursts)

39 Latency in Eukaryotes Some eukaryotic viruses remain dormant for many years in the nervous system tissues Chickenpox (caused by the virus Varicella zoster) is a childhood infection It can reappear later in life as shingles, a painful itching rash limited to small areas of the body SHINGLES

40 Latency in Eukaryotes Herpes viruses also become latent in the nervous system A herpes infection lasts for a person’s lifetime Genital herpes (Herpes Simplex 2) Cold sores or fever blisters (Herpes Simplex1) SKIN TO SKIN CONTACT PASSED AT BIRTH TO BABY

41 Interferon are naturally occurring proteins made by cells to fight viruses

42 Strange and Unusual Virus Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis.
Dr Gaspari, of the University of Maryland, concluded Dede’s affliction was caused by the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), a fairly common infection usually causing only small warts. Caused by an extremely rare immune system deficiency Leaves body unable to fight the warts. The virus was therefore able to “hijack the cellular machinery of his skin cells” causing them to produce tree-like growths known as “cutaneous horns”. “Tree Man” of Java

43 The End

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