Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

1 Viruses. 2 Are Viruses Living or Non-living? Viruses are non living They have some properties of life but not others They cant maintain a constant internal.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "1 Viruses. 2 Are Viruses Living or Non-living? Viruses are non living They have some properties of life but not others They cant maintain a constant internal."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Viruses

2 2 Are Viruses Living or Non-living? Viruses are non living They have some properties of life but not others They cant maintain a constant internal state (homeostasis) or reproduce without a host cell.

3 3 What are Viruses? A virus is a non- cellular particle made up of a nucleic acid and protein coat (capsid) that can invade living cells.

4 4Smallpox Edward Jenner (1796) developed a smallpox vaccine using milder cowpox viruses Deadly viruses are said to be virulent Smallpox has been eradicated in the world today

5 5 Viewing Viruses Viruses are smaller than the smallest cell Viruses couldnt be seen until the electron microscope was invented in the 20 th century

6 What is a Nanometer? A nanometer is a unit of measure. Just like inches, feet and miles. By definition a nanometer is one-billionth of a meter. A meter is about 39 inches long. That is a big number and when you divide a meter into one billion pieces, well that is very small. 6

7 7 Size of Viruses

8 8 Viral Structure

9 9 Characteristics Non living Noncellular Contain: 1. a protein coat called the capsid 2. nucleic acid core containing DNA or RNA Capable of reproducing only when inside a HOST cell

10 10 Characteristics Some viruses are enclosed in an protective envelope Some viruses may have spikes to help attach to the host cell Most viruses infect only SPECIFIC host cells CAPSID ENVELOPE DNA SPIKES

11 11Characteristics Outside of host cells, viruses are inactive Lack ribosomes and enzymes needed for metabolism To be able to reproduce they use the raw materials and enzymes of the host. EBOLA VIRUS HIV VIRUS

12 12Characteristics Some viruses cause disease Smallpox, measles, mononucleosis, influenza, colds, warts, AIDS, Ebola Some viruses may cause some cancers like leukemia MEASLES

13 13 Viral Shapes Viruses come in a variety of shapes Some may be helical shape like the Ebola virus Some may be polyhedral shapes like the influenza virus Others have more complex shapes like bacteriophages

14 14 Helical Viruses

15 15 Polyhedral Viruses

16 16 Complex Viruses

17 17 Herpes Virus SIMPLEX I and II

18 18 Adenovirus COMMON COLD

19 19 Influenza Virus

20 20 Chickenpox Virus

21 21 Papillomavirus – Warts!

22 22 Bacteriophages

23 23Phages Viruses that attack bacteria are called bacteriophage or just phage

24 24Bacteriophage They infect E. coli, an intestinal bacteria Six small spikes at the base of a contractile tail are used to attach to the host cell Viral DNA is injected into the host cell

25 25 Escherichia coli Bacterium T - EVEN PHAGES ATTACK THIS BACTERIUM

26 26 Bacteriophages

27 27 Retrovirus

28 28 Characteristics of Retroviruses/Latent Contain RNA, not DNA Contain enzyme called Reverse Transcriptase When a retrovirus infects a cell, it injects its RNA and reverse transcriptase enzyme into the cytoplasm of that cell and it is able to make DNA

29 29 Retroviruses HIV, the AIDS virus and human T cell leukemia virus are retroviruses

30 30 Viral Replication

31 31 Viral Attack Viruses are very specific as to which species they attack HOST specific Humans rarely share viral diseases with other animals Eukaryotic viruses usually have protective envelopes made from the host cell membrane

32 32 Bacteriophage Replication- Lytic Cycle Bacteriophage inject their nucleic acid They lysis (break open) the bacterial cell when replication is finished

33 33 AttachmentPhage attaches by tail fibers to host cell Entry Tail sheath contracts to force tail core and DNA into cell ReplicationProduction of phage DNA and proteins AssemblyAssembly of phage particles Lysis/ReleasePhage breaks cell wall and releases new viruses Lytic Cycle Review

34 34 Viral Latency Some viruses have the ability to become dormant inside the cell Called latent viruses They may remain inactive for long periods of time (years) Later, they activate to produce new viruses in response to some external signal HIV and Herpes viruses are examples

35 35 Lysogenic Cycle Phage DNA or genome injected into host cell Viral DNA joins host DNA forming a provirus When an activation signal occurs, the phage DNA starts replicating

36 36 Lysogenic Cycle Viral DNA (part of provirus) may stay inactive in host cell for long periods of time Provirus Replicates during each binary fission in bacteria and Mitosis in Eukaryotic Cells Over time, many cells result which contain the provirus

37 Lytic and Lysogenic Cycle 37

38 38 Viral Latency Once a provirus cell is activated, host cell enters the lytic cycle New viruses form and the cell lyses (bursts)

39 39 Latency in Eukaryotes Some eukaryotic viruses remain dormant for many years in the nervous system tissues Chickenpox (caused by the virus Varicella zoster) is a childhood infection It can reappear later in life as shingles, a painful itching rash limited to small areas of the body SHINGLES

40 40 Latency in Eukaryotes Herpes viruses also become latent in the nervous system A herpes infection lasts for a persons lifetime Genital herpes (Herpes Simplex 2) Cold sores or fever blisters (Herpes Simplex1) SKIN TO SKIN CONTACT PASSED AT BIRTH TO BABY

41 41 Interferon are naturally occurring proteins made by cells to fight viruses

42 Strange and Unusual Virus Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis. Dr Gaspari, of the University of Maryland, concluded Dedes affliction was caused by the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), a fairly common infection usually causing only small warts. Caused by an extremely rare immune system deficiency Leaves body unable to fight the warts. The virus was therefore able to hijack the cellular machinery of his skin cells causing them to produce tree-like growths known as cutaneous horns. 42 Tree Man of Java

43 43 The End

Download ppt "1 Viruses. 2 Are Viruses Living or Non-living? Viruses are non living They have some properties of life but not others They cant maintain a constant internal."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google