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1 Laura Carson, Grace Cho and Alizah Berg 4) To what extent were the political and economic ideas of Karl Marx realized in post-revolutionary Russia between 1917 and 1938?Laura Carson, Grace Cho and Alizah BergAP European HistoryNance 4th period
2 Thesis StatementIn Post-Revolutionary Russia between 1917 and 1938 Marx’s economic ideals were not realized under Lenin, but manifested in Stalin’s 5 year plans, politically Marx’s ideals were hardly realized because of the establishment of a “permanent” totalitarian dictatorship.
3 Introduction Causes of the 1917 Revolution include: People have little influence over the governmentFailing economy; shortages due to the warArchaic social hierarchyTsar Nicolas was ignorant of economic problems and oblivious to the problems of the majority of Russians. He could not institute effective reforms and was indecisive.Tsar Nicolas II
4 IntroductionA tightly organized group under Lenin's leadership saw WWI as a chance to start a revolution.Revolution began with a series of strikes on March 1917 and Nicholas abdicated power. The Provisional government was declared and Bolsheviks works to undermine the government until they gain power in November 1917.Painting symbolizing the October Revolution of the Bolsheviks
5 Economy Not-RealizedLenin's initial program called for peasant control over land, gave workers more influence in factories, and nationalized a few key industries (banking and transportation). This program was not designed to build socialism in Russia right away.War Communism: Socialist principles implemented in the economy, an expedient or shortcut to Marxist Socialism, but was ultimately a failing economic program.Marx had predicted that capitalism would mature into proletarian revolt then to socialist dictatorship; War Communism though was a leap into socialism, skipping some Marx's steps.War Communism: "The most extreme effort in modern times to do away with the system of private property and voluntary exchange" -- Jack Hirshleifer, economist.
6 Economy Not-Realized Characteristics: Production was run by the state, private ownership kept to a minimum and private houses were to be confiscated by the state.Private trade, the hiring of labor, and the leasing of land were abolished.Property confiscated from the upper classesBusinesses and factories are nationalized.Labor was conscripted and organized militarily; strikes are outlawed.The effects of War Communism were disastrous.Economic production levels fell below the levels of 1914.Industrial labor decreased significantly.
7 Economy Not-RealizedNew Economic Policy: a temporary program and a success, it would attract foreign capital, increase industrial output and increase agricultural production.Lenin justified NEP on the grounds that state capitalism was the last step of capitalism before a socialist state developed.The essential feature of NEP was a negation or reversal of the policies of war communismIndustry operated privately (except for the Commanding Heights), increases by 40%Free market, some elements of trade still controlled by the stateMoney, banking, and capitalist accounting principles restored.Collectivization of agriculture abandoned to appease peasants.
8 Economic Realized Stalin's 5 year plans Stalin came to favor rapid industrialization; at the end of 1927 he ordered the collectivization of agriculture; agriculture, like industry, he said, must be transformed to a large-scale unified state enterprise.USSR had to "overtake and outstrip the capitalist countires" 1928: Stalin launches first 5 year plan ( ) for economic developmentGosplan organization was formed to oversee the 5 year plansSet quotas that factories and farms had to meet, those that fail to meet quotas are often punished and sent to work camps.Emphasis on heavy industry (coal, iron, oil, steel, and electricity)collectivization causes resistance from kulacks, widespread famine, and repression of the peasants.
9 Economic Realized 1933-1937: The second five year plan continued emphasis on heavy industry, new focus on communication and transportation industry. 5 year plans came at a cost:liquidation of kulak classmassive amount of death from faminesacrifice of quality
10 The Effects of Stalin's 5 Year Plans: Economic RealizedThe Effects of Stalin's 5 Year Plans:
11 Political RealizedLenin stood for the rigid reaffirmation of Marxian fundamentals -- dialectical materialism and irreconcilable class struggle.He denounced all who attempted to "add" anything to the fundamentals of Marx.Concentrated on four points: 1) peace with the Central Powers2) redistribution of land to the peasants3) transfer of factories, mines, and other industrial plants from capitalists to committees of workers in each plant.4) recognition of the soviets as supreme power instead of the Provisional Government.
12 Political RealizedHad won over the soldiers, peasants, and workers by promising them "peace, land, and bread"Introduced two resolutions:1) "just democratic peace" without annexations and indemnities.2) "abolish all landlord property" immediately and without compensation.Lenin had the belief that because of the revolution in Russia, all of Europe would all undergo a Marxist Revolution and the Poles, Ukrainians and others would emerge together as free socialists.Had created a party that's function was to carry out the dictatorship of the proletariat.
13 Political cartoon of prominent Communist Revolutionary Leon Trotsky published in 1917
14 Political Not Realized Lenin/the BolsheviksExpanded upon the basic principles of Marxismthe role of the party- saw it as an organisation in which intellectuals provided leadership for the common workersBelieved that the party should be a small, revolutionary elite, as well as strongly centralized, contradicting the Marxist opinion in a greater degree of influence by the membership as a whole
15 Political Not Realized Stalin Attempted to fully realize Marxist principles in his collectivisation of agriculture, but this caused more class struggle and famine Created a totalitarian government in which no one could leave the country without special permission, there was one political party, no free labor unions, and no free pressContrary to the Marxist belief in eventual Proletarian revolution, because his policies did not encourage movement in this direction.
17 ConclusionKarl Marx's economic ideals were realized as time progressed and Stalin implemented the 5 year plansPolitically, Lenin had kept many of Marx's fundamental beliefs -- however they changed slightly depending on the situation. The establishment of a totalitarian dictatorship under Stalin however prevented Marxism Socialism from succeeding completely