Presentation on theme: "Responses to Military Aggression"— Presentation transcript:
1 Responses to Military Aggression Colin Walker, Lawson Walker, Grady CastriotaAccount for the responses of the European democracies to the military aggression by Italy and Germany in the 1930s.In the 1930s, European governments took actions to appease Hitler and Mussolini. The best way to sum up the policies and actions of the European governments is the word “Appeasement”. There are several reasons for governments’ actions of appeasement toward Hitler and Mussolini. These reasons are: no country wanted a war, the Great Depression had devastating effects on each country, and there was a lot of political turmoil and chaos amongst the European governments.
2 We Don’t Want Another War! In the aftermath of WWI22.5 million KIA, WIA, or MIADevastating effects on morale and view towards warTreaty of Versailles-harsh punishment of Germany, impossible demands on German economy, Germany could not have a large armyFrench lived in fear of the day Germany would recoverBecause nobody wanted another world war, European democracies responded to German and Italian military aggression by attempts to appease Hitler and Mussolini
3 We Don’t Want Another War! BritainAfraid of huge loss of life on Western Front caused Britain to be afraid of another huge war and more lives lostCivilians scared of German bombing raidsNeville Chamberlain, Prime Minister after 1937, became chief architect of appeasement policy1938-Munich Pact (gave Hitler permission to invade Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia)1939-Britian said it would support Poland if Germany invaded-Germany invaded anyways
4 We Don’t Want Another War! FrancePassivism was growing in the west and it had roots in FranceLike Britain, a huge loss of life on the Western Front in WWI caused France to be afraid of another war and more casualtiesPolitical chaos, unstable government
5 The Economy Can’t Handle a War! Still Recovering From WWIExpenses of WWI: by 1919 European nations were in debt to the U.S. by $10,000,000,000.Britain was depending on her colonies for essential war materialsGermany finished paying off reparations of WWI and WWII in October 2010New taxes were created to boost the war effortBritain had a lot of money invested in American stocks in an effort to try and raise money to pay off post war expenses
6 The Economy Can’t Handle a War! Great DepressionBritain was borrowing heavily on Wall StreetOctober 29, 1929-Stock Market CrashesOverall GDP drastically drops across EuropeHyperinflation in Germany (4.2 trillion Marks to the dollar)Governments focused on raising taxes and cutting government expendituresThe thought of trying to finance another war was too much for European nations to think about during the Great Depression
7 The Economy Can’t Handle a War! More effects of the Great DepressionUnemployment caused by the G.D. helped contribute to the rise of dictatorships across the world and gave way to leaders such as Hitler and Mussolini as they promised to lead their people out of the tough times25 countries became dictatorships fromPolicies of European countries mainly focused on recovering their economies instead of keeping dictators like Hitler and Mussolini out of powerBritain and France could not afford to go against Hitler or Mussolini-it was not in their best interests at the time
8 Turmoil in Politics! France From 1919 to 1940, France was governed by two main groupings. The right-center Bloc National (wanted revenge against Germany & economic prosperity) and the left-center Cartel des Gauches (anti-clerical & represented small business and lower middle class – essentially Socialist)Street violence between the two groups were frequentÉdouard HerriotGeorges Clemenceau
9 Turmoil in Politics! France Governments came and went quickly General Strikes in 1936 in the working industryAny attempt to radically alter policy would almost certainly lead to the fall of the sitting government (as happened in September of 1939, when France declared war over the German invasion of Poland).
10 We Don’t Want Another War! (Politics in Great Britain) During the mid-to-late 1930s the UK (as well as other nations across the globe) attempted to bring a sense of national unityBefore WWII, Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain led his Cabinet and a Conservative majority in the CommonsChamberlain promised peace by way of appeasement, despite Hitler’s naked aggression throughout Europe
11 Turmoil in Politics!Civil Wars in Spain and China during the 1930s distracted Britain and France from Hitler (Germany) and Mussolini (Italy)SpainExperienced a Civil War from July 17, 1936 to April 1, 1939ChinaApril December 1936
12 Our FINAL Words… One Response: Appeasement Appeasement: avoiding war by making concessions to another powerAvoidance of a second Great WarSimply, people didn’t believe war was a necessary element of diplomatic cooperation with the abundant amount of deaths in WWIEconomy = Great DepressionCost of rearmament and war was seen as too damaging to the economies of European nations during the 1930s (notably France and Great Britain)Politics were unstable throughout Europe during the 1930sAny attempt to radically alter policy would almost certainly lead to the fall of the sitting government