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European Renaissance and Reformation

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1 European Renaissance and Reformation
Unit 4 Chapter 17 (p )

2 I. The Renaissance Description What? Revival of art and learning
When? Where? Italy Why? Middle Ages brought plague and war, the survivors wanted to celebrate life. Educated men and women hoped to bring back the culture of classical Greece and Rome. Led to NEW styles of art and lit. & the importance of the individual

3 The Renaissance (cont’d)
Italy’s advantages Thriving cities Crusades spread trade which led to cities, especially in Northern Italy. Ideal breeding ground for an intellectual revolution Crusades killed 60% of those people. Survivors could demand higher wages. Merchants pursued other interests=ART

4 The Renaissance (cont’d)
Wealthy Merchant Class Developed in each city-state b/c they were small, lots of people could participate in political life Individual achievement became important Medici family ruled Florence Banking family Ruled as dictators with appearance of being a republic

5 The Renaissance (cont’d)
Heritage of Greece and Rome Wanted to Return to the learning of ancient Greece and Rome Drew inspiration from the ruins of Rome Studied ancient Latin manuscripts Christian scholars had fled to Rome in 1453 with Greek manuscripts when the Turks conquered Constantinople

6 The Renaissance (cont’d)
Values Humanism: focused on human potential and achievements Secular: worldly rather than spiritual Patrons: financially supported artists The Renaissance Man: a man who excelled in many fields (art, literature, athletics, educated, etc.) The Renaissance Woman: upper class women were expected to be educated and charming as well

7 II. Art Revolutionizes Styles Change Perspective: 3-d
Individuals emphasized; prominent people being painted (realistic looking)

8 Art Revolutionizes (cont’d)
Artists Leonardo da Vinci Painter, sculptor, inventor, and scientist Mona Lisa The Last Supper


10 Art Revolutionizes (cont’d)
Michelangelo Sculptor, poet, architect; realistic style to portray human body Statue of David Sistine Chapel


12 Art Revolutionizes (cont’d)
Raphael Learned from Michelangelo and Leonardo School of Athens Painted Mic, Leo, and himself

13 Art Revolutionizes (cont’d)
Anguissola and Gentileschi Famous women painters

14 Art Revolutionizes (cont’d)
Literature changes Vernacular: native language Machiavelli: famous author, The Prince Imperfect conduct of people Most are selfish, fickle, and corrupt Prince must be strong and shrewd

15 III. Northern Renaissance
Renaissance Spreads North 1494, French king claimed throne in Naples, war erupts. Renaissance writers and artists fled North and took their ideas with them

16 Northern Renaissance (cont’d)
France: da Vinci invited to retire in France and hired to paint king’s palace Germany: Hans Holbein paints portraits with picture like quality Flanders: Starts oil-based painting still used today; portrayed everyday peasant life including weddings, dances, and harvests

17 Northern Renaissance (cont’d)
Northern writers try to reform society Christian Humanists: wanted to reform society; encourage people to live a Christian life Promoted the education of women and founded schools attended by both girls and boys Thomas More: Utopia; tried to show a better model of society

18 Northern Renaissance (cont’d)
Women’s reforms Christine de Pizan; very educated for the time; wrote books, manuscripts, short stories and questioned treatment of boys and girls

19 IV. Elizabethan Age What? Renaissance in England
Queen Elizabeth reigned Very well educated, spoke French, Italian, Latin, Greek; wrote poetry and music Huge supporter of art and lit

20 Northern Renaissance (cont’d)
William Shakespeare: most famous writer of Elizabethan Age Regarded as greatest playwright of all time Works display masterful command of the English language and a deep understanding of human nature Macbeth, Othello, Romeo and Juliet, King Lear, A Midsummer’s Night Dream

21 V. Printing Press Johann Gutenburg 1440; developed printing press
that incorporated new technologies; made it possible to produce books quickly and cheaply Produce hundreds of copies Went from producing 1 book in 5 months, to producing 500 books in 5 months Perhaps the most important invention of all time!!

22 Legacy of the Renaissance
Changes in Art Drew on techniques from Greece and Rome more realistic Writers used vernacular Praised individual achievement Changes in Society Printing made more info available for society Increased desire to learn New maps & charts further discoveries Made laws clear so people able to understand rights Christian humanists changed views on how society should be People begin to question political structures and religious practices

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