2Quick Review… Remember where the North American societies came from? From Asia over the Bering StraightRemember their lifestyle?Hunter-Gathers (chasing the Mammoths)
3Complex Societies of the Northwest The early Americans were located in the modern-day Pacific-NorthwestLots of Natural ResourcesAbundant foodUsed the Pacific Ocean to hunt whalesComplex societyPotlatch – Families displayed their rank and prosperity by giving back to the communityFood, Drink, and Gifts
4Accomplished Builders of the Southwest Those settlers in the southwestern portion of North America lived different lives all together.FarmersUsed irrigationCorn, beans, squashMade pots rather than baskets – this is evidence that they were in contact with the Mesoamericans.
5Tribes of Early America AnasaziLived near modern-day “4-Corners” Area of Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and ArizonaCliff-dwellersLived in Pueblos – apartment-like buildings of clay and stoneLargest (Pueblo Bonito) housed about 1,000 people
7Tribes of Early America IroquoisGroup of 5 tribes in the Northeastern part of America (New York area)Formed the Iroquois LeagueCreate by Chief Hiawatha (legend)Political AlliancePromote DefenseSpoke similar language
8Tribes of Early America MississippianLived in modern “Midwest United States”Known for being MOUND BUILDERSVillages based on Farming and TradeUsed Ohio and Mississippi Rivers for tradingSERPENT MOUND (OHIO)
9Cultural ConnectionsPurposes of connections within tribes was primarily economic and cultural.CulturalEconomicTradeSimilar religious beliefsShared social patternsRivers were trade routesTotems – symbol of unity of a group or clanThe land was sacredBelieved in nature spirits
10Totems Symbol of the unity of a group of a clan Defined behaviors and relationshipsDisplayed on masks, poles, or boatsUsed in rituals (i.e. – weddings, funerals, births, etc.)
11This Week...We’re going to spend the rest of the week talking about 3 major civilizationsMayansAztecsIncas
14Maya Create City-States Review – What other group that we studied formed city-states??That’s right – THE GREEKSReview – What were two of the most popular city states??Yep, Sparta and Athens
15Maya Create City-States Where: Southern Mexico into Central America (Yucatan Peninsula)When: 250 A.D.They were influenced by the Olmecs
16Mayan City-States: Urban Centers The Mayans built large citiesTikal (in modern Guatemala)Each city-state was independentRuled by a god-kingCities were religious centersCities were trade centersBuildings: Pyramids, temples, palaces, stone carvings, ball court (for religious and political purposes
17Mayan City-States: Agriculture & Trade Support Cities Each city state was independent, but they were connected with TRADETrade items: salt, flint, feathers, shells, honey, cotton textiles, jade ornamentsChocolate beans sometimes served as moneyAgriculture was bigMaize, beans, squash
18Mayan Social Structure KingNoblesPriestsLeading WarriorsMerchants, Skilled, TeachersPeasantsMajority of the population
20Religion Shapes Mayan Life Polytheistic – belief in many godsExamples: god of corn, god of rain, god of warThe Maya believed that each day was a god, whose behavior could be predicted with the help of a calendarWorship included: prayer, offerings, self-mutilation, human sacrifice (usually captured enemies)
21Mayans and Math Calendar Concept of Zero Calculated the year to be days long (this is only of a day short of our current calendar.The did this with careful observation of the sun, stars, and planets.They used the calendar to decide when the best time to plant crops, attack an enemy, and crown new rulers.Concept of Zero
22Mayan Written Language Helped preserve their historyAlphabet consisted of about 800 hieroglyphic symbols known as GLYPHS.Recorded major events in CODEX – a book of bark paper.SKYHOUSECHILDCITY OF PALENQUEKING
23Mysterious Maya Decline Historians are unsure of why the Mayan Civilization collapsed.Historians have the following “reasons” why they think that the Mayans disappeared:Warfare between the city-states = Trade problems = Economic issuesOver-population = over-farming = famine & disease**These two situations lead to weakened city-states that were vulnerable to invasion from outside peoples.**
24The Aztecs Control Central Mexico Chapter 16Section 3
25Pre-Aztec Mexico Teotihuacan (tay-oh-tee-wah-kahn) First major civilization of Central MexicoTrade centerMost valuable item – obsidian – green or black volcanic glass (used to make razor-sharp weapons)About 200,000 inhabitantsDeclined for unknown reasons
26Pre-Aztec Mexico, continued ToltecsBegan to dominate central Mexico after the decline of Teotihuacan.Violent peopleWorshiped QUESTZALCOATL (feathered serpent)This god demanded human blood and sacrifice
27The Aztec Empire Where: Valley of Mexico, modern Mexico City Aztecs were preceded in this region by the Olmecs and the Zapotecs (Remember those guys from Chapter 9?)When: A.D. 1200
28Aztec Origins How they started: Originally called the “Mexica”Poor, nomadic from the desert of North MexicoStarted a city called Tenochtitlan (ten-nach-te-lon)It was on an island in the middle of Lake TexcocoFormed the Triple Alliance with two other large city-statesThe Aztecs based their power on 1) military conquests and 2) tribute (taxes) that they collected from the people that they conquered.
29TenochtitlanPopulation: as many as 400,000 (bigger than London at the time)It was an island in the middle of the Lake Texcoco, that was connected to the mainland by three raised roadsOther cities circle the lake
30Aztec Social Structure Emperor had absolute powerEmperorMilitary Leaders had great power at the height of the Aztec EmpireNoblesGov’t & Religious Officials,Leading WarriorsCommonersMerchants, Soldiers, LandownersEnslaved People
31Religion Rules Aztec Life Hundreds of temples in their capital1,000s of gods to worshipMany religious festivals to honor various godsThe most important god was: HuitzilopochtliGod of the SunMade the sun rise every morning, to maintain this power, he needed blood.1000s were sacrificed (hearts cut out) each yearMany military conquests that the Aztecs fought were not for more land, but for more people to sacrifice (did not try to kill in battle, but capture)
33Decline of the Aztecs Spanish invasion (from Europe) High Taxes (Tribute) made people mad, and some rebelledPeople saw “bad omens,” and did not trust their leader (Montezuma II)Omens – Lightning Strikes, Solar Eclipse, etc.
34The Inca Create a Mountain Empire Chapter 16Section 4
35Incan BeginningsStarted out in the high plateau of the Andes MountainsSettled permanently in the Valley of CuzcoThe city of Cuzco was their capital (religious center too)
36Pachacuti Builds an Empire Great Incan ruler, led the Inca to conquer all of Peru and then neighboring landsBy 1500 the Incan Empire had 80 provinces, and had 16 million inhabitantsIncans conquered people thru diplomacy and military forceThe Incan only used force when necessaryUsually gave their enemies the chance to surrenderTreated those that they conquered rather wellTrying to gain loyalty
37Incans Create UnityThe Incans used several strategies to create unity in their empireDivided into provinces with solid leadership, and a central governmentEfficient economic systemExtensive road system to connect the provincesOne official languageSimilar government buildings in all citiesAll roads led to the capital of CuzcoBuilt new cities in conquered areas
38Would this work now in the US? Incan GovernmentThe Incan Government controlled almost all social and economic aspects in the empireSocial System of AYLLU was used.Communities (extended families) would help each other out.Example: If an irrigation canal needed to be built, the entire community would help out.Paying Tribute in the form of Labor – called MITA.Example: All able-bodied citizens had to work for the state a certain number of days each year.Would this work now in the US?
39Incan Roads Incans were known for their roadways 14,000 miles of road connected the empireA system of runners was posted along the roads to send communication thru the empireRoads allowed troops to easily move to various parts of the empire
40Incan Record Keeping Incans never formed a writing system History and Literature were passed on thru memorizationImportant!
41Inca Religion Fewer gods than the Aztecs (1000s) Mainly nature spirits Most important: creator god and the sun godSacrificed llamasBoth women and men (virgins) were used in religious ceremony.This was their job for life!
42Decline of the Incan Empire Height of the empire was in the 1500sTheir king died, and his sons split the empireThis led to civil war within the empireSpanish took advantage of this – they eventually conquered the empire
43A view of Machu Picchu, "the Lost City of the Incas," This was the last stronghold of the Inca, and now an archaeological site.