2I. Beginnings of the Industrial Revolution Increased output of machine-made goodsBegan in England in 1700sHad resources to support it (water power and coal, iron ore, rivers, harbors)Had all 3 factors of production:LandLaborCapital (wealth)Spread to Europe and North AmericaPeople wove textiles by hand before the I.R.
3Beginnings of the Industrial Revolution (cont’d) Agricultural Revolution helped jumpstart the I.R.Wealthy landowners bought more land, called enclosures (b/c they put fences around them.)Experimented with more productive methods, which led to crop rotation: rotated crops to restore nutrients to the soil.
4Important Inventions Cotton Gin by Eli Whitney Separated raw cotton from the seedsAmerican cotton production went from 1.5 million pounds to 85 million pounds
5Important Inventions Steam Engine by James Watt Invented a much more efficient engine with help of entrepreneur (Boulton); organizes, manages, and takes on the risks of businessLed to steam boats and steam powered locomotives (trains)
6Important Inventions Railroad Spurred industrial growth Created hundreds of thousands of new jobsBoosted agricultural and fishing industries (could now transport their products far away)Encouraged people to take distant city jobs
7Impacts of Industrialization Widened the wealth gap between industrialized and non-industrialized countriesBut it strengthened their ties meaning:--industrialized countries needed raw materials for their factories to run (from less developed places)--saw the non-industrialized countries as markets to sell their products--leads to imperialism--one country’s rule over another land
8Impacts of Industrialization (cont’d) Transformed SocietyGave Europe tremendous economic powerPopulation, health, and wealth eventually rose, despite harsh working conditionsDevelopment of a middle class created better education and democratic participation
9II. Rise of Socialism Background I.R. increased the gap between rich and poorBusiness leaders wanted the gov’t to stay out of business affairsReformers thought gov’t should play an active role to improve conditionsWorkers wanted more rights and protection
10Philosophers of Industrialization Laissez faire: economic policy of letting owners of industry and business set working conditions without interference (“hands off” “let do” policy)Adam SmithDefended the idea of free economyThe Wealth of Nations economic liberty guaranteed economic progress
11Philosophers of Industrialization Smith and others laid the foundation for Capitalism: economic system where the factors of production (land, labor, capital) are privately owned and money is invested in business ventures to make a profit
12Rise of SocialismIn contrast to laissez-faire, others believed governments should intervene in businessSocialism: factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all.
13Rise of Socialism (cont’d) Karl MarxThe Communist Manifesto: book outlining his radical ideas of Socialism (communism)A form of complete socialism in which the means of production would be owned by the people (all goods and services would be shared equally.)
14Reform MovementThe gap b/t rich and poor failed to widen like Marx predicted because of reforms set by the govt’s.Workers joined unions: voluntary labor associationsUnions went on strike: refusal to work; to get better working conditions/wages
15Reform Movement (cont’d) Reform laws createdChild labor lawsWomen labor lawsBritain abolished slavery in 1825; U.S. in 1865Free public education
17IV. U.S. Civil War Background 1803 Thomas Jefferson bought Louisiana Purchase from Napoleon. (doubled the size of the U.S.)1819 Spain gave up Florida1846 Great Britain gave part of the Oregon Territory to the U.S.
18U.S. Civil War (cont’d)1836 Texans revolted from Mexico and won independence1845 Texas annexed by U.S. (Mexico still claimed Texas so U.S. and Mexico fought the Mexican-American War)1853 Gadsden Purchase: U.S. got its modern day boundariesLed to Manifest Destiny: the idea that the U.S. had the right and duty to rule North America from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific OceanHelped justify kicking Native Americans off of their lands
19Civil War BeginsAll the new territory led to conflicts on whether the new land should enter the Union as Free or Slave states.This separated the North and SouthNorth: farms and industry; relied on mostly free workersSouth: Farms (cotton); relied mostly on slaves
20Civil War Begins 1860-Abraham Lincoln elected president. South really angry and secedes: withdrew from the unionApril 12, 1861 Confederates fired on Fort Sumter and the Civil War beganNorth won in April 1865 due mostly to a larger population, better transportation and resources, and more factories
21Civil War (cont’d)1863 Emancipation Proclamation issued by President Lincoln: declared all slaves in the states of rebellion to be free.13th Amendment passed after the war: abolished slavery in the U.S.Reconstruction: Union troops occupied the south to enforce constitutional policies
22Post-Civil WarCivil War sped economy greatly, by 1914 the U.S. was a major industrial power.Immigration grew rapidly; by million had moved from Europe and AsiaLeads to transcontinentalrailroad and other importantinventions.
24V. 19th Century Inventions Thomas Edison: light bulb, phonographAlexander Graham Bell: telephoneHenry FordAssembly line: line of workerswho each put a single pieceon unfinished cars as theypassed on a moving beltWright Brothers: airplane
2519th Century Inventions (cont’d) Germ Theory of DiseaseLed to pasteurizationSterilization in hospitalsPlumbing and sewage systemsVaccines for typhus, typhoid fever, yellow fever, etc.
2619th Century Inventions (cont’d) Charles DarwinTheory of Evolution: idea of change through natural selection; everything evolved from earlier living formsJohn Dalton: atomsDmitri Mendeleev: periodic tableMarie Curie: radioactivity- energy
28VI. The Scramble for Africa Imperialism – the seizure of a country or territory by a stronger countryAfrica before Imperialism100s of languages and ethnic groupsMostly traditional beliefs (some Muslim and Christian influence)Some empires and some villages
29The Scramble for Africa Forces that drove ImperialismEuropean Superiority – “We’re more civilized than they are.”Nationalism – Pride in your country, and its accomplishmentsSocial Darwinism – Survival of the FittestMissionary work – to “save the heathens”
30Imperialistic Countries from Europe in African Areas
32British Imperialism in India Britain began to colonize in India in the 1600sWhy colonize in India?Because of the potential economic impact that it could have for the Europeans (it would make them even richer!)Britain considered India the “Jewel in the crown” of their expansion efforts.
33British Imperialism in India PositivesBuilt RailroadsBuilt roadsBuilt HospitalsBuilt dams, bridges, and irrigationSanitation a public health improvedSchools and colleges were built, so literacy improvedCleared India of bandits and thievesNegativesBritish held most of the political and economic powerBritish were racistsFamine caused because Indians were reliant on cash-crops instead of food cropsRevolts lead to persecution and death
34British Imperialism in India Indians became more demanding for their rights. They hated the fact that the British were there.Sepoy MutinyNationalism grew for the Indians
35Imperialism in Southeast Asia Who was involved in Southeast Asia?DutchPortugueseBritishFrenchUnited StatesResults: Typical improvements to the countries colonized, and typical resentment for “intruding.”
36Summary of Imperialism CAUSESNationalismEconomic CompetitionMissionary SpiritDEFINITIONthe seizure of a country or territory by a stronger countryEFFECTSColonizationEconomic ExpansionChristianization
38ChinaOpium WarChinese were addicted to Opium (which the British smuggled into China)Sea Battles: British won (of course)Acquired Hong KongExtraterritorial rights (foreigners were not subject to Chinese law in their ports)
39Changes in China Disagreement over modernization Empress Cixi (tso-shee)- Self-strengthening Movementupdated China’s education and military systemsbuilt few factoriesUSA feared China would be colonized so it declared the Open Door Policy China would be open to all merchants