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The Industrial Revolution

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1 The Industrial Revolution
Chapter 25

2 I. Beginnings of the Industrial Revolution
Increased output of machine-made goods Began in England in 1700s Had resources to support it (water power and coal, iron ore, rivers, harbors) Had all 3 factors of production: Land Labor Capital (wealth) Spread to Europe and North America People wove textiles by hand before the I.R.

3 Beginnings of the Industrial Revolution (cont’d)
Agricultural Revolution helped jumpstart the I.R. Wealthy landowners bought more land, called enclosures (b/c they put fences around them.) Experimented with more productive methods, which led to crop rotation: rotated crops to restore nutrients to the soil.

4 Important Inventions Cotton Gin by Eli Whitney
Separated raw cotton from the seeds American cotton production went from 1.5 million pounds to 85 million pounds

5 Important Inventions Steam Engine by James Watt
Invented a much more efficient engine with help of entrepreneur (Boulton); organizes, manages, and takes on the risks of business Led to steam boats and steam powered locomotives (trains)

6 Important Inventions Railroad Spurred industrial growth
Created hundreds of thousands of new jobs Boosted agricultural and fishing industries (could now transport their products far away) Encouraged people to take distant city jobs

7 Impacts of Industrialization
Widened the wealth gap between industrialized and non-industrialized countries But it strengthened their ties meaning: --industrialized countries needed raw materials for their factories to run (from less developed places) --saw the non-industrialized countries as markets to sell their products --leads to imperialism--one country’s rule over another land

8 Impacts of Industrialization (cont’d)
Transformed Society Gave Europe tremendous economic power Population, health, and wealth eventually rose, despite harsh working conditions Development of a middle class created better education and democratic participation

9 II. Rise of Socialism Background
I.R. increased the gap between rich and poor Business leaders wanted the gov’t to stay out of business affairs Reformers thought gov’t should play an active role to improve conditions Workers wanted more rights and protection

10 Philosophers of Industrialization
Laissez faire: economic policy of letting owners of industry and business set working conditions without interference (“hands off” “let do” policy) Adam Smith Defended the idea of free economy The Wealth of Nations economic liberty guaranteed economic progress

11 Philosophers of Industrialization
Smith and others laid the foundation for Capitalism: economic system where the factors of production (land, labor, capital) are privately owned and money is invested in business ventures to make a profit

12 Rise of Socialism In contrast to laissez-faire, others believed governments should intervene in business Socialism: factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all.

13 Rise of Socialism (cont’d)
Karl Marx The Communist Manifesto: book outlining his radical ideas of Socialism (communism) A form of complete socialism in which the means of production would be owned by the people (all goods and services would be shared equally.)

14 Reform Movement The gap b/t rich and poor failed to widen like Marx predicted because of reforms set by the govt’s. Workers joined unions: voluntary labor associations Unions went on strike: refusal to work; to get better working conditions/wages

15 Reform Movement (cont’d)
Reform laws created Child labor laws Women labor laws Britain abolished slavery in 1825; U.S. in 1865 Free public education

16 U.S. Civil War and Expansion
Ch. 26 Section 3

17 IV. U.S. Civil War Background
1803 Thomas Jefferson bought Louisiana Purchase from Napoleon. (doubled the size of the U.S.) 1819 Spain gave up Florida 1846 Great Britain gave part of the Oregon Territory to the U.S.

18 U.S. Civil War (cont’d) 1836 Texans revolted from Mexico and won independence 1845 Texas annexed by U.S. (Mexico still claimed Texas so U.S. and Mexico fought the Mexican-American War) 1853 Gadsden Purchase: U.S. got its modern day boundaries Led to Manifest Destiny: the idea that the U.S. had the right and duty to rule North America from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean Helped justify kicking Native Americans off of their lands

19 Civil War Begins All the new territory led to conflicts on whether the new land should enter the Union as Free or Slave states. This separated the North and South North: farms and industry; relied on mostly free workers South: Farms (cotton); relied mostly on slaves

20 Civil War Begins 1860-Abraham Lincoln elected president.
South really angry and secedes: withdrew from the union April 12, 1861 Confederates fired on Fort Sumter and the Civil War began North won in April 1865 due mostly to a larger population, better transportation and resources, and more factories

21 Civil War (cont’d) 1863 Emancipation Proclamation issued by President Lincoln: declared all slaves in the states of rebellion to be free. 13th Amendment passed after the war: abolished slavery in the U.S. Reconstruction: Union troops occupied the south to enforce constitutional policies

22 Post-Civil War Civil War sped economy greatly, by 1914 the U.S. was a major industrial power. Immigration grew rapidly; by million had moved from Europe and Asia Leads to transcontinental railroad and other important inventions.

23 19th Century Inventions Ch. 26 Section 4

24 V. 19th Century Inventions
Thomas Edison: light bulb, phonograph Alexander Graham Bell: telephone Henry Ford Assembly line: line of workers who each put a single piece on unfinished cars as they passed on a moving belt Wright Brothers: airplane

25 19th Century Inventions (cont’d)
Germ Theory of Disease Led to pasteurization Sterilization in hospitals Plumbing and sewage systems Vaccines for typhus, typhoid fever, yellow fever, etc.

26 19th Century Inventions (cont’d)
Charles Darwin Theory of Evolution: idea of change through natural selection; everything evolved from earlier living forms John Dalton: atoms Dmitri Mendeleev: periodic table Marie Curie: radioactivity- energy

27 The Age of Imperialism Chapter 27

28 VI. The Scramble for Africa
Imperialism – the seizure of a country or territory by a stronger country Africa before Imperialism 100s of languages and ethnic groups Mostly traditional beliefs (some Muslim and Christian influence) Some empires and some villages

29 The Scramble for Africa
Forces that drove Imperialism European Superiority – “We’re more civilized than they are.” Nationalism – Pride in your country, and its accomplishments Social Darwinism – Survival of the Fittest Missionary work – to “save the heathens”

30 Imperialistic Countries from Europe in African Areas


32 British Imperialism in India
Britain began to colonize in India in the 1600s Why colonize in India? Because of the potential economic impact that it could have for the Europeans (it would make them even richer!) Britain considered India the “Jewel in the crown” of their expansion efforts.

33 British Imperialism in India
Positives Built Railroads Built roads Built Hospitals Built dams, bridges, and irrigation Sanitation a public health improved Schools and colleges were built, so literacy improved Cleared India of bandits and thieves Negatives British held most of the political and economic power British were racists Famine caused because Indians were reliant on cash-crops instead of food crops Revolts lead to persecution and death

34 British Imperialism in India
Indians became more demanding for their rights. They hated the fact that the British were there. Sepoy Mutiny Nationalism grew for the Indians

35 Imperialism in Southeast Asia
Who was involved in Southeast Asia? Dutch Portuguese British French United States Results: Typical improvements to the countries colonized, and typical resentment for “intruding.”

36 Summary of Imperialism
CAUSES Nationalism Economic Competition Missionary Spirit DEFINITION the seizure of a country or territory by a stronger country EFFECTS Colonization Economic Expansion Christianization

37 VII. China and Japan Chapter 28

38 China Opium War Chinese were addicted to Opium (which the British smuggled into China) Sea Battles: British won (of course) Acquired Hong Kong Extraterritorial rights (foreigners were not subject to Chinese law in their ports)

39 Changes in China Disagreement over modernization
Empress Cixi (tso-shee)- Self-strengthening Movement updated China’s education and military systems built few factories USA feared China would be colonized so it declared the Open Door Policy China would be open to all merchants

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