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IIIIII Ch. 6 - The Periodic Table & Periodic Law I. Development of the Modern Periodic Table (p. 174 - 181)

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Presentation on theme: "IIIIII Ch. 6 - The Periodic Table & Periodic Law I. Development of the Modern Periodic Table (p. 174 - 181)"— Presentation transcript:

1 IIIIII Ch. 6 - The Periodic Table & Periodic Law I. Development of the Modern Periodic Table (p. 174 - 181)

2 A. Mendeleev zDmitri Mendeleev (1869, Russian) yOrganized elements by increasing atomic mass yElements with similar properties were grouped together yThere were some discrepancies

3 A. Mendeleev zDmitri Mendeleev (1869, Russian) yPredicted properties of undiscovered elements

4 B. Moseley zHenry Moseley (1913, British) yOrganized elements by increasing atomic number yResolved discrepancies in Mendeleevs arrangement yThis is the way the periodic table is arranged today!

5 C. Modern Periodic Table zGroup (Family) zPeriod

6 1. Groups/Families zVertical columns of periodic table zNumbered 1 to 18 from left to right zEach group contains elements with similar chemical properties

7 2. Periods zHorizontal rows of periodic table zPeriods are numbered top to bottom from 1 to 7 zElements in same period have similarities in energy levels, but not properties

8 zMain Group Elements zTransition Metals zInner Transition Metals 3. Blocks

9 Lanthanides - part of period 6 Actinides - part of period 7 Overall Configuration

10 IIIIII II. Classification of the Elements (pages 182-186) Ch. 6 - The Periodic Table

11 A. Metallic Character zMetals zNonmetals zMetalloids

12 1. Metals zGood conductors of heat and electricity zFound in Groups 1 & 2, middle of table in 3-12 and some on right side of table zHave luster, are ductile and malleable

13 a. Alkali Metals zGroup 1 z1 Valence electron zVery reactive zElectron configuration yns 1 zForm 1 + ions zCations yExamples: Li, Na, K

14 b. Alkaline Earth Metals zGroup 2 zReactive (not as reactive as alkali metals) zElectron Configuration yns 2 zForm 2 + ions zCations yExamples: Be, Mg, Ca, etc

15 c. Transition Metals zGroups 3 - 12 zReactive (not as reactive as Groups 1 or 2), can be free elements zElectron Configuration yns 2 (n-1)d x where x is column in d-block zForm variable valence state ions zCations yExamples: Co, Fe, Pt, etc

16 2. Nonmetals zNot good conductors zFound on right side of periodic table – AND hydrogen zUsually brittle solids or gases

17 a. Halogens zGroup 17 (7A) zVery reactive zElectron configuration yns 2 np 5 zForm 1 - ions – 1 electron short of noble gas configuration zAnions yExamples: F, Cl, Br, etc

18 b. Noble Gases zGroup 18 zUnreactive, inert, noble, stable zElectron configuration yns 2 np 6 full energy level zHave a 0 charge, no ions zExamples: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, etc

19 3. Metalloids zSometimes called semiconductors zForm the stairstep between metals and nonmetals zHave properties of both metals and nonmetals zExamples: B, Si, Sb, Te, As, Ge, Po, At

20 B. Chemical Reactivity zAlkali Metals zAlkaline Earth Metals zTransition Metals zHalogens zNoble Gases

21 C. Valence Electrons zValence Electrons ye - in the outermost energy level zGroup #A = # of valence e - (except He) 1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A

22 C. Valence Electrons zValence electrons = yelectrons in outermost energy level zYou can use the Periodic Table to determine the number of valence electrons zEach group has the same number of valence electrons 1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A

23 D. Lewis Diagrams zAlso called electron dot diagrams zDots represent the valence e - zEx: Sodium zEx: Chlorine Lewis Diagram for Oxygen


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