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How successful were the treaties in Vienna and Versailles? By: Ameer, Alex, Balint, Harry, Darian.

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Presentation on theme: "How successful were the treaties in Vienna and Versailles? By: Ameer, Alex, Balint, Harry, Darian."— Presentation transcript:

1 How successful were the treaties in Vienna and Versailles? By: Ameer, Alex, Balint, Harry, Darian

2 Introduction - The Congress of Vienna was a conference of ambassadors of European states chaired by Wenzel von Metternich, and held in Vienna from September, 1814 to June, 1815. - -Its objective was to settle the many issues arising from the French Revolutionary wars, the Napoleonic Wars, and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. - -Its objective was to settle the many issues arising from the French Revolutionary wars, the Napoleonic Wars, and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. -The Treaty of Versailles was a peace treaty signed at the end of World War I. It ended the war between Germany and the Allied Powers. -The Treaty of Versailles was a peace treaty signed at the end of World War I. It ended the war between Germany and the Allied Powers. - It required Germany to accept sole responsibility for causing the war, to disarm, make substantial territorial concessions and pay heavy reparations to the winning countries. - It required Germany to accept sole responsibility for causing the war, to disarm, make substantial territorial concessions and pay heavy reparations to the winning countries.

3 Congress of Vienna

4 Members and Goals The Congress of Vienna was assembled in September 1814 with representatives from almost all the states of Europe, however most of the most important decisions were decided by the four Great Powers triumphant over Napoleon The Congress of Vienna was assembled in September 1814 with representatives from almost all the states of Europe, however most of the most important decisions were decided by the four Great Powers triumphant over Napoleon The four powers England, Austria, Russia, and Prussia had representation from Castlereagh, Metternich, Alexander I and Hardenberg respectively The four powers England, Austria, Russia, and Prussia had representation from Castlereagh, Metternich, Alexander I and Hardenberg respectively With the Bourbons restored under Louis XVIII, Talleyrand represented the French With the Bourbons restored under Louis XVIII, Talleyrand represented the French Planned to reduce the power of France after the defeat of Napoleon and maintain peace throughout Europe with a balance of power. Planned to reduce the power of France after the defeat of Napoleon and maintain peace throughout Europe with a balance of power.

5 MetternichTalleyrand Alexander ICastlereagh

6 Actions of the Congress The Congress attempted to put a number of strong states around France to contain it The Congress attempted to put a number of strong states around France to contain it The Kingdom of the Netherlands was formed and the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia was restored The Kingdom of the Netherlands was formed and the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia was restored The Austrian Empire took up Venetia and Lombardy, and the rest of the Italian states remained divided in papal states and small duchies The Austrian Empire took up Venetia and Lombardy, and the rest of the Italian states remained divided in papal states and small duchies The Congress did not attempt to put the Holy Roman Empire together and left the German states relatively divided by forming a German confederation which included parts of Prussia and Austria The Congress did not attempt to put the Holy Roman Empire together and left the German states relatively divided by forming a German confederation which included parts of Prussia and Austria Prussia gained territory around the Rhineland Prussia gained territory around the Rhineland The Polish Saxon question existed – due to Metternichs and Castlereaghs fear of Russian and Prussian growth Russia received the Duchy of Warsaw (Poland was not united with Russia) and Prussia received two-fifths instead of all of Saxony The Polish Saxon question existed – due to Metternichs and Castlereaghs fear of Russian and Prussian growth Russia received the Duchy of Warsaw (Poland was not united with Russia) and Prussia received two-fifths instead of all of Saxony

7 Map of Europe

8 Results/Success Maintained a conservative balance of power in Europe Maintained a conservative balance of power in Europe As a result national and liberal impulses were ignored and conservative forms of government remained As a result national and liberal impulses were ignored and conservative forms of government remained Prevented the occurrence of a major European war for practically a century (WWI) Prevented the occurrence of a major European war for practically a century (WWI) Europe was mainly undisturbed for almost 40 years until the revolutions of 1848 Europe was mainly undisturbed for almost 40 years until the revolutions of 1848 Overall very successful in maintaining European stability Overall very successful in maintaining European stability

9 The Treaty of Versailles: The Treaty Itself The terms of the treaty required Germany among other things to accept demilitarization, pay 226 billion Reichsmarks in gold and to surrender occupation of the Rhineland as well as that Germany accept complete responsibility for initiating World War I. The terms of the treaty required Germany among other things to accept demilitarization, pay 226 billion Reichsmarks in gold and to surrender occupation of the Rhineland as well as that Germany accept complete responsibility for initiating World War I.

10 Economic Result: Inflation The burdensome reparations, coupled with a general inflationary period in Europe in the 1920s, caused spiraling hyperinflation of the German Reichsmark by 1923. The burdensome reparations, coupled with a general inflationary period in Europe in the 1920s, caused spiraling hyperinflation of the German Reichsmark by 1923. This hyperinflationary period combined with the effects of the Great Depression (beginning in 1929) seriously to undermine the stability of the German economy, wiping out the personal savings of the middle class and spurring massive unemployment. This hyperinflationary period combined with the effects of the Great Depression (beginning in 1929) seriously to undermine the stability of the German economy, wiping out the personal savings of the middle class and spurring massive unemployment.

11 Social Result: Outrage The economic effects of the treaty exacerbated the social unrest of the German population, who were already bitter about certain aspects of the treaty such as the War Guilt Clause The economic effects of the treaty exacerbated the social unrest of the German population, who were already bitter about certain aspects of the treaty such as the War Guilt Clause

12 An Ominous Future Revision of the Treaty represented one of the platforms that gave radical right wing parties in Germany, including Hitler's Nazi Party, such credibility to mainstream voters in the 1920s and early 1930s. Revision of the Treaty represented one of the platforms that gave radical right wing parties in Germany, including Hitler's Nazi Party, such credibility to mainstream voters in the 1920s and early 1930s. Promises to rearm, to reclaim German territory, particularly in the East, to remilitarize the Rhineland, and to regain prominence again among world powers after humiliating defeat stoked ultranationalist sentiment and caused voters to overlook the more radical tenets of Nazi ideology. Promises to rearm, to reclaim German territory, particularly in the East, to remilitarize the Rhineland, and to regain prominence again among world powers after humiliating defeat stoked ultranationalist sentiment and caused voters to overlook the more radical tenets of Nazi ideology. Created a network of feeble states on her eastern frontier (thus making another bid inevitable) Created a network of feeble states on her eastern frontier (thus making another bid inevitable)

13 Conclusion: Treaty of Vienna The Treaty of Vienna was the end of Napoleons conquest through Europe. The Treaty of Vienna was the end of Napoleons conquest through Europe. It effectively ended such wide scale war for the next 100 years. It effectively ended such wide scale war for the next 100 years. It restored Europe to the way it was Pre-Napoleon, and created a balance of power. It restored Europe to the way it was Pre-Napoleon, and created a balance of power. It was created with all of the nations best interest in mind. It was created with all of the nations best interest in mind.

14 Conclusion: Treaty of Versailles Unlike the Treaty of Vienna, Versailles failed to keep war away from Europe. Unlike the Treaty of Vienna, Versailles failed to keep war away from Europe. It was written to punish Germany more than it was to create a stable Europe or prevent further war. It was written to punish Germany more than it was to create a stable Europe or prevent further war. 20 years after Versailles was signed war was broke out across Europe. 20 years after Versailles was signed war was broke out across Europe. The harsh punishments lead other countries to over look Germanys advancements towards war. The harsh punishments lead other countries to over look Germanys advancements towards war.

15 Final Thoughts The Treaty of Vienna was successful in preventing war for 100 years by creating a fair and stable Europe. The Treaty of Vienna was successful in preventing war for 100 years by creating a fair and stable Europe. The Treaty of Versailles was focused on punishment and instead created an environment for the creation of war. The Treaty of Versailles was focused on punishment and instead created an environment for the creation of war.


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