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IIIIIIIV Ch. 6 & 7 - Chemical Bonding II. Molecular Compounds (p. 164 – 172, 211 – 213)

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Presentation on theme: "IIIIIIIV Ch. 6 & 7 - Chemical Bonding II. Molecular Compounds (p. 164 – 172, 211 – 213)"— Presentation transcript:

1 IIIIIIIV Ch. 6 & 7 - Chemical Bonding II. Molecular Compounds (p. 164 – 172, 211 – 213)

2 Section 6-2: Covalent Bonding and Molecular Compounds zMolecule = neutral group of atoms that are held together by covalent bonds zMolecular compound = chemical compound whose simplest units are molecules zDiatomic molecule = molecule containing only two atoms H2OH2O Cl 2

3 A. Energy of Bond Formation zPotential Energy ybased on position of an object ylow PE = high stability

4 no interaction attraction vs. repulsion increased attraction A. Energy of Bond Formation zPotential Energy Diagram

5 balanced attraction & repulsion increased repulsion attraction vs. repulsion A. Energy of Bond Formation zPotential Energy Diagram

6 Bond Energy A. Energy of Bond Formation Bond Length zBond Energy yEnergy required to break a bond

7 A. Energy of Bond Formation zBond Energy yShort bond = high bond energy

8 B. Lewis Structures zElectron Dot Diagrams yshow valence e - as dots ydistribute dots like arrows in an orbital diagram y4 sides = 1 s-orbital, 3 p-orbitals yEX: oxygen 2s2p O X

9 B. Lewis Structures zOctet Rule yMost atoms form bonds in order to obtain 8 valence e - yFull energy level stability ~ Noble Gases Ne

10 B. Lewis Structures zExample Electron Dot Notations: yCa yPyP yHyH yCyC Ca P

11 + - + B. Lewis Structures zNonpolar Covalent - no charges zPolar Covalent - partial charges

12 B. Lewis Structures zMultiple Bonds yWhen atoms share more than one pair of electrons yHave higher bond energies and are shorter than single bonds yDouble bonds – sharing two pairs of electrons between two atoms yTriple bonds – sharing three pairs of electrons between two atoms

13 C. Molecular Nomenclature zPrefix System (binary compounds) 1.Less e - neg atom comes first. 2.Add prefixes to indicate # of atoms. Omit mono- prefix on first element. 3.Change the ending of the second element to -ide.

14 PREFIX mono- di- tri- tetra- penta- hexa- hepta- octa- nona- deca- NUMBER 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 C. Molecular Nomenclature

15 zCCl 4 zN 2 O zSF 6 ycarbon tetrachloride ydinitrogen monoxide ysulfur hexafluoride C. Molecular Nomenclature

16 zarsenic trichloride zdinitrogen pentoxide ztetraphosphorus decoxide yAsCl 3 yN2O5yN2O5 yP 4 O 10 C. Molecular Nomenclature

17 NOF Cl Br I H C. Molecular Nomenclature zThe Seven Diatomic Elements Br 2 I 2 N 2 Cl 2 H 2 O 2 F 2


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