4 Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal empires at their height
5 Decrease in Size of Nomadic Zones CE Central Asia was dominated by nomadsBy 1400, this area began to be dominated by peasants and landlords.Turks began to settle down.Cavalry not as important by 1400, but instead gunpowder weaponry becomes key.
11 Common Characteristics Each lasted fairly long: Ottomans late 1300s-1918, Safavid , and the Mughal 1500s-1850.Each had stable borders and identified with a particular region.Each had an impact on the religious composition of their region.
12 Diverse EmpiresAll three were tolerant to non-Muslims within their empires but not tolerant of rival Muslim sects (Sunni Ottomans vs. Shi’a Safavid)Cultural exchange between the three led to great artistic and architectural achievements.
13 Carpets from the Middle East became the new hot commodity in Europe- outpaced silk.
22 Decline of the EmpiresIndifferent to Europe and did not keep up with European scientific and technological advances. Europeans took greater advantage of revolution in gunpowder technologies.Lack of strong bureaucracies allowed the military to gain influence over and independence from central government.
23 Decline (cont’d) 3. Rivalries with each other (religious). 4. Problems holding together diverse empires.5. Failure to see rising threat from Europe.6. Loss of Indian Ocean sea trade revenues due to take over by Europeans (still impacts region today.)