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Questions to address in group

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2 Questions to address in group
How did the Mongols govern the regions of their empire? How did the Mongols impact regions of the empire? What was the nature of cultural exchange in the empire? How did Mongol rule impact the future? Positive/ Negative How and why did perceptions of the Mongols vary?

3 Last Nomadic Challenges
The Mongols Last Nomadic Challenges

4 Mongol Empire Under Genghis (Chinggis) Khan
Nomadic herders Social division Confederations Leadership - merit How important was Genghis Khan to the success of the Mongols? Goats & sheep Meat & milk; traded for grain & veg Ponies for rounding up herds Children learned to ride immediately Tribes combined into confederations Leaders elected by free men/ women important but not leaders Genghis – father poisoned by rival nomadic group – as teenager became leader; captured by rival tribe, locked into wooden collar, led into enemy camp; escaped – joined another chieftain. Became a renown milit commander. 1206 – elected the supreme ruler at a meeting of all chieftains


6 Mongol Empire Under Chinggis (Genghis) Khan
Building the war machine Best cavalry and weapons Mongols Under Chinggis Khan Resisting cities destroyed/cooperating cities pay tribute/ conq. N. Chinese areas - battle tactic – attack with cavalry, feign retreat draw enemy into trap Tough, physical, riders, mobile, Weapons short bows most powerful -Could fire quiver of arrows with accuracy without breaking stride of horse- -Could hit enemy 400 yds (English longbow – 250 yds) Gen Brought organization to the military; ended quarrels between clans; unified Milit divided into basic fighting units of 10,000 soldiers; 1000, 100, 10 with commanders at each level; also divided into diff. divisions Scouting parties Swift executions for milit personnel Excellent maps – special unit Spies; flaming & exploding arrows, gunpowder projectiles; cannons Battering rams/ catapults

7 "The greatest happiness is to vanquish your enemies, to chase them before you, to rob them of their wealth, to see those dear to them bathed in tears, to clasp to your bosom their wives and daughters" -GENGHIS KHAN

8 Life Under Mongol Imperium
How/ why were the Mongols successful in creating an empire? What would it have been like to live in the Empire?

9 Mongol Empire Under Genghis Khan – Pax Mongolia
Fearsome yet tolerant - religion Open to new ideas – Advisors diverse Law code Peace and commerce to Eurasia Death of Genghis Khan (1227 CE) Empire divided Called people from all over the empire to come to Karakorum - Confucian scholars, Muslim engineers, Daoists Writing system for Mongolian language Brought peace to Eurasia: Pax Mongolia

10 Mongols drive westward…
How did the Mongols conquer eastern Europe & western Asia?

11 Mongols Drive West – the Golden Horde
Kiev and Novgorod differences Tatars/Tartars; “from hell” Russia under Mongol rule Vassals and tribute Moscow prospers - tax collectors Mongol influence on Russia – Military, politics and isolation from west; Mongols succeeded in the only successful winter invasion of Russia in history Worked well for the mongol cavalry Kiev destroyed except for st sophia because they resisted (threw Mongol envoys from the city walls) Novgorod spared because Alexander Nevskii temporarily submitted tribute Moscow prospers because the princes become tax collectors Mongols are blamed for all of Russia’s problems but also protected them from larger neighboring kingdoms that would have conquered them: Poland, Lithuania, Hungary

12 Mongols & Islam Why didn’t the Mongols conquer the rest of Europe? How did the Mongols impact the Islamic world? How did the adoption of Islam impact the western Mongol states?

13 II. Mongols Drive West Mongol Incursions and Retreat in Eur.
Western view of Khan - Death of Ogodei (the great Khan) Mongol Assault on Islam –ILKHAN Empire Conquered Islamic Persia Conquered Islamic “Abbasid” Iraq Defeated by Turkish Malmuks / Battle of Ain Jalut Khan of Golden Horde converts to Islam Western leaders glad at 1st that the Mongols were conquering the Muslims – Wanted their aid against the Muslims – When the Mongols attacked Russia, they realized the Mongols were a potential problem! Crushed the Hungarians & Silesians also (though didn’t incorporate them) – but they raided & pillaged eastern Europe Then Ogedei died =- retreated to go elect a new Khan/succession Mongols conquered Muslim empires in Iran then Iraq Mamluks (slave) dynasty of Egypt defeated the Mongols – Mamluks actually supported by the crusader states



16 Mongols in China How did the Mongols impact government and social structure? How did the role/status of Mongol women compare to the Confucian tradition?

17 Mongols in China – Yuan dynasty
What was the impact of the Mongols on China? What was the impact of China on the Mongols? How did urban life evolve?

18 Mongols in China Khubilai Khan defeats Song
Mongol cultural distinction by law Refused Civil Service exams New social order among elite: Mongols Nomadic and Islamic allies N. Chinese S. Chinese Central govt positions: Top groups Local admin: bottom groups Kublai – laws to Keep the Mongols separate: Forbad Chinese scholars to learn Mongol script No intermarriage; only Mongol women for the imperial harem; discouraged friendships; Social order

19 Gender Roles and Culture
Yuan cont’d Gender Roles and Culture Mongol women refuse Confucianism – no footbinding! Helped artisan & merchant classes; merchants: privileges Cities flourish… Confucian scholar gentry hated it! But also helped the peasants Chabi impacted govt – good example of Mongol women: kept him from turning chinese farmland into pastureland! Tried to reconcile relations between Mongols & ethnic chinese Mongol elite become urbanized; love entertainments: actors ect Peasants – kept cavalry from destroying farmland; reestablished granary system; plan for elementary education in villages not implemented

20 However: included Confucian values and ideals in laws standardized the government tax farming (burden to the peasants – esp in the beginning) districts for the purpose of census taking and administration/ broke down distinctions of Tanggut, Jin & Song

21 Increased prestige for merchants
Technology booms Silk road and maritime trade boom Created unified China Paper $ (again) Idea of elementary education

22 Mongol Tolerance Open to new ideas and all religions
Welcomed foreigners Muslims, Daoists, European Christians, Persians Ibn Battuta & Marco Polo

23 Polo Bros greet Khubilai

24 Mongol Dynasty in China
Social Policies and Resistance Opposed by ethnic Chinese Middle class improves Better transportation, navy and paper money Cities and entertainment flourish Improved life for peasantry Idea of elementary education

25 III. Mongol Interlude in China
Fall of Yuan Unsuccessful conquests Yuanzhang/Hongwu est. Ming dynasty Mongol impact: Increased prestige for merchants Population declined Technology booms Silk road and maritime trade boom Created unified China

26 Impact What was the overall impact of the Mongols on China?

27 40% decline of Chinese population Social upheavals
Mongol impact 40% decline of Chinese population Social upheavals Caused pop. movement to south poverty & infanticide Mandarin language Black Death spread throughout empire & beyond (14th century) Perhaps 16 million descendants of Ghengis Khan!…

28 Other… New military knowledge to Europe and Asia Increased trade and cultural contact Trading empires later used for European expansion But again…transmitted Black Death

29 Mongol Interlude interrupted!
Brief Time of Timur/ Tamerlane Turk from noble clan (though Mongol wannabe) Didn’t bring same positive effects as Mongols Cultured & violent; pyramids of skulls…

30 Genghis Khan, the fearsome Mongolian warrior of the 13th century, may have done more than rule the largest empire in the world; according to a recently published genetic study, he may have helped populate it too. An international group of geneticists studying Y-chromosome data have found that nearly 8 percent of the men living in the region of the former Mongol empire carry y-chromosomes that are nearly identical. That translates to 0.5 percent of the male population in the world, or roughly 16 million descendants living today. …unique set of circumstances surrounding the establishment of the Mongol empire led to the spread.

31 How was the Ming similar to and different from the Yuan?
What did the Ming accomplish? Why did the Ming eventually isolate themselves?

32 Ming Dynasty 1368- established by former soldier, bandit, and Buddhism monk Zhu Yangzhang  Hongwu organized dynasty into highly centralized military empire Hongwu sought 1st to remove any remaining Mongol influences in China Trade and the economic system was impacted Removal of the paper money economy

33 Yongle – cap back to Beijing;
Re-instituted civil service exam – led to many elite withdrawing from business Ming rulers kept the Mongols in position of interpreters and kept many of the innovations introduced during the Yuan Dynasty Agric never rose to Song level


35 The Forbidden city or Imperial Palace of the Ming Emperors

36 Ming porcelain Red glaze
The picture taken on May 30, 2006 shows a security man standing guard beside a rare underglaze copper-red Ming Dynasty ( ) vase in Hong Kong, south China. The vase was sold at a price of million Hong Kong dollars (10.13 million US dollars) on Tuesday in Hong Kong, setting a world auction record for any Ming porcelain. The pear-shaped vase decorated with a peony scroll is the only copper-red vase of the early Ming Dynasty, more than 600 years ago, still in perfect condition to be offered at auction in more than 15 years.

37 Zheng He Ocean voyages: 1405-31. Chinese Treasure Junks
Effective Muslim ambassador to Middle East twofold mission: see what the outside world had to offer and gain prestige for the Ming visit Chinese merchants and ensure their alliance to the emperor

38 Model of Zheng He’s junk

39 Comparison to Columbus’s vessel


41 Expense, attacks by northern nomads and disregard for merchants led to the end of naval exploration
Isolation… Korea & Japan begin to eclipse China in technology…

42 Developments in East Asia
Korea – failed to defend from Mongols (20 yr war!); became Mongol state but was stimulated by it; Yi/ Joseon (Chosun) dynasty; hangul; cotton production Vietnam – pd tribute; during Ming Annam conq. & unif w/ Champa = vietnam; kept conf. phil. but more rts for women Korean Joseon dynasty – at 1st anti –Mongol Revived conf classics Cast bronze moveable type Water powered cotton gin & spinning wheels Exported cotton Got gunpower recipe (spies) - canon on turtle boats

43 Korean Turtle ship

44 Japan – Mongols fail to conquer: Kamikazi; built defenses; new shogunate;
Zen warrior elite Superior steel Regional wars begin late 1400’s – last ca. 100 yrs; ag. Shogun & each other

45 Japanese Noh theater Masked males play male & female parts
By tradition, Noh actors and musicians never rehearse for performances together. Instead, each actor, musician, and choral chanter practices his or her fundamental movements, songs, and dances independently or under the tutelage of a senior member of the school. Thus, the tempo of a given performance is not set by any single performer but established by the interactions of all the performers together. In this way, Noh exemplifies the traditional Japanese aesthetic of transience, Perf. Lasts all day; usu historical

46 Same mask/diff anglediff emotion











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