Presentation on theme: "Questions to address in group How did the Mongols govern the regions of their empire? How did the Mongols impact regions of the empire? What was the nature."— Presentation transcript:
Questions to address in group How did the Mongols govern the regions of their empire? How did the Mongols impact regions of the empire? What was the nature of cultural exchange in the empire? How did Mongol rule impact the future? Positive/ Negative How and why did perceptions of the Mongols vary?
The Mongols Last Nomadic Challenges
Mongol Empire Under Genghis ( Chinggis ) Khan Nomadic herders Social division Confederations Leadership - merit How important was Genghis Khan to the success of the Mongols?
Mongol Empire Under Chinggis (Genghis) Khan Building the war machine –Best cavalry and weapons Mongols Under Chinggis Khan –Resisting cities destroyed/cooperating cities pay tribute/ conq. N. Chinese areas - battle tactic – attack with cavalry, feign retreat draw enemy into trap
" The greatest happiness is to vanquish your enemies, to chase them before you, to rob them of their wealth, to see those dear to them bathed in tears, to clasp to your bosom their wives and daughters" -GENGHIS KHAN
Life Under Mongol Imperium How/ why were the Mongols successful in creating an empire? What would it have been like to live in the Empire?
Mongol Empire Under Genghis Khan – Pax Mongolia –Fearsome yet tolerant - religion –Open to new ideas – –Advisors diverse –Law code –Peace and commerce to Eurasia Death of Genghis Khan (1227 CE) –Empire divided
Mongols drive westward… How did the Mongols conquer eastern Europe & western Asia?
Mongols Drive West – the Golden Horde Kiev and Novgorod differences Tatars/Tartars; from hell Russia under Mongol rule –Vassals and tribute –Moscow prospers - tax collectors Mongol influence on Russia – –Military, politics and isolation from west;
Mongols & Islam Why didnt the Mongols conquer the rest of Europe? How did the Mongols impact the Islamic world? How did the adoption of Islam impact the western Mongol states?
II. Mongols Drive West Mongol Incursions and Retreat in Eur. –Western view of Khan - –Death of Ogodei (the great Khan) Mongol Assault on Islam –ILKHAN Empire –Conquered Islamic Persia –Conquered Islamic Abbasid Iraq –Defeated by Turkish Malmuks / Battle of Ain Jalut –Khan of Golden Horde converts to Islam
Mongols in China How did the Mongols impact government and social structure? How did the role/status of Mongol women compare to the Confucian tradition?
Yuan dynasty Mongols in China – Yuan dynasty What was the impact of the Mongols on China? What was the impact of China on the Mongols? How did urban life evolve?
Mongols in China Khubilai Khan defeats Song Mongol cultural distinction by law Refused Civil Service exams New social order among elite: Mongols Nomadic and Islamic allies N. Chinese S. Chinese Central govt positions: Top groups Local admin: bottom groups
Yuan contd Gender Roles and Culture –Mongol women refuse Confucianism – no footbinding! –Helped artisan & merchant classes; merchants: privileges Cities flourish… Confucian scholar gentry hated it! But also helped the peasants
However: included Confucian values and ideals in laws standardized the government tax farming (burden to the peasants – esp in the beginning) districts for the purpose of census taking and administration/ broke down distinctions of Tanggut, Jin & Song
Increased prestige for merchants Technology booms Silk road and maritime trade boom Created unified China Paper $ (again) Idea of elementary education
Mongol Tolerance –Open to new ideas and all religions –Welcomed foreigners Muslims, Daoists, European Christians, Persians Ibn Battuta & Marco Polo
Polo Bros greet Khubilai
Mongol Dynasty in China Social Policies and Resistance –Opposed by ethnic Chinese –Middle class improves –Better transportation, navy and paper money –Cities and entertainment flourish –Improved life for peasantry –Idea of elementary education
III. Mongol Interlude in China Fall of Yuan –Unsuccessful conquests –Yuanzhang/Hongwu est. Ming dynasty Mongol impact: Increased prestige for merchants Population declined Technology booms Silk road and maritime trade boom Created unified China
Impact What was the overall impact of the Mongols on China?
Mongol impact –40% decline of Chinese population –Social upheavals –Caused pop. movement to south – poverty & infanticide – Mandarin language –Black Death –Black Death spread throughout empire & beyond (14 th century) –Perhaps 16 million descendants of Ghengis Khan!…
Other… New military knowledge to Europe and Asia Increased trade and cultural contact Trading empires later used for European expansion But again…transmitted Black Death
Mongol Interlude interrupted! Timur/ TamerlaneBrief Time of Timur/ Tamerlane –Turk from noble clan (though Mongol wannabe) –Didnt bring same positive effects as Mongols Cultured & violent; pyramids of skulls…
Genghis Khan, the fearsome Mongolian warrior of the 13th century, may have done more than rule the largest empire in the world; according to a recently published genetic study, he may have helped populate it too. An international group of geneticists studying Y- chromosome data have found that nearly 8 percent of the men living in the region of the former Mongol empire carry y-chromosomes that are nearly identical. That translates to 0.5 percent of the male population in the world, or roughly 16 million descendants living today. …unique set of circumstances surrounding the establishment of the Mongol empire led to the spread.
How was the Ming similar to and different from the Yuan? What did the Ming accomplish? Why did the Ming eventually isolate themselves?
Ming Dynasty established by former soldier, bandit, and Buddhism monk Zhu Yangzhang Hongwu organized dynasty into highly centralized military empire Hongwu sought 1 st to remove any remaining Mongol influences in China –Trade and the economic system was impacted –Removal of the paper money economy
Yongle – cap back to Beijing; Re-instituted civil service exam – led to many elite withdrawing from business Ming rulers kept the Mongols in position of interpreters and kept many of the innovations introduced during the Yuan Dynasty Agric never rose to Song level
The Forbidden city or Imperial Palace of the Ming Emperors
Zheng He Ocean voyages: –Chinese Treasure Junks –Effective Muslim ambassador to Middle East –twofold mission: –see what the outside world had to offer and gain prestige for the Ming –visit Chinese merchants and ensure their alliance to the emperor
Model of Zheng Hes junk
Comparison to Columbuss vessel
end of naval explorationExpense, attacks by northern nomads and disregard for merchants led to the end of naval exploration Isolation…Isolation… Korea & Japan begin to eclipse China in technology…Korea & Japan begin to eclipse China in technology…
Developments in East Asia Korea – failed to defend from Mongols (20 yr war!); became Mongol state but was stimulated by it; Yi/ Joseon (Chosun) dynasty; hangul; cotton production Vietnam – pd tribute; during Ming Annam conq. & unif w/ Champa = vietnam; kept conf. phil. but more rts for women
Korean Turtle ship
Japan – Mongols fail to conquer: Kamikazi; built defenses; new shogunate; Zen warrior elite Superior steel Regional wars begin late 1400s – last ca. 100 yrs; ag. Shogun & each other