2Questions to address in group How did the Mongols govern the regions of their empire?How did the Mongols impact regions of the empire?What was the nature of cultural exchange in the empire?How did Mongol rule impact the future? Positive/ NegativeHow and why did perceptions of the Mongols vary?
3Last Nomadic Challenges The MongolsLast Nomadic Challenges
4Mongol Empire Under Genghis (Chinggis) Khan Nomadic herdersSocial divisionConfederationsLeadership - meritHow important was Genghis Khan to the success of the Mongols?Goats & sheepMeat & milk; traded for grain & vegPonies for rounding up herdsChildren learned to ride immediatelyTribes combined into confederationsLeaders elected by free men/ women important but not leadersGenghis – father poisoned by rival nomadic group – as teenager became leader; captured by rival tribe, locked into wooden collar, led into enemy camp; escaped – joined another chieftain. Became a renown milit commander.1206 – elected the supreme ruler at a meeting of all chieftains
6Mongol Empire Under Chinggis (Genghis) Khan Building the war machineBest cavalry and weaponsMongols Under Chinggis KhanResisting cities destroyed/cooperating cities pay tribute/ conq. N. Chinese areas- battle tactic – attack with cavalry, feign retreat draw enemy into trapTough, physical, riders, mobile,Weapons short bows most powerful-Could fire quiver of arrows with accuracy without breaking stride of horse--Could hit enemy 400 yds (English longbow – 250 yds)Gen Brought organization to the military; ended quarrels between clans; unifiedMilit divided into basic fighting units of 10,000 soldiers; 1000, 100, 10 with commanders at each level; also divided into diff. divisionsScouting partiesSwift executions for milit personnelExcellent maps – special unitSpies; flaming & exploding arrows, gunpowder projectiles; cannonsBattering rams/ catapults
7"The greatest happiness is to vanquish your enemies, to chase them before you, to rob them of their wealth, to see those dear to them bathed in tears, to clasp to your bosom their wives and daughters"-GENGHIS KHAN
8Life Under Mongol Imperium How/ why were the Mongols successful in creating an empire?What would it have been like to live in the Empire?
9Mongol Empire Under Genghis Khan – Pax Mongolia Fearsome yet tolerant - religionOpen to new ideas –Advisors diverseLaw codePeace and commerce to EurasiaDeath of Genghis Khan (1227 CE)Empire dividedCalled people from all over the empire to come to Karakorum- Confucian scholars, Muslim engineers, DaoistsWriting system for Mongolian languageBrought peace to Eurasia: Pax Mongolia
10Mongols drive westward… How did the Mongols conquer eastern Europe & western Asia?
11Mongols Drive West – the Golden Horde Kiev and Novgorod differencesTatars/Tartars; “from hell”Russia under Mongol ruleVassals and tributeMoscow prospers - tax collectorsMongol influence on Russia –Military, politics and isolation from west;Mongols succeeded in the only successful winter invasion of Russia in historyWorked well for the mongol cavalryKiev destroyed except for st sophia because they resisted (threw Mongol envoys from the city walls)Novgorod spared because Alexander Nevskii temporarily submitted tributeMoscow prospers because the princes become tax collectorsMongols are blamed for all of Russia’s problems but also protected them from larger neighboring kingdoms that would have conquered them: Poland, Lithuania, Hungary
12Mongols & IslamWhy didn’t the Mongols conquer the rest of Europe?How did the Mongols impact the Islamic world?How did the adoption of Islam impact the western Mongol states?
13II. Mongols Drive West Mongol Incursions and Retreat in Eur. Western view of Khan -Death of Ogodei (the great Khan)Mongol Assault on Islam –ILKHAN EmpireConquered Islamic PersiaConquered Islamic “Abbasid” IraqDefeated by Turkish Malmuks / Battle of Ain JalutKhan of Golden Horde converts to IslamWestern leaders glad at 1st that the Mongols were conquering the Muslims –Wanted their aid against the Muslims – When the Mongols attacked Russia, they realized the Mongols were a potential problem!Crushed the Hungarians & Silesians also (though didn’t incorporate them) – but they raided & pillaged eastern EuropeThen Ogedei died =- retreated to go elect a new Khan/successionMongols conquered Muslim empires in Iran then IraqMamluks (slave) dynasty of Egypt defeated the Mongols – Mamluks actually supported by the crusader states
16Mongols in ChinaHow did the Mongols impact government and social structure?How did the role/status of Mongol women compare to the Confucian tradition?
17Mongols in China – Yuan dynasty What was the impact of the Mongols on China?What was the impact of China on the Mongols?How did urban life evolve?
18Mongols in China Khubilai Khan defeats Song Mongol cultural distinction by lawRefused Civil Service examsNew social order among elite: Mongols Nomadic and Islamic allies N. Chinese S. ChineseCentral govt positions: Top groupsLocal admin: bottom groupsKublai – laws to Keep the Mongols separate:Forbad Chinese scholars to learn Mongol scriptNo intermarriage; only Mongol women for the imperial harem; discouraged friendships;Social order
19Gender Roles and Culture Yuan cont’dGender Roles and CultureMongol women refuse Confucianism – no footbinding!Helped artisan & merchant classes; merchants: privilegesCities flourish…Confucian scholar gentry hated it!But also helped the peasantsChabi impacted govt – good example of Mongol women: kept him from turning chinese farmland into pastureland! Tried to reconcile relations between Mongols & ethnic chineseMongol elite become urbanized; love entertainments: actors ectPeasants – kept cavalry from destroying farmland; reestablished granary system; plan for elementary education in villages not implemented
20However:included Confucian values and ideals in lawsstandardized the governmenttax farming (burden to the peasants – esp in the beginning)districts for the purpose of census taking and administration/ broke down distinctions of Tanggut, Jin & Song
21Increased prestige for merchants Technology boomsSilk road and maritime trade boomCreated unified ChinaPaper $ (again)Idea of elementary education
22Mongol Tolerance Open to new ideas and all religions Welcomed foreignersMuslims, Daoists, European Christians, PersiansIbn Battuta & Marco Polo
24Mongol Dynasty in China Social Policies and ResistanceOpposed by ethnic ChineseMiddle class improvesBetter transportation, navy and paper moneyCities and entertainment flourishImproved life for peasantryIdea of elementary education
25III. Mongol Interlude in China Fall of YuanUnsuccessful conquestsYuanzhang/Hongwu est. Ming dynastyMongol impact:Increased prestige for merchantsPopulation declinedTechnology boomsSilk road and maritime trade boomCreated unified China
26ImpactWhat was the overall impact of the Mongols on China?
2740% decline of Chinese population Social upheavals Mongol impact40% decline of Chinese populationSocial upheavalsCaused pop. movement to southpoverty & infanticideMandarin languageBlack Death spread throughout empire & beyond (14th century)Perhaps 16 million descendants of Ghengis Khan!…
28Other…New military knowledge to Europe and AsiaIncreased trade and cultural contactTrading empires later used for European expansionBut again…transmitted Black Death
29Mongol Interlude interrupted! Brief Time of Timur/ TamerlaneTurk from noble clan (though Mongol wannabe)Didn’t bring same positive effects as MongolsCultured & violent; pyramids of skulls…
30Genghis Khan, the fearsome Mongolian warrior of the 13th century, may have done more than rule the largest empire in the world; according to a recently published genetic study, he may have helped populate it too.An international group of geneticists studying Y-chromosome data have found that nearly 8 percent of the men living in the region of the former Mongol empire carry y-chromosomes that are nearly identical. That translates to 0.5 percent of the male population in the world, or roughly 16 million descendants living today.…unique set of circumstances surrounding the establishment of the Mongol empire led to the spread.
31How was the Ming similar to and different from the Yuan? What did the Ming accomplish?Why did the Ming eventually isolate themselves?
32Ming Dynasty1368- established by former soldier, bandit, and Buddhism monk Zhu Yangzhang Hongwuorganized dynasty into highly centralized military empireHongwu sought 1st to remove any remaining Mongol influences in ChinaTrade and the economic system was impactedRemoval of the paper money economy
33Yongle – cap back to Beijing; Re-instituted civil service exam – led to many elite withdrawing from businessMing rulers kept the Mongols in position of interpreters and kept many of the innovations introduced during the Yuan DynastyAgric never rose to Song level
35The Forbidden city or Imperial Palace of the Ming Emperors
36Ming porcelain Red glaze The picture taken on May 30, 2006 shows a security man standing guard beside a rare underglaze copper-red Ming Dynasty ( ) vase in Hong Kong, south China. The vase was sold at a price of million Hong Kong dollars (10.13 million US dollars) on Tuesday in Hong Kong, setting a world auction record for any Ming porcelain. The pear-shaped vase decorated with a peony scroll is the only copper-red vase of the early Ming Dynasty, more than 600 years ago, still in perfect condition to be offered at auction in more than 15 years.
37Zheng He Ocean voyages: 1405-31. Chinese Treasure Junks Effective Muslim ambassador to Middle Easttwofold mission:see what the outside world had to offer and gain prestige for the Mingvisit Chinese merchants and ensure their alliance to the emperor
41Expense, attacks by northern nomads and disregard for merchants led to the end of naval exploration Isolation…Korea & Japan begin to eclipse China in technology…
42Developments in East Asia Korea – failed to defend from Mongols (20 yr war!); became Mongol state but was stimulated by it;Yi/ Joseon (Chosun) dynasty; hangul; cotton productionVietnam – pd tribute; during Ming Annam conq. & unif w/ Champa = vietnam; kept conf. phil. but more rts for womenKorean Joseon dynasty – at 1st anti –MongolRevived conf classicsCast bronze moveable typeWater powered cotton gin & spinning wheelsExported cottonGot gunpower recipe (spies) - canon on turtle boats
44Japan – Mongols fail to conquer: Kamikazi; built defenses; new shogunate; Zen warrior eliteSuperior steelRegional wars begin late 1400’s – last ca. 100 yrs; ag. Shogun & each other
45Japanese Noh theater Masked males play male & female parts By tradition, Noh actors and musicians never rehearse for performances together. Instead, each actor, musician, and choral chanter practices his or her fundamental movements, songs, and dances independently or under the tutelage of a senior member of the school. Thus, the tempo of a given performance is not set by any single performer but established by the interactions of all the performers together. In this way, Noh exemplifies the traditional Japanese aesthetic of transience,Perf. Lasts all day; usu historical