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Atoms and the Periodic Table Chapter 17 Mrs. Chilton
Atoms Elements are made of particles called atoms Atoms are the smallest pieces of matter that contain all the properties of a specific element Each element contains only one type of atom
Essential Question How do we know what the atom looks like when no one has ever seen it?
Inside the Atom Atoms are made up of smaller particles These particles are found in different regions of the atom
Protons Positively charged particles found in nucleus of atom Have an electrical charge of +1 Mass of 1 a.m.u. Composed of quarks
Neutrons Neutral particles found in nucleus of atom Have no electrical charge Mass of 1 a.m.u. Composed of quarks
Nucleus The nucleus is the positively charged dense core in the center of the atom Contains 99.9% of mass of atom Houses protons and neutrons
Electrons Negatively charged particles found in electron cloud Have an electrical charge of -1 Constantly moving around outside nucleus Have essentially no mass
Electron Cloud Region around nucleus Houses electrons
Time to Make a Foldable!
Atomic Models Have been revised many times to explain new discoveries Democritus (4 th century B.C.) thought the atom could not be split Theory was modified when subatomic particles were discovered
Newer Models Bohrs Model (1913) revised earlier thoughts Showed electrons moving in paths like planets Revised in 1925 Now electrons in cloud
Valence Electrons Electrons in the outermost energy level of an electron are called valence electrons These are the electrons furthest from the nucleus
Symbols Elements are listed by their chemical symbols Symbols are usually either one capital letter like C for Carbon, or one capital and one lowercase letter like Ne for Neon
Periodic Table The periodic table gives much information we need to learn more about the atom of each element
Atomic Number Atomic number = # of protons in an atom Whole number shown on periodic table Periodic table is arranged by atomic number
Atomic Mass The average atomic mass is the number at the bottom of this square Found by averaging the natural abundances of its isotopes Mass # = # p + + # n 0
Concept Map Complete this concept map:
Atom Math Atomic Number Symbol Element Name Atomic Mass
Atom Math ProtonsElectrons ProtonsNeutrons
Practice Zn Oxygen Lithium # n 0 = Mass # - Atomic #
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