2 Ummmmmmmm…What value would a Wooly Mammoth have to the natives?
3 What was going on?While civilizations were developing over in Europe, Asia, and Africa, there were also developments in the “The Americas”Americas = North America, Central America, and South AmericaThe first Americans came from ASIA.
4 How did they get to the Americas? The earliest civilizations arrived in the Americas via a LAND BRIDGE, known as BERINGIA.Beringia was a space between Asia and Alaska. (This is the modern-day Bering Straight.)Historians are unsure about the exact time that the migration to the Americas took place.
6 What type of people were migrating? The people were Hunter-Gatherers.Their most valuable prey was the mammoth:Mammoths weighed more than 14,000 lbs.Provided meat, hide, bones for food, clothing, shelter, and toolsSome historians say that early people followed the mammoths to the AmericasAfter the people were here for a while, they began to turn toward AGRICULTURE.What did they grow and eat? Squash, gourds, beans, avocados, chilies, and MAIZE.Maize = Corn
7 The Effects of Agriculture Before Agriculture DevelopmentPeople were mainly HuntersMigrated to find foodGroups stayed small and unorganizedMost of their time was devoted to finding foodAfter Agriculture DevelopmentSteady source of foodFamilies settled down and began to grow largerNew skills developed: arts/craft, architecture, and social organizationComplex Societies aroseIMPORANT: This change brought about the development of more advanced civilizations.
8 The Early Mesoamerican Civilizations Chapter 9 Section 2The Early MesoamericanCivilizations
9 OLMEC: First Known Civilization Location: Southern MexicoWhen: 1200 BCCalled the “Mother Culture” of Mesoamerica
11 Benefits of the Olmecs Good clay for pottery Forests for wood products and rubber productsMountains for stone structureRivers for moving goodsFertile soil for growing a wide variety of food
12 Zapotec Civilization Came after the Olmecs Had some influences of the Olmecs, but they still “did their own thing.”Zapotec developed:WritingCalendarsBuilt the first city in the Americas: Monte Alban (population 25,000)
14 ConclusionHistorians are unsure of exactly why these two civilizations disappearedThey both had a significant impact on the civilizations that followed them.
15 Early Civilizations of the Andes Chapter 9 Section 3Early Civilizations of the Andes
16 Where are the Andes Mts.?? Description 4,500 miles long 2nd Highest mountain chainSteep, Rocky TerrainPoor SoilHot/Dry during the dayReally cold at night1st Development was in Peru
17 Societies Arise in the Andes Chavin (shaVEEN) People1st People to settle in the Andean MountainsHunter-Gatherers“Mother Culture” of South AmericaNazca PeopleOn the coast of PeruDeveloped extensive irrigation b/c it was too dry. This allowed the Nazca to develop their agriculture
18 Societies Arise in the Andes Nazca People ContinuedThey developed The Nazca LinesPurpose: No one really knows, but here are the theories:Worship of the Sky or Water godWater sources from old river bedsMaps of underground water sources
19 Societies Arise in the Andes Moche (MO-chay) PeopleNorthern Coast of PeruUsed the rivers to develop their irrigation systemsVery Wealthy: Archeologists have found jewelry with gold, silver, and gemsArtistic People – especially with potteryShowed doctors, weavers, musicians, fierce soldiersNo written languageNo religious patternsThe Communities of the Andes were all separate from each other, and historians are unsure why their civilizations disappeared.