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Myers PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed) Chapter 7 States of Consciousness James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers.

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Presentation on theme: "Myers PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed) Chapter 7 States of Consciousness James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers."— Presentation transcript:


2 Myers PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed) Chapter 7 States of Consciousness James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers

3 States of Consciousness zConsciousness your awareness of ourselves and our environments zFantasy Prone Personality yimagines and recalls experiences with lifelike vividness yspends considerable time fantasizing

4 Sleep and Dreams zBiological Rhythms yperiodic physiological fluctuations zCircadian Rhythm ythe biological clock yregular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24 hour cycle wakefulness body temperature

5 Sleep and Dreams zREM (Rapid Eye Movement) Sleep yrecurring sleep stage yvivid dreams yparadoxical sleep xmuscles are generally relaxed, but other body systems are active zSleep yperiodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness

6 Sleep and Dreams zMeasuring sleep activity

7 Brain Waves and Sleep Stages zAlpha Waves yslow waves of a relaxed, awake brain zDelta Waves ylarge, slow waves of deep sleep zHallucinations yfalse sensory experiences

8 Typical Nightly Sleep Stages 01234567 4 3 2 1 Sleep stages Awake Hours of sleep REM

9 Sleep Deprivation zEffects of Sleep Loss yfatigue yimpaired concentration yimmune suppression yirritability yslowed performance xaccidents planes autos and trucks

10 Sleep Disorders zInsomnia ypersistent problems in falling or staying asleep zNarcolepsy yuncontrollable sleep attacks zSleep Apnea ycessation of breathing yoften associated with snoring yrepeatedly awakes sufferer

11 Night Terrors and Nightmares zNight Terrors yoccur within 2 or 3 hours of falling asleep, usually during Stage 4 yhigh arousal- appearance of being terrified zNightmares yoccur towards morning yduring REM sleep 01234567 4 3 2 1 Sleep stages Awake Hours of sleep REM

12 Dreams- Freud zSigmund Freud- The Interpretation of Dreams (1900) ywish fulfillment ydischarge otherwise unacceptable feelings zManifest Content yremembered story line zLatent Content yunderlying, uncensored meaning

13 REM Rebound yREM sleep increases following REM sleep deprivation yIn other words, When you are sleep deprived you lose out on two types of sleep, REM and NREM (non-REM). Typically when you have a chance to fall asleep after sleep deprivation you have a tendency to get more REM sleep than you would normally get. This is your body's way of trying to catch up on its REM sleep.

14 Others have asked Why do we dream? zinformation processing: dreams sift, sort, and interpret gathered information from the day and set it into memory zphysiological function: exercise for the inactive brain, develop or preserve new neural pathways zactivation synthesis theory: the brain functions randomly in the night, triggering different areas of the brain, dreams attempt to make sense of the signals

15 Sleep Patterns and Age

16 Near Death Experiences zNear Death Experience yan altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death yoften similar to drug- induced hallucinations

17 Hypnosis zHypnosis ya social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts or behaviors will spontaneously occur ya relaxed state

18 Hypnosis zPosthypnotic Amnesia ysupposed inability to recall what one experienced during hypnosis yinduced by the hypnotists suggestion zHypnotic Suggestibility yrelated to subjects openness to suggestion yability to focus attention inwardly yability to become imaginatively absorbed

19 Hypnosis zOrne & Evans (1965) ycontrol group instructed to pretend yunhypnotized subjects performed the same acts as the hypnotized ones zPosthypnotic Suggestion ysuggestion to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized yused by some clinicians to control undesired symptoms and behaviors

20 Hypnosis and Pain zDissociation ya split in consciousness yallows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others zHidden Observer yHilgards term describing a hypnotized subjects awareness of experiences, such as pain, that go unreported during hypnosis

21 Drugs and Consciousness zPsychoactive Drug ya chemical substance that alters perceptions and alters mood zPhysical Dependence yphysiological need for a drug ymarked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms zPsychological Dependence ya psychological need to use a drug yfor example, to relieve negative emotions

22 Dependence zTolerance yneed for progressively larger doses to achieve same effect zWithdrawal ydiscomfort and distress with discontinued use Small Large Drug dose Little effect Big effect Drug effect Response to first exposure After repeated exposure, more drug is needed to produce same effect

23 Psychoactive Drugs zDepressants ydrugs that reduce neural activity yslow body function xalcohol, barbiturates, opiates zStimulants ydrugs that excite neural activity yspeed up body function xcaffeine, nicotine, amphetamines

24 Psychoactive Drugs zHallucinogens ypsychedelic (mind-manifesting) drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input xLSD

25 Psychoactive Drugs zBarbiturates ydrugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgement

26 Psychoactive Drugs zOpiates yopium and its derivatives (morphine and heroin) yopiates depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety

27 Psychoactive Drugs zAmphetamines ydrugs that stimulate neural activity, causing accelerated body functions and associated energy and mood changes

28 Cocaine Euphoria and Crash

29 Psychoactive Drugs zLSD ylysergic acid diethylamide ya powerful hallucinogenic drug yalso known as acid zTHC ythe major active ingredient in marijuana ytriggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations

30 Psychoactive Drugs Drug Type Pleasurable Effects Adverse Effects Alcohol Depressant Initial high followed by Depression, memory loss, organ relaxation and disinhibition damage, impaired reactions Heroin Depressant Rush of euphoria, relief from Depressed physiology, pain agonizing withdrawal Caffeine Stimulant Increased alertness and Anxiety, restlessness, and wakefulness insomnia in high doses; uncomfortable withdrawal Metham- Stimulant Euphoria, alertness, energy Irritability, insomnia, phetamine hypertension, seizures Cocaine Stimulant Rush of euphoria, confidence, Cardiovascular stress, energy suspiciousness, depressive crash Nicotine Stimulant Arousal and relaxation, sense Heart disease, cancer (from tars) of well-being Marijuana Mild Enhanced sensation, pain relief Lowered sex hormones, disrupted hallucinogen distortion of time, relaxation memory, lung damage from smoke

31 Trends in Drug Use 1975 77 79 81 83 85 87 89 91 93 95 97 99 Year 80% 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 High school seniors reporting drug use Alcohol Marijuana/ hashish Cocaine

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