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Top 110 Biology Concepts By: Mrs. Lepkofker. Questions 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35.

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Presentation on theme: "Top 110 Biology Concepts By: Mrs. Lepkofker. Questions 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35."— Presentation transcript:

1 Top 110 Biology Concepts By: Mrs. Lepkofker

2 Questions

3 1 A _________________is a selectively permeable barrier around every cell made of a double layer of lipid s and proteins that separates the cell's content from its environment. Plasma Membrane

4 2 A __________________is a barrier around the nucleus that contains pores so materials may pass out of the nucleus. Nuclear membrane

5 3 Holes in the nuclear membrane used for materials to may pass out of the nucleus are called _____________. Nuclear pores

6 4 This structure maintains cell shape; it is invisible and anchors organelles in place and moves parts of cells in processes of growth and motility. cytoskeleton

7 5 _____ consist of microtubules and occur in animal cells only and are involved in division of the chromosomes. Centrioles

8 6 This structure is located inside the nucleus. It manufactures ribosomes, which in turn build proteins. nucleolus

9 7 A ____________is one half of a duplicated chromosome. Chromatid

10 8 A phase in mitosis when the centromeres divide and the two chromatids now called chromosomes move toward opposite poles as the spindle fibers attached to them shorten Anaphase

11 9 A phase in mitosis that appears to be a resting stage, but cell growth, and replication of the chromosomes are taking place during this time interphase

12 10 The repeating sequence of growth and division through which eukaryotic cells pass each generation. The Cell Cycle

13 11 A phase in mitosis when the chromosomes coil up and become visible The nuclear envelope dissolves and the spindle forms. Prophase

14 12 A phase in mitosis when chromosomes move to the center of the cell and line up at the equator. Spindle fibers link the chromatids of each chromosome to opposite poles. Metaphase

15 13 A phase in mitosis when the nuclear envelope forms at each pole, chromosomes uncoil, spindle dissolves and cytokinesis begins. Telphase

16 14 The splitting of the cytoplasm at the end of mitosis. cytokinesis

17 15 Substance that decreases activation energy and increases reaction rate in a chemical reaction catalyst

18 16 Large complex polymer composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and usually sulfur which provides structure for tissues and organs and carry out cell metabolism Proteins

19 17 Compounds that do not contain carbon. inorganic

20 18 Includes all compounds of carbon. organic

21 19 A macromolecule containing a glycerol backbone and 1,2, or 3 fatty acid chains. fats

22 20 Macromolecule composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen; includes sugars and starches. carbohydrate

23 21 Non-polar molecules including fats, oils and cholesterol that are used by cells for energy storage, insulation and protective coating lipid

24 22 A complex carbohydrate. starch

25 23 The type of bond created by the unequal sharing of electrons in a covalent bond. polar

26 24 Type of bond formed when there is Equal sharing of electrons in a covalent bond. Non-polar

27 25 An attraction formed by the sharing of electrons. Covalent bonding

28 26 An attraction created by the gain and loss of electrons. Ionic bonding

29 27 asymmetrical body plan of some organisms in which the body is not identical on both sides of a central line

30 28 plants that lack an internal means for water transportation and do not produce seeds or flowers Nonvascular plants

31 29 seed plant whose embryos are enclosed by fruit angiosperms

32 30 Polymer of nucleotides; the genetic material of organisms; RNA and DNA Nucleic acids

33 31 Nucleic acid molecule that allows for the transmission of genetic information and protein synthesis. RNA

34 32 Difference in the concentration of a substance from one location to another. Concentration gradient

35 33 Solution that has equal concentration of dissolved particles compared with another solution. isotonic

36 34 Solution that has a higher concentration of dissolved particles compared with another solution hypertonic

37 35 Solution that has a lower concentration of dissolved particles compared with another solution hypotonic

38 36 All chemical processes that synthesize or break down materials within an organism. metabolism

39 37 High energy molecule that contains, within its bonds, energy that cells can use. ATP

40 38 Protein that catalyzes chemical reactions for organisms, biological catalyst. enzyme

41 39 Study of heredity patterns and variation of organisms. genetics

42 40 Monomer that forms DNA and has a phosphate group, a sugar and a nitrogen-containing base. nucleotide

43 41 Process by which DNA is copied in the nucleus of the cell. replication

44 42 Process of copying a nucleotide sequence of DNA ro form a complementary strand of mRNA. transcription

45 43 Process by which mRNA is decoded and a protein is produced. translation

46 44 Process by which DNA codes for the production of DNA and proteins. Protein synthesis

47 45 Molecule that makes up proteins; composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sometimes sulfur. Amino acids

48 46 A type of RNA transports amino acids to the ribosome to be assembled into a protein tRNA

49 47 A type of RNA that brings info from DNA in nucleus to the cytoplasm mRNA

50 48 A type of RNA the clamps onto mRNA and use its info to assemble the amino acids in the correct order tRNA

51 49 A type of RNA the clamps onto mRNA and use its info to assemble the amino acids in the correct order rRNA

52 50 Set of 3 nitrogen bases in mRNA coding for an amino acid codon

53 51 Set of 3 nitrogenous bases on tRNA that are complementary to the 3 bases on mRNA. Anti-codon

54 52 A change in the DNA sequence. mutation

55 53 A chromosomal mutation when part of a chromatid breaks off and attaches to the sister chromatid. insertion

56 54 A chromosomal mutation when part of the chromosome is left out deletion

57 55 A chromosomal mutations when part of chromosome breaks off and goes back backwards inversion

58 56 A type of asexual reproduction whereby the offspring grows out of the body of the parent. budding

59 57 A type of asexual reproduction where the body of the parent breaks into distinct pieces, each of which can produce an offspring. fragmentation

60 58 A type of asexual reproduction and cell division used by prokaryotic organisms which divides the organisms into two parts. fission

61 59 Process by which a new organism can grow from a fragment of a nonreproductive structure. regeneration

62 60 The scientific word for a sex cell; an egg or sperm cell. gamete

63 61 The male gamete. sperm

64 62 The female gamete. egg

65 63 A cell that forms when a male gamete fertilizes a female gamete. zygote

66 64 A cell that only has one copy of each chromosome designated as n. haploid

67 65 A cell that only has two copies of each chromosome designated as 2n. diploid

68 66 The process of the fusion of an egg and sperm cell. fertilization

69 67 Genetic disorders that are not expressed unless two copies of an allele are present in an organisms genotype. Recessive disorders

70 68 trait that is produced by two or more genes Polygenic trait

71 69 A series of three or more alternative or allelic forms of a gene that express a phenotype, only two of which can exist in any normal, diploid individual. Multiple alleles

72 70 An image of all of the chromosomes in a cell created with the help of staining. karyotype

73 71 the counseling of individuals, and of prospective parents regarding their offspring, on the probabilities, dangers, diagnosis, and treatment of inherited diseases Genetic counseling

74 72 scientific tests or techniques used in the investigation of crimes forensics

75 73 process of changing an organisms DNA to give the organism new traits Genetic engineering

76 74 procedure to treat a disease in which a defective or missing gene is replaced or a new gene is inserted into a patients genome. Gene therapy

77 75 genetically engineered DNA that contains genes from more than one organisms or species Recombinant DNA

78 76 endosymbiosis ecological relationship in which one organism lives within the body of another

79 77 genetically identical copy of a single gene or an entire organism clone

80 78 variety of life within an area biodiversity

81 79 the belief that changes occur, or ought to occur, slowly in the form of gradual steps gradualism

82 80 theory that states that speciation occurs suddenly and rapidly followed by long periods of little evolutionary change Punctuated Equilibrium

83 81 states that species originate by descent, with variation, from parent forms, through the natural selection of those individuals best adapted for the reproductive success of their kind Darwinism

84 82 body part that is similar in structure on different organisms but performs different functions Homologous structures

85 83 process by which one species evolves and gives rise to many descendant species that occupy different ecological niches Adaptive radiation

86 84 the extinction of a large number of species within a relatively short period of geological time, thought to be due to factors such as a catastrophic global event or widespread environmental change that occurs too rapidly for most species to adapt Mass extinction

87 85 seed plant whose seeds are not enclosed by fruit gymnosperm

88 86 estimate of the age of a fossil based on the location of fossils in strata Relative dating

89 87 the systematic study of past human life and culture by the recovery and examination of remaining material evidence, such as graves, buildings, tools, and pottery archaeology

90 88 movement of a chemical through the biological and geological, or living and nonliving, parts of an ecosystem Biogeochemical cycle

91 89 nonliving factor in an ecosystem, such as moisture, temperature, wind, sunlight, soil, and minerals abiotic

92 90 living things, such as plants, animals, fungi, and bacteria Biotic factors

93 91 stablishment and development of an ecosystem in an area that was previously uninhabited Primary succession

94 92 reestablishment of a damaged ecosystem in an area where the soil was left intact Secondary succession

95 93 level of nourishment in a food chain Trophic level

96 94 anything that is added to the environment and has a negative effect on the environment or its organisms. pollution

97 95 growth of a plant toward a light source phototropism

98 96 growth oriented with respect to the field of gravity geotropism

99 97 walled, single- to many-celled, reproductive body of an organism, capable of giving rise to a new individual either directly or indirectly spore

100 98 life cycle in which the organism alternates between haploid and diploid phases. Alternation of generation

101 99 the close external resemblance of an organism, the mimic, to some different organism, the model, such that the mimic benefits from the mistaken identity, as seeming to be unpalatable or harmful mimicry

102 100 concealment by some means that alters or obscures the appearance camouflage

103 101 waterproof container that allows an embryo to develop out of water and externally from the mother without drying out Amniotic egg

104 102 a species that exploits empty niches, and produces many offspring, each of which has a relatively low probability of surviving to adulthood R-strategist

105 103 a species that is a strong competitor in crowded niches, and invests more heavily in fewer offspring, each of which has a relatively high probability of surviving to adulthood K-strategist

106 104 dramatic increase in population over a short period of time Exponential growth

107 population growth that is characterized by a period of slow growth, followed by a period of exponential growth, followed by a period of almost no growth Logistical growth 105

108 106 any organism that lacks a cavity between the body wall and the digestive tract, including the flatworms and sea anemones acoelomate

109 107 any organism with a fluid filled space with mesoderm on only one side of the space pseudocoelomate

110 108 any organism with a fluid-filled space that is completely covered by muscle coelomate

111 109 arrangement of body parts in a circle around a central axis Radial symmetry

112 110 body plan of some organisms in which the body can be divided equally along only one plane Bilateral symmetry

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